Publications by authors named "Carolyn S Jack"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Inhibition of IL-13: A New Pathway for Atopic Dermatitis.

J Cutan Med Surg 2020 Dec 22:1203475420982553. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

54473 Division of Dermatology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Dupilumab, a monoclonal antibody against the common receptor of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, was the first biologic therapy approved in Canada for treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD). While it is considered safe and effective, dupilumab is not universally effective and 8%-38% of patients develop conjunctivitis, while some patients develop head and neck dermatitis. Thus, new therapeutic options are warranted. While both IL-4 and IL-13 play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD, it has been recently demonstrated that IL-13 is the primary upregulated cytokine in AD skin biopsy samples. A placebo-controlled phase 2b clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of lebrikizumab, an IL-13 inhibitor, in AD demonstrated that, at 16 weeks, Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) 75 and Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) 0/1 were achieved by 60.6% and 44.6% of patients taking lebrikizumab at its highest dose (vs 24.3% and 15.3% of patients taking placebo, respectively). Moreover, treatment with lebrikizumab was associated with rapid improvement of pruritus and low rates of conjunctivitis (1.4%-3.8%). Another IL-13 monoclonal antibody, tralokinumab, was evaluated for safety and efficacy in moderate-to-severe AD. By week 12, among adults receiving 300 mg tralokinumab, 42.5% achieved EASI-75 and 26.7% achieved IGA 0/1 score (vs 15.5% and 11.8% in the placebo group, respectively). Both lebrikizumab and tralokinumab demonstrated acceptable safety profiles in AD (and non-AD) trials with adverse events often being comparable between treatment and control groups. Thus, IL-13 inhibitors may provide a safe and effective treatment alternative for patients with moderate-to-severe AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1203475420982553DOI Listing
December 2020

Th1 polarization of CD4+ T cells by Toll-like receptor 3-activated human microglia.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2007 Sep;66(9):848-59

Neuroimmunology Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed by human microglia and translate environmental cues into distinct activation programs. We addressed the impact of TLR ligation on the capacity of human microglia to activate and polarize CD4 T cell responses. As microglia exist under distinct states of activation, we examined both ramified and ameboid microglia isolated from adult and fetal CNS, respectively. In vitro, ligation of TLR3 significantly increased major histocompatibility complex and costimulatory molecule expression on adult microglia and induced high levels of interferon-alpha, interleukin-12p40, and interleukin-23. TLR4 and, in particular, TLR2 had a more limited capacity to induce such responses. Coculturing allogeneic CD4 T cells with microglia preactivated with TLR3 did not increase T cell proliferation above basal levels but consistently led to elevated levels of interferon-gamma secretion and Th1 polarization. Fetal microglial TLR3 responses were comparable; in contrast, TLR2 and TLR4 decreased major histocompatibility complex class II expression on fetal cells and reduced CD4 T cell proliferation to levels below those found in untreated cocultures. All 3 TLRs induced comparable interleukin-6 secretion by microglia. Our findings illustrate how activation of human microglia via TLRs, particularly TLR3, can change the profile of local CNS immune responses by translating Th1 polarizing signals to CD4 T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/nen.0b013e3181492a7DOI Listing
September 2007

Potential for interferon beta-induced serum antibodies in multiple sclerosis to inhibit endogenous interferon-regulated chemokine/cytokine responses within the central nervous system.

Arch Neurol 2006 Sep;63(9):1296-9

Neuroimmunology Unit and Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec.

Background: A proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving systemic interferon beta therapy will develop serum neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that can reduce the activity of the drug. Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is produced by glial cells within the central nervous system. Although systemic interferon beta does not access the central nervous system, titers of serum NAbs may be sufficient that some will access the central nervous system.

Objective: To address whether serum samples that contain high titers of NAbs could inhibit glial cell production of chemokines and cytokines that are regulated by endogenous IFN-beta.

Design: We used an in vitro assay involving toll-like receptor 3 ligand (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) signaling to assess the effect of serum samples containing high titers of NAbs (1800-20 000 U) on production of the chemokine CXCL10 and the cytokine interleukin 6 by human astrocytes.

Results: Serum samples positive for NAbs significantly inhibited polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced CXCL10 and IL-6 production by astrocytes.

Conclusion: High-titer NAbs to interferon beta may block endogenous IFN-beta function and alter the chemokine/cytokine microenvironment within the central nervous system, thereby modulating the profile and course of the local inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.63.9.1296DOI Listing
September 2006

TLR signaling tailors innate immune responses in human microglia and astrocytes.

J Immunol 2005 Oct;175(7):4320-30

Neuroimmunology Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The specific signals mediating the activation of microglia and astrocytes as a prelude to, or consequence of, CNS inflammation continue to be defined. We investigated TLRs as novel receptors mediating innate immune responses in human glial cells. We find that microglia express mRNA for TLRs 1-9, whereas astrocytes express robust TLR3, low-level TLR 1, 4, 5, and 9, and rare-to-undetectable TLR 2, 6, 7, 8, and 10 mRNA (quantitative real-time PCR). We focused on TLRs 3 and 4, which can signal through both the MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways, and on the MyD88-restricted TLR2. By flow cytometry, we established that microglia strongly express cell surface TLR2; TLR3 is expressed at higher levels intracellularly. Astrocytes express both cell surface and intracellular TLR3. All three TLRs trigger microglial activation upon ligation. TLR3 signaling induces the strongest proinflammatory polarizing response, characterized by secretion of high levels of IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CXCL-10, and IL-10, and the expression of IFN-beta. CXCL-10 and IL-10 secretion following TLR4 ligation are comparable to that of TLR3; however, other responses were lower or absent. TLR2-mediated responses are dominated by IL-6 and IL-10 secretion. Astrocytes respond to TLR3 ligation, producing IL-6, CXCL-10, and IFN-beta, implicating these cells as contributors to proinflammatory responses. Initial TLR-mediated glial activation also regulates consequent TLR expression; while TLR2 and TLR3 are subject to positive feedback, TLR4 is down-regulated in microglia. Astrocytes up-regulate all three TLRs following TLR3 ligation. Our data indicate that activation of innate immune responses in the CNS is not homogeneous but rather tailored according to cell type and environmental signal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.175.7.4320DOI Listing
October 2005