Publications by authors named "Cary L Cooper"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Post-Pandemic Patient Safety Culture: A Case from a Large Metropolitan Hospital Group in Taiwan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 24;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester M15 6PB, UK.

Patient safety is the core goal of medical institutions. The present study focuses on the patient safety culture and staff well-being admit the COVID-19 pandemic. In a large metropolitan hospital group, 337 employees who had participated in the quality improvement interventions completed an anonymous questionnaire of patient safety culture and personal well-being. The multiple regression analyses indicated that managerial role, seniority, female gender and direct contact with a patient were significantly related to the positive attitude on overall or certain dimensions of safety culture. Multivariate analysis also found that dimensions of teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and stress recognition as patient safety culture predicted staff exhaustion. Finally, comparing with the available institutional historic data in 2018, the COVID group scored higher on the working condition dimension of patient safety culture, but lower on the stress recognition dimension. The COVID group also scored higher on exhaustion. In the post-pandemic era, there seems to be an improvement on certain aspect of the patient safety culture among hospital staff, and the improvement is more prevalent for managers. However, exhaustion is also a poignant problem for all employees. These findings can inform hospital decision-makers in planning and implementing future improvements of patient safety culture and promoting employee well-being and resilience. Our findings also reveal directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094537DOI Listing
April 2021

The Compensatory Protective Effects of Social Support at Work in Presenteeism During the Coronavirus Disease Pandemic.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:643437. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

The present study investigated the lasting effects of sickness presenteeism on well-being and innovative job performance in the demanding Chinese work context compounded with the precarities of the post-pandemic business environment. Adopting the conservation of resources (COR) theory perspective, especially its proposition of compensation of resources, we incorporated social resources at work (supervisory support and collegial support) as joint moderators in the presenteeism-outcomes relationship. We employed a panel design in which all variables were measured twice with 6 months in between. Data were obtained from 323 Chinese employees working in diverse industries in Taiwan. We found that after controlling for the baseline level of well-being, presenteeism did not have a lasting effect on employees' exhaustion. However, presenteeism did have a negative lasting effect on employees' innovative behavior 6 months later. Moreover, we found a significant three-way interaction of presenteeism, supervisory support, and collegial support on employees' innovative job performance, after controlling for the baseline level of performance. Specifically, when working under illness, employees displayed the best innovative performance with high levels of both supervisory and collegial support, the worst performance with both support being low, and the intermediate when any one of the support being high. This can be taken as the preliminary evidence to support the COR proposition of resource caravans, showing that supervisory support and collegial support compensated for each other as critical resources in alleviating the impact of working under sickness on employees' innovative performance. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed, taking into account the macro-cultural context of the East Asian Confucian societies. We also reflected on the managerial implications of the lasting damages of sickness presenteeism and benefits of mobilizing social resources on employees' well-being and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021870PMC
March 2021

Gender Diversity and Work-Life Conflict in Changing Times.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 3;17(23). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

The aim of the study is to contribute to the "well-being, diversity, equity, and inclusion" dialogue of the post-pandemic era. Specifically, we explored the joint effects of biological sex and gender diversity in self-identity on the role demands-work and family conflict relationships. To advance the inclusion of scientific knowledge, the present study was conducted in the cultural context of a Chinese society. We surveyed a sample of 317 Taiwanese employees. We used structured questionnaires to collect data on biological sex, gender identity (self-endorsement on masculinity and femininity traits), work and family demands, work-to-family conflict (WFC), and family-to-work conflict (FWC). We found two sets of significant three-way interactions (sex × femininity × role demands) in predicting work and family conflict. First, for men, identifying with high femininity traits strengthened the positive relationship between work demands and FWC; for women, identifying with low femininity traits strengthened the same relationship. Second, for men, identifying with high femininity traits strengthened the relationship between family demands and WFC; for women, identifying with low femininity traits strengthened the same relationship. Our findings highlight the importance of jointly examining the biological, psychological, and social aspects of gender on the work and family interface. Contextualizing in an Eastern cultural tradition, we put the spotlight on societal pressure on people of nontraditional gender identities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731024PMC
December 2020

Occupational Stress and Its Economic Cost in Hong Kong: The Role of Positive Emotions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 19;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Occupational Safety and Health Council, Hong Kong, China.

There has been less research on the costs of occupational stress attributed to certain job stressors in Chinese contexts. This study identified and validated common job stressors and estimated the economic cost in Hong Kong. The role of positive emotions in alleviating the economic costs of job stressors was also examined. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted. The findings obtained from five focus group discussions and a survey validated five common job stressors: Job insecurity; quantitative workload; organizational constraints; interpersonal conflicts; and work/home interface. A total of 2511 employees were surveyed, with 2032 valid questionnaires returned (925 males, 1104 females, and 3 unidentified, whose ages ranged from 18 to 70 years). The economic costs were estimated by combining the costs of absenteeism, presenteeism, and medical expenses. Absenteeism mainly caused by job stressors of the work/home interface, job insecurity, and quantitative workload accounted for an annual economic cost of HK$550 million to HK$860 million. The annual economic cost due to presenteeism mainly caused by job stressors of job insecurity, interpersonal conflict, quantitative workload, and organizational constraints ranged from HK$1.373 billion to HK$2.146 billion. The cost of medical treatments associated with occupational stress was HK$2.889 billion to HK$4.083 billion. Therefore, the total annual economic cost of occupational stress was approximately HK$4.81 billion to HK$7.09 billion. Positive emotions, representing a less explored individual factor in the cost of occupational stress studies, was found to be negatively correlated with presenteeism and buffered the negative impact of job stressors on absenteeism. The theoretical contributions and practical implications of findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699503PMC
November 2020

Research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: A call to action for psychological science.

Br J Psychol 2020 Nov 19;111(4):603-629. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Manchester Centre for Health Psychology, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents the greatest international biopsychosocial emergency the world has faced for a century, and psychological science has an integral role to offer in helping societies recover. The aim of this paper is to set out the shorter- and longer-term priorities for research in psychological science that will (a) frame the breadth and scope of potential contributions from across the discipline; (b) enable researchers to focus their resources on gaps in knowledge; and (c) help funders and policymakers make informed decisions about future research priorities in order to best meet the needs of societies as they emerge from the acute phase of the pandemic. The research priorities were informed by an expert panel convened by the British Psychological Society that reflects the breadth of the discipline; a wider advisory panel with international input; and a survey of 539 psychological scientists conducted early in May 2020. The most pressing need is to research the negative biopsychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate immediate and longer-term recovery, not only in relation to mental health, but also in relation to behaviour change and adherence, work, education, children and families, physical health and the brain, and social cohesion and connectedness. We call on psychological scientists to work collaboratively with other scientists and stakeholders, establish consortia, and develop innovative research methods while maintaining high-quality, open, and rigorous research standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404603PMC
November 2020

Leaveism at work.

Occup Med (Lond) 2014 Apr;64(3):146-7

Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqu025DOI Listing
April 2014

The future of stress and health research.

Authors:
Cary L Cooper

Stress Health 2013 Dec;29(5):349

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2544DOI Listing
December 2013

Stress, health and well-being: the mediating role of employee and organizational commitment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013 Oct 11;10(10):4907-24. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

This study investigates the mediating impact of organizational commitment on the relationship between organizational stressors and employee health and well-being. Data were collected from 401 operator level employees working in business process outsourcing organizations (BPOs) based in New Delhi, India. In this research several dimensions from ASSET, which is an organizational stress screening tool, were used to measure employee perceptions of stressors, their commitment to the organization, their perception of the organization's commitment to them, and their health and well-being. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling on AMOS software. Results of the mediation analysis highlight both employee commitment to their organization and their perceptions of the organization's commitment to them mediate the impact of stressors on physical health and psychological well-being. All indices of the model fit were found to be above standard norms. Implications are discussed with the view to improving standards of health and well-being within the call center industry, which is a sector that has reported higher turnover rates and poor working conditions among its employees internationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10104907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823345PMC
October 2013

Unhealthy and present: motives and consequences of the act of presenteeism among Taiwanese employees.

J Occup Health Psychol 2013 Oct;18(4):406-416

Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University.

The aim of this study was twofold: first, to delineate the underlying motives of the act of presenteeism and develop suitable measures for both the motives and the behavioral manifestation of the act; second, to systematically examine work and health consequences of the act of presenteeism in a Chinese work context. Using structured questionnaires, we employed a 2-wave panel study design in which antecedents, motives, and consequences of the act of presenteeism were measured in a diverse sample of 245 full-time Chinese employees in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-efficacy and neuroticism were significantly associated with approach and avoidance motives for the act of presenteeism, respectively. Moreover, analyzing the panel data with fixed effects specifications, we found that the act of presenteeism was negatively associated with employees' physical health, mental health, and job satisfaction, whereas it was positively associated with exhaustion. In conclusion, the present study shed some light on motives, behavioral manifestations, antecedents, and consequences of the act of presenteeism to extend the existing literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0034331DOI Listing
October 2013

Resilience.

Stress Health 2013 Aug;29(3):175-6

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2512DOI Listing
August 2013

Stress in turbulent economic times.

Authors:
Cary L Cooper

Stress Health 2012 Aug;28(3):177-8

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smi.2442DOI Listing
August 2012

Untapping mental health capital.

Authors:
Cary L Cooper

Health Promot Int 2011 Dec;26 Suppl 1:i1-3

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dar070DOI Listing
December 2011

Turnover and intent to leave among speech pathologists.

Aust Health Rev 2010 May;34(2):227-33

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 75 East Street, Lidcombe, NSW 2141, Australia.

Sound, large scale and systematic research into why health professionals want to leave their jobs is needed. This study used psychometrically-sound tools and logistic regression analyses to determine why Australian speech pathologists were intending to leave their jobs or the profession. Based on data from 620 questionnaires, several variables were found to be significantly related to intent to leave. The speech pathologists intending to look for a new job were more likely to be under 34 years of age, and perceive low levels of job security and benefits of the profession. Those intending to leave the profession were more likely to spend greater than half their time at work on administrative duties, have a higher negative affect score, not have children under 18 years of age, and perceive that speech pathology did not offer benefits that met their professional needs. The findings of this study provide the first evidence regarding the reasons for turnover and attrition in the Australian speech pathology workforce, and can inform the development of strategies to retain a skilled and experienced allied health workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH08659DOI Listing
May 2010

Turnover and intent to leave among speech pathologists.

Aust Health Rev 2010 May;34(2):227-33

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 75 East Street, Lidcombe, NSW 2141, Australia.

Sound, large scale and systematic research into why health professionals want to leave their jobs is needed. This study used psychometrically-sound tools and logistic regression analyses to determine why Australian speech pathologists were intending to leave their jobs or the profession. Based on data from 620 questionnaires, several variables were found to be significantly related to intent to leave. The speech pathologists intending to look for a new job were more likely to be under 34 years of age, and perceive low levels of job security and benefits of the profession. Those intending to leave the profession were more likely to spend greater than half their time at work on administrative duties, have a higher negative affect score, not have children under 18 years of age, and perceive that speech pathology did not offer benefits that met their professional needs. The findings of this study provide the first evidence regarding the reasons for turnover and attrition in the Australian speech pathology workforce, and can inform the development of strategies to retain a skilled and experienced allied health workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH08659DOI Listing
May 2010

The mental wealth of nations.

Nature 2008 Oct;455(7216):1057-60

Government Office for Science, London.

Countries must learn how to capitalize on their citizens' cognitive resources if they are to prosper, both economically and socially. Early interventions will be key.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/4551057aDOI Listing
October 2008

Mental health and well being at work: the disposal workforce.

Authors:
Cary L Cooper

Int J Public Health 2008 ;53(5):225-6

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-008-8090-1DOI Listing
March 2009

Symposium. Stress management skills for strong leadership: is it worth dying for?

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006 Jan;88(1):217-25

Goolsby Leadership Academy, University of Texas at Arlington College of Business Administration, Box 19377, Arlington, TX 76019-0377, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.E.0092DOI Listing
January 2006

The "black hole" of work organization interventions.

Soz Praventivmed 2004 ;49(2):87-8

Lancaster University Management School.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-004-0037-6DOI Listing
September 2004

Stress prevention in the police.

Authors:
Cary L Cooper

Occup Med (Lond) 2003 Jun;53(4):244-5

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqg073DOI Listing
June 2003

Victimization in the school and the workplace: are there any links?

Br J Psychol 2003 May;94(Pt 2):175-88

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London, UK.

We examine whether reported roles in school bullying, and victimization in the workplace, are connected; the influence of victim coping strategies at school; and sex differences. A questionnaire was completed by 5,288 adults from various workplace venues in Great Britain. We analysed two questions on school experiences (participant role; coping strategies if bullied) and questions on workplace bullying (experiences of being bullied). We found a significant relationship between reported roles in school bullying, and experience of workplace victimization. The highest risk of workplace victimization was for those who were both bullies and victims at school (bully/victims), followed by those who were only victims. An analysis of relative risk of workplace bullying, given being a victim at school plus using various coping strategies, revealed an increased risk for the strategies 'tried to make fun of it', and 'did not really cope'. Women were at slightly higher risk of getting bullied at work, but there were no interactions with roles at school, and only one interaction with coping strategies. This is the first study to report an association between school and workplace bullying. Victims at school are more at risk of workplace victimization, but the especial risk for 'bully/victims' supports other indications that this particular category of school pupils should be a focus of concern. The findings also suggest that school pupils who consistently cannot cope with bullying, or try to make fun of the bullying, are more at risk for later problems in the workplace. However, associations are modest; many victims of school bullying are not being victimized in later life, and the results also suggest important contextual or environmental effects on risks of victimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712603321661868DOI Listing
May 2003

Public policy and occupational health psychology in Europe.

J Occup Health Psychol 1996 Oct;1(4):349-361

U Manchester Inst of Science & Technology.

Increasing evidence exists that workplace absence due to stress-related conditions is a growing problem in Europe. However, the priority on the issue varies between countries. The costs of occupational stress are difficult to accurately quantify, and the incentives for investing in stress-prevention activities are less apparent at an organizational level than in the United States. Consequently, expansion in this area has been considerably slower. The authors present an overview of the problems of occupational stress within Europe. They discuss the response and intervention characteristics of European employers and policymakers and possible developments. If organizations are to become more proactive in their approach to stress prevention, there needs to be a framework for assessing, implementing, and evaluating interventions. The authors outline a framework to adopt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//1076-8998.1.4.349DOI Listing
October 1996