Publications by authors named "Carla I Haack"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of App-Delivered Mindfulness Meditation on Functional Connectivity, Mental Health, and Sleep Disturbances Among Physician Assistant Students: Randomized, Wait-list Controlled Pilot Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Oct 19;5(10):e24208. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Family and Preventative Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Health care provider and trainee burnout results in substantial national and institutional costs and profound social effects. Identifying effective solutions and interventions to cultivate resilience among health care trainees is critical. Although less is known about the mental health needs of physician assistants (PAs) or PA students, accumulating research indicates that they experience similarly alarming rates of burnout, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Mobile app-delivered mindfulness meditation may be an effective part of salubrious programming to bolster long-term resilience and health among PA students.

Objective: This study aims to examine the impact of app-delivered mindfulness meditation on self-reported mental health symptoms among PA students. A secondary aim is to investigate changes in brain connectivity to identify neurobiological changes related to changes in mental health symptoms.

Methods: We recruited PA students enrolled in their third semester of PA school and used a longitudinal, randomized, wait-list-controlled design. Participants randomized to the mindfulness group were provided 1-year subscriptions to the 10% Happier app, a consumer-based meditation app, and asked to practice every day for 8 weeks. Before randomization and again after completion of the 8-week program, all participants completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as self-report assessments of burnout, depression, anxiety, and sleep impairment. App use was acquired as a measure of mindfulness practice time.

Results: PA students randomized to the mindfulness group reported improvements in sleep impairment compared with those randomized to the wait-list control group (η=0.42; P=.01). Sleep impairment decreased significantly in the mindfulness group (19% reduction; P=.006) but not in the control group (1% reduction; P=.71). There were no other significant changes in mental health for those randomized to app-delivered mindfulness. Across all students, changes in sleep impairment were associated with increased resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (a component of the default mode network) and the superior temporal gyrus, as well as between areas important for working memory. Changes in connectivity predicted categorical conversion from impaired to nonimpaired sleep in the mindfulness group.

Conclusions: This pilot study is the first to examine app-based mindfulness for PA students' mental health and investigate the impact of mindfulness on PA students' brain function. These findings suggest that app-delivered mindfulness may be an effective tool to improve sleep dysfunction and that it may be an important part of the programming necessary to reduce the epidemic of suffering among health profession trainees.
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October 2021

Small Bowel Obstruction Due to Inflammatory Adhesions From an Intra-Abdominal Toothpick.

Am Surg 2020 Sep 10:3134820948907. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

12239 Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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September 2020

Ethanol Lock Therapy Markedly Reduces Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections in Adults Requiring Home Parenteral Nutrition: A Retrospective Study From a Tertiary Medical Center.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2020 05 27;44(4):661-667. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Nutrition and Metabolic Support Service, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The use of central venous catheter (CVC) access for home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). There are limited data on the use of ethanol lock therapy (ELT) to prevent CRBSI in adult HPN patients. Our aim was to determine whether the routine institution of ELT decreased the incidence of CRBSI compared with historic controls at Emory University Hospital (EUH) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Methods: EUH medical records of adult HPN patients discharged with a tunneled, silicone CVC on ELT were retrospectively studied during a pre-hoc determined 14-month observation period (n = 87; 13,386 catheter days) and compared with clinically similar HPN patients from the same institution before institution of the ELT protocol for all appropriate patients. The ELT protocol involved instilling 2 mL of 70% ethanol into each catheter lumen daily after the HPN cycle, following initial flushing with normal saline.

Results: Only 5 of 87 patients (5.7%) who received ELT were diagnosed with a CRBSI (0.45/1000 catheter days) during observation. We compared these data with our previously published clinically matched patient population from EUH (n = 22) receiving HPN via a silicone CVC without ELT. Of these historical controls, 45.5% were diagnosed with 1 or more CRBSIs (8.7/1000 catheter days) during observation (P < .001 vs the current ELT cohort).

Conclusions: In this retrospective study with historical controls from the same academic center, institution of ELT in adults requiring HPN via a silicone CVC was associated with a marked (19-fold) reduction in CRBSI.
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May 2020

Visceral Kaposi Sarcoma Presenting as Small Bowel Intussusception: A Rare Presentation and Call to Action.

Am Surg 2019 Jul;85(7):778-780

Surgical emergencies related to visceral involvement of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) are rare complications of the disease. In this report, we describe a case of visceral KS causing small bowel intussusception in a young, previously undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. Southern surgeons should be particularly attentive to HIV/AIDS-related disease as a cause of surgical pathology, particularly in the southeast, and can play a significant advocacy role for improved access to HIV/AIDS diagnostic and treatment services.
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July 2019

Definitive surgical treatment of enterocutaneous fistula: outcomes of a 23-year experience.

JAMA Surg 2013 Feb;148(2):118-26

Patient Safety and Data Management Program, Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

Objective: To analyze postoperative outcomes, morbidity, and mortality following enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) takedown.

Design, Setting, And Patients: Retrospective review of the complete medical records of patients who presented to a single tertiary care referral center from December 24, 1987, to June 18, 2010, and subsequently underwent definitive surgical treatment for ECF originating from the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum.

Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative fistula recurrence and mortality.

Results: A total of 153 patients received operative intervention for ECF. Most ECFs were referred to us from outside institutions (75.2%), high output (52.3%), originating from the small bowel (88.2%), and iatrogenic in cause (66.7%). Successful ECF closure was ultimately achieved in 128 patients (83.7%). Six patients (3.9%) died within 30 days of surgery, and overall 1-year mortality was 15.0%. Postoperative complications occurred in 134 patients, for an overall morbidity rate of 87.6%. Significant risk factors for fistula recurrence were numerous, but postoperative ventilation for longer than 48 hours, organ space surgical site infection, and blood transfusion within 72 hours of surgery carried the most considerable impact (relative risks, 4.87, 4.07, and 3.91, respectively; P < .05). Risk of 1-year mortality was also associated with multiple risk factors, the most substantial of which were postoperative pulmonary and infectious complications. Closure of abdominal fascia was protective against both recurrent ECF and mortality (relative risks, 0.47 and 0.38, respectively; P < .05).

Conclusions: Understanding risk factors both associated with and protective against ECF recurrence and postoperative morbidity and mortality is imperative for appropriate ECF management. Closure of abdominal fascia is of utmost importance, and preventing postoperative complications must be prioritized to optimize patient outcomes.
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February 2013