Publications by authors named "Caitlin Petro"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

How to grow your cable bacteria: Establishment of a stable single-strain culture in sediment and proposal of Candidatus Electronema aureum GS.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 Jul 22;44(5):126236. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Section for Microbiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Denmark; Center for Electromicrobiology, Aarhus University, Denmark; Center for Geomicrobiology, Aarhus University, Denmark; ECOBE, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Cable bacteria are multicellular filamentous bacteria within the Desulfobulbaceae that couple the oxidation of sulfide to the reduction of oxygen over centimeter distances via long distance electron transport (LDET). So far, none of the freshwater or marine cable bacteria species have been isolated into pure culture. Here we describe a method for establishing a stable single-strain cable bacterium culture in partially sterilized sediment. By repeated transfers of a single cable bacterium filament from freshwater pond sediment into autoclaved sediment, we obtained strain GS, identified by its 16S rRNA gene as a member of Ca. Electronema. This strain was further propagated by transferring sediment clumps, and has now been stable within its semi-natural microbial community for several years. Its metagenome-assembled genome was 93% complete, had a size of 2.76 Mbp, and a DNA G + C content of 52%. Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) and Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) suggest the affiliation of strain GS to Ca. Electronema as a novel species. Cell size, number of outer ridges, and detection of LDET in the GS culture are likewise consistent with Ca. Electronema. Based on these combined features, we therefore describe strain GS as a new cable bacterium species of the candidate genus Electronema, for which we propose the name Candidatus Electronema aureum sp.nov. Although not a pure culture, this stable single-strain culture will be useful for physiological and omics-based studies; similar approaches with single-cell or single-filament transfers into natural medium may also aid the characterization of other difficult-to-culture microbes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2021.126236DOI Listing
July 2021

Soil metabolome response to whole-ecosystem warming at the Spruce and Peatland Responses under Changing Environments experiment.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(25)

School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0230;

In this study, a suite of complementary environmental geochemical analyses, including NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of central metabolites, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) of secondary metabolites, and lipidomics, was used to investigate the influence of organic matter (OM) quality on the heterotrophic microbial mechanisms controlling peatland CO, CH, and CO:CH porewater production ratios in response to climate warming. Our investigations leverage the Spruce and Peatland Responses under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experiment, where air and peat warming were combined in a whole-ecosystem warming treatment. We hypothesized that warming would enhance the production of plant-derived metabolites, resulting in increased labile OM inputs to the surface peat, thereby enhancing microbial activity and greenhouse gas production. Because shallow peat is most susceptible to enhanced warming, increases in labile OM inputs to the surface, in particular, are likely to result in significant changes to CO and CH dynamics and methanogenic pathways. In support of this hypothesis, significant correlations were observed between metabolites and temperature consistent with increased availability of labile substrates, which may stimulate more rapid turnover of microbial proteins. An increase in the abundance of methanogenic genes in response to the increase in the abundance of labile substrates was accompanied by a shift toward acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogenesis. Our results suggest that as peatland vegetation trends toward increasing vascular plant cover with warming, we can expect a concomitant shift toward increasingly methanogenic conditions and amplified climate-peatland feedbacks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004192118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237682PMC
June 2021

Electrogenic sulfide oxidation mediated by cable bacteria stimulates sulfate reduction in freshwater sediments.

ISME J 2020 05 10;14(5):1233-1246. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Bioscience, Section for Microbiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cable bacteria are filamentous members of the Desulfobulbaceae family that oxidize sulfide with oxygen or nitrate by transferring electrons over centimeter distances in sediments. Recent studies show that freshwater sediments can support populations of cable bacteria at densities comparable to those found in marine environments. This is surprising since sulfide availability is presumably low in freshwater sediments due to sulfate limitation of sulfate reduction. Here we show that cable bacteria stimulate sulfate reduction in freshwater sediment through promotion of sulfate availability. Comparing experimental freshwater sediments with and without active cable bacteria, we observed a three- to tenfold increase in sulfate concentrations and a 4.5-fold increase in sulfate reduction rates when cable bacteria were present, while abundance and community composition of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) were unaffected. Correlation and ANCOVA analysis supported the hypothesis that the stimulation of sulfate reduction activity was due to relieve of the kinetic limitations of the SRM community through the elevated sulfate concentrations in sediments with cable bacteria activity. The elevated sulfate concentration was caused by cable bacteria-driven sulfide oxidation, by sulfate production from an indigenous sulfide pool, likely through cable bacteria-mediated dissolution and oxidation of iron sulfides, and by enhanced retention of sulfate, triggered by an electric field generated by the cable bacteria. Cable bacteria in freshwater sediments may thus be an integral component of a cryptic sulfur cycle and provide a mechanism for recycling of the scarce resource sulfate, stimulating sulfate reduction. It is possible that this stimulation has implication for methanogenesis and greenhouse gas emissions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-020-0607-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174387PMC
May 2020

Marine Deep Biosphere Microbial Communities Assemble in Near-Surface Sediments in Aarhus Bay.

Front Microbiol 2019 12;10:758. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Center for Geomicrobiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Analyses of microbial diversity in marine sediments have identified a core set of taxa unique to the marine deep biosphere. Previous studies have suggested that these specialized communities are shaped by processes in the surface seabed, in particular that their assembly is associated with the transition from the bioturbated upper zone to the nonbioturbated zone below. To test this hypothesis, we performed a fine-scale analysis of the distribution and activity of microbial populations within the upper 50 cm of sediment from Aarhus Bay (Denmark). Sequencing and qPCR were combined to determine the depth distributions of bacterial and archaeal taxa (16S rRNA genes) and sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) ( gene). Mapping of radionuclides throughout the sediment revealed a region of intense bioturbation at 0-6 cm depth. The transition from bioturbated sediment to the subsurface below (7 cm depth) was marked by a shift from dominant surface populations to common deep biosphere taxa (e.g., Chloroflexi and Atribacteria). Changes in community composition occurred in parallel to drops in microbial activity and abundance caused by reduced energy availability below the mixed sediment surface. These results offer direct evidence for the hypothesis that deep subsurface microbial communities present in Aarhus Bay mainly assemble already centimeters below the sediment surface, below the bioturbation zone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474314PMC
April 2019

Intracellular nitrate in sediments of an oxygen-deficient marine basin is linked to pelagic diatoms.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 08;94(8)

Center for Geomicrobiology and Section for Microbiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Intracellular nitrate is an important electron acceptor in oxygen-deficient aquatic environments, either for the nitrate-storing microbes themselves, or for ambient microbial communities through nitrate leakage. This study links the spatial distribution of intracellular nitrate with the abundance and identity of nitrate-storing microbes in sediments of the Bornholm Basin, an environmental showcase for severe hypoxia. Intracellular nitrate (up to 270 nmol cm-3 sediment) was detected at all 18 stations along a 35-km transect through the basin and typically extended as deep as 1.6 cm into the sediment. Intracellular nitrate contents were particularly high at stations where chlorophyll contents suggested high settling rates of pelagic primary production. The depth distribution of intracellular nitrate matched that of the diatom-specific photopigment fucoxanthin in the upper 1.6 cm and calculations support that diatoms are the major nitrate-storing microbes in these sediments. In contrast, other known nitrate-storing microbes, such as sulfide-oxidizing bacteria and foraminifers, played only a minor role, if any. Strikingly, 18S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the majority of the diatoms in the sediment were pelagic species. We conclude that intracellular nitrate stored by pelagic diatoms is transported to the seafloor by settling phytoplankton blooms, implying a so far overlooked 'biological nitrate pump'.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy122DOI Listing
August 2018
-->