Publications by authors named "Boon-Kee Beh"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pineapple Vinegar Regulates Obesity-Related Genes and Alters the Gut Microbiota in High-Fat Diet (HFD) C57BL/6 Obese Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 23;2020:1257962. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Obesity is a pandemic metabolic syndrome with increasing incidences every year. Among the significant factors that lead to obesity, overconsumption of high-fat food in daily intake is always the main contributor. Functional foods have shown a positive effect on disease prevention and provide health benefits, including counteracting obesity problem. Vinegar is one of the fermented functional beverages that have been consumed for many years, and different types of vinegar showed different bioactivities and efficacies. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of pineapple vinegar as an antiobesity agent on a high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced C57BL/6 obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with pineapple vinegar (1 mL/kg BW and 0.08 mL/kg BW) for 12 weeks after 24 weeks of HFD incubation. Serum biochemistry profiles, antioxidant assays, qPCR, proteome profiler, and 16S metagenomic were done posttreatment. Our data showed that a high concentration of pineapple vinegar (1 mL/kg BW) treatment significantly ( < 0.05) reduced the bodyweight (∼20%), restored lipid profiles, increased the antioxidant activities, and reduced the oxidative stress. Besides, significant ( < 0.05) regulation of several adipokines and inflammatory-related genes was recorded. Through the regulation of gut microbiota, we found a higher abundance of , a microbiota reported to be associated with obesity in the high concentration of pineapple vinegar treatment. Collectively, these data established the mechanism of pineapple vinegar as antiobesity in mice and revealed the potential of pineapple vinegar as a functional food for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1257962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530514PMC
September 2020

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and acute toxicity effects of fermented soybean.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Dec 19;19(1):373. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Tempeh is a widely known fermented soybean that contains elevated level of bioactive contents. Our previous study has shown that anaerobic fermented Nutrient Enriched Soybean Tempeh (NESTE) with increase amino acid and antioxidant levels possessed better hepatoprotective effect than raw soybean.

Methods: In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of the NESTE aqueous extract and raw soybean aqueous extract (SBE) were evaluated by quantifying the inhibition of IL-1β, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) secretion in LPS treated RAW 264.7 cell in vitro. On the other hand, in vivo oral acute toxicity effect of the extract was tested on mice at the dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In vivo oral analgesic effect of both aqueous extracts at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was evaluated by the hot plate test.

Results: In the in vitro anti-inflammatory study, 5 mg/mL NESTE was able to inhibit 25.50 ± 2.20%, 35.88 ± 3.20% and 28.50 ± 3.50% of NO, IL-1β and TNF-α production in LPS treated RAW 264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxic effect on the cells. However, this effect was lower than 4 μg/mL of curcumin, which inhibited NO, IL-1β and TNF-α production by 89.50 ± 5.00%, 78.80 ± 6.20% and 87.30 ± 4.00%, respectively. In addition, 1.5 to 2.5-fold increase of latency period up to 120 min for mice in the hot plate test was achieved by 1000 mg/kg NESTE. The analgesic effect of NESTE was better than 400 mg/kg of acetyl salicylic acid, which only increased ~ 1.7-fold of latency period up to 90 min. Moreover, NESTE did not show acute toxicity (no LD) up to 5000 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion: NESTE is a nutritious food ingredient with potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2791-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923968PMC
December 2019

Coconut water vinegar ameliorates recovery of acetaminophen induced liver damage in mice.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Jun 25;18(1):195. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Coconut water has been commonly consumed as a beverage for its multiple health benefits while vinegar has been used as common seasoning and a traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigates the potential of coconut water vinegar in promoting recovery on acetaminophen induced liver damage.

Methods: Mice were injected with 250 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen for 7 days and were treated with distilled water (untreated), Silybin (positive control) and coconut water vinegar (0.08 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg body weight). Level of oxidation stress and inflammation among treated and untreated mice were compared.

Results: Untreated mice oral administrated with acetaminophen were observed with elevation of serum liver profiles, liver histological changes, high level of cytochrome P450 2E1, reduced level of liver antioxidant and increased level of inflammatory related markers indicating liver damage. On the other hand, acetaminophen challenged mice treated with 14 days of coconut water vinegar were recorded with reduction of serum liver profiles, improved liver histology, restored liver antioxidant, reduction of liver inflammation and decreased level of liver cytochrome P450 2E1 in dosage dependent level.

Conclusion: Coconut water vinegar has helped to attenuate acetaminophen-induced liver damage by restoring antioxidant activity and suppression of inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2199-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019733PMC
June 2018

Dietary coconut water vinegar for improvement of obesity-associated inflammation in high-fat-diet-treated mice.

Food Nutr Res 2017 21;61(1):1368322. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Malaysia.

Obesity has become a serious health problem worldwide. Various types of healthy food, including vinegar, have been proposed to manage obesity. However, different types of vinegar may have different bioactivities. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut water vinegar on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Changes in the gut microbiota of the mice were also evaluated. To induce obesity, C57/BL mice were continuously fed an HFD for 33 weeks. Coconut water vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg body weight) was fed to the obese mice from early in week 24 to the end of week 33. Changes in the body weight, fat-pad weight, serum lipid profile, expression of adipogenesis-related genes and adipokines in the fat pad, expression of inflammatory-related genes, and nitric oxide levels in the livers of the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice were evaluated. Faecal samples from the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice (2 ml/kg body weight) were subjected to 16S metagenomic analysis to compare their gut microbiota. The oral intake of coconut water vinegar significantly ( < 0.05) reduced the body weight, fat-pad weight, and serum lipid profile of the HFD-induced obese mice in a dose-dependent manner. We also observed up-regulation of adiponectin and down-regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, retinol-binding protein-4, and resistin expression. The coconut water vinegar also reduced HFD-induced inflammation by down-regulating nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, which consequently reduced the nitric oxide level in the liver. Alterations in the gut microbiota due to an increase in the populations of the and genera by the coconut water vinegar may have helped to overcome the obesity and inflammation caused by the HFD. These results provide valuable insights into coconut water vinegar as a potential food ingredient with anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1368322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5642190PMC
September 2017

Anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

Sci Rep 2017 07 27;7(1):6664. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06235-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5532206PMC
July 2017

The Antimetastatic and Antiangiogenesis Effects of Kefir Water on Murine Breast Cancer Cells.

Integr Cancer Ther 2016 12 26;15(4):NP53-NP66. Epub 2016 May 26.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Background: Kefir is a unique cultured product that contains beneficial probiotics. Kefir culture from other parts of the world exhibits numerous beneficial qualities such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and anticancer effects. Nevertheless, kefir cultures from different parts of the world exert different effects because of variation in culture conditions and media. Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women, and metastasis is the major cause of death associated with breast cancer. The antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects of kefir water made from kefir grains cultured in Malaysia were studied in 4T1 breast cancer cells.

Methods: 4T1 cancer cells were treated with kefir water in vitro to assess its antimigration and anti-invasion effects. BALB/c mice were injected with 4T1 cancer cells and treated orally with kefir water for 28 days.

Results: Kefir water was cytotoxic toward 4T1 cells at IC (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of 12.5 and 8.33 mg/mL for 48 and 72 hours, respectively. A significant reduction in tumor size and weight (0.9132 ± 0.219 g) and a substantial increase in helper T cells (5-fold) and cytotoxic T cells (7-fold) were observed in the kefir water-treated group. Proinflammatory and proangiogenic markers were significantly reduced in the kefir water-treated group.

Conclusions: Kefir water inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro and in vivo mainly through cancer cell apoptosis, immunomodulation by stimulating T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, and anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis effects. This study brought out the potential of the probiotic beverage kefir water in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735416642862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5739168PMC
December 2016

Chemopreventive and immunomodulatory effects of Murraya koenigii aqueous extract on 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 Sep 4;15:306. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: The progression of breast cancer is increasing at an alarming rate, particularly in western countries. Meanwhile, the lower incidence in Asian countries could be attributed to the heavy incorporation of green leaves vegetables or spices in their diets. Murraya koenigii (MK) or often times known as curry leaves are common spice used mostly in tropical countries. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of MK aqueous extract on 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice were evaluated.

Methods: Herein, cytotoxic activity of MK was first tested on 4T1 cells in vitroby MTT assay. Then, in vivo chemopreventive study was conducted where mice were fed with extracts prior to and after inducing the tumor (inoculation). Tumor size was monitored post-4T1 inoculation. At the end of experiment, histopathology of tumor sections, T cell immunophenotyping, tumor nitric oxide level, serum cytokine level and qPCR analysis on expression of iNOS, iCAM, NF-kB and c-MYC were performed.

Results: MK reduced the tumors' size and lung metastasis aside from inhibited the viability of 4T1 cells in vitro. Furthermore, it decreased the level of nitric oxide and inflammation-related cytokines and genes, including iNOS, iCAM, NF-kB and c-MYC.

Conclusion: The results propose that, MK managed to inhibit the progression of tumor via immunostimulatory effect and inflammatory reaction within the tumor samples. This suggests that MKconsumption could be a savior in the search of new chemopreventive agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0832-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4559205PMC
September 2015

In Vivo Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Fermented Mung Bean on Hypercholesterolemic Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 17;2015:508029. Epub 2015 May 17.

Department of Bioprocess Biotechnology, Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Legumes have previously been reported with hypolipidemic effect caused by the presence of flavonoid. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of fermented mung bean on hypercholesterolemic mice. Blood from all mice was collected and subjected to serum lipid and liver profiles biochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for atherosclerosis related gene expressions. Besides, livers were collected for antioxidant assays and histopathology evaluation. Fermented mung bean was found to reduce the level of serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles of hypercholesterolemic mice. Furthermore, liver antioxidant and nitric oxide levels were also significantly restored by fermented mung bean in a dosage dependent manner. The gene expression study indicated that Apoe and Bcl2a1a were upregulated while Npy and Vwf expressions were downregulated after the treatment. The effects of fermented mung bean were greater than nonfermented mung bean. These results indicated that fermented mung bean possessed antioxidants that lead to its hypolipidemic effect on hypercholesterolemic mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/508029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449930PMC
June 2015

Comparison of free amino acids, antioxidants, soluble phenolic acids, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation of fermented mung bean and soybean.

J Sci Food Agric 2016 Mar 23;96(5):1648-58. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects, while fermentation is a well-known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non-fermented mung bean and soybean were compared.

Results: Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ.

Conclusion: Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7267DOI Listing
March 2016

Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.

Chin Med 2015 13;10. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 Malaysia.

Background: Pineapple (Ananas comosus) was demonstrated to be hepatoprotective. This study aims to investigate the reversing effects of pineapple vinegar on paracetamol-induced liver damage in murine model.

Methods: Pineapple juice was fermented via anaerobic and aerobic fermentation to produce pineapple vinegar. Male BALB/c mice (n = 70) were separated into 7 treatment groups (n = 10). Pineapple vinegar (0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW) and synthetic vinegar were used to treat paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. The hepatoprotective effects were determined by serum biochemistry profiles (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and triglyceride (TG)), liver antioxidant levels (ferric-reducing ability plasma (FRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reduced glutathione assays (GSH)) and histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The effects were further evaluated by the expression levels of iNOS, NF-κB, and cytochrome P450 2E1 by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Vinegar samples were also tested for in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total phenolic content (TPC)). Soluble phenolic acid contents in the samples were identified by HPLC.

Results: Pineapple vinegar contained 169.67 ± 0.05 μg GAE/mL of TPC, with 862.61 ± 4.38 μg/mL gallic acid as the main component. Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, including AST (P = 0.008), ALT (P = 0.006), ALP (P = 0.002), and TG (P = 0.006) after 7 days of paracetamol treatment. Liver antioxidant levels such as hepatic glutathione (P = 0.003), SOD (P < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (P = 0.002) and FRAP (P <0.001) were restored after the treatment. Pineapple vinegar reduced the expressions of iNOS (P = 0.003) and NF-kB (P = 0.003) and the level of NO (P = 0.003) significantly. Pineapple vinegar also downregulated liver cytochrome P450 protein expression.

Conclusions: Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, restored liver antioxidant levels, reduced inflammatory factor expressions, and down regulated liver cytochrome P450 protein expression in paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-015-0030-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333164PMC
February 2015

In vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective effect on ethanol-mediated liver damage of spray dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2015 Jan;28(1):15-22

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Vernonia amygdalina is a strong natural antioxidant that possessed various medicinal properties. In this study, the spray-dried water extract of V. amygdalina was evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect against alcoholic-mediated liver damage. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of spray-dried V. amygdalina water extract were determined. Liver enzyme profiles, liver antioxidant level and nitric oxide level were evaluated in alcohol-induced liver injured mice or co-supplement with spray-dried V. amydalina. Water extract of spray-dried V. amygalina that contained phenolic content of 24.8±1.5 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content of 25.7±1.3 mg/g catechin equivalent was able to inhibit 50% of xanthine and tyrosinase oxidation at 170 μg/ml and 2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, extracts at both 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight were able to reduce the levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase (AST), triglyceride and total bilirubin content inthe alcohol-mediated liver injury in mice. Furthermore, it also helped to increase levels of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduce the levels of Nitric oxide (NO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of the treated mice. These resultssuggestedthat water extract of spray-dried V. amygdalina exhibited liver protective effect, which could be contributed by its antioxidant properties.
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January 2015

Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil

Exp Ther Med 2015 Jan 3;9(1):39-42. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been consumed worldwide for various health-related reasons and some of its benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Medium-chain fatty acids were found to be a potential antidepressant functional food; however, this effect had not been evaluated in VCO, which is rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistress and antioxidant effects of VCO , using mice with stress-induced injury. The antistress effect of VCO (administered , at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight) was evaluated using the forced swim test and chronic cold restraint stress models. VCO was able to reduce immobility time and restore oxidative stress in mice post-swim test. Furthermore, mice treated with VCO were found to exhibit higher levels of brain antioxidants, lower levels of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and reduced weight of the adrenal glands. Consequently, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and corticosterone levels were also lower in VCO-treated mice. These results suggest the potential value of VCO as an antistress functional oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.2045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4247320PMC
January 2015

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extract.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 19;2014:350507. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/350507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089844PMC
July 2014

In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 16;2014:707829. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Department of Bioprocess Biotechnology, Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/707829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083602PMC
July 2014

In vivo antistress and antioxidant effects of fermented and germinated mung bean.

Biomed Res Int 2014 29;2014:694842. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase the adrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/694842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022108PMC
February 2015

Hepatoprotective Effect of Fermented Soybean (Nutrient Enriched Soybean Tempeh) against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 22;2013:274274. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

Recently, soybean tempeh has received great attention due to many advantages such as higher nutritional value, lower production cost, and shorter fermentation time. In this study, the in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of nutrient enriched soybean tempeh (NESTE) were determined. NESTE fermentation process which involved anaerobic incubation was previously proclaimed to increase the content of amino acids and antioxidant properties remarkably. The evaluation of histological sections, serum biochemical markers (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)), liver immune response level (nitric oxide (NO)) and liver antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) was conducted in order to compare the effects of nonfermented soybean extract (SBE) and fermented soybean extract (NESTE) on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. Results demonstrated that 1000 mg/kg of NESTE can significantly reduce the levels of AST, ALT, cholesterol, TG, MDA, and NO. On the other hand, it also raised the level of SOD and FRAP. Furthermore, the histological examination on 1000 mg/kg NESTE treatment group showed that this extract was capable of recovering the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. Thus, it can be concluded that NESTE produced through fermentation process was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/274274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766609PMC
September 2013

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (-)-HCA.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 6;2013:751658. Epub 2013 Aug 6.

School of Industrial Technology, University Science Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (-)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/751658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748738PMC
August 2013

Rhaphidophora korthalsii modulates peripheral blood natural killer cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2013 Jun 24;13:145. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Rhaphidophora korthalsii (Araceae) is a root-climber plant which has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine for cancer and skin disease treatment. Previous reports have recorded its immunomodulatory effects on mice splenocyte and human peripheral blood. This study investigated the potential immunostimulatory effect of Rhaphidophora korthalsii on human PBMC enriched NK cell.

Methods: PBMC was exposed to various concentrations of R. korthalsii extract and the T and NK cell population in the control and extract treated PBMC were identified by immunophenotyping. Intracellular perforin and granzyme B expressions were detected by flow cytometry and extra-cellular Granzyme B, IFN-γ and TNF-α production in the isolated NK cells were determined by ELISA. The cytotoxicity of effector NK cell towards target K562 cell was assessed by CytoTox 96 assay.

Results: Rhaphidophora korthalsii methanol extract significantly increased PBMC NK cell population and intracellular perforin and granzyme B expressions. Moreover, the extract also enhanced the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α which subsequently enhanced the cytotoxicity of NK cell against the NK sensitive target K562 cell line. NK cell enriched with extract treated PBMC showed better activation than NK cell directly treated with the extract.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated a potential IL-2 free immunotherapy through direct and indirect R. korthalsii stimulation on NK cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3701493PMC
June 2013

In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 22;2013:708464. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/708464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3654717PMC
May 2013

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of germinated and fermented mung bean on ethanol-mediated liver damage.

Biomed Res Int 2013 24;2013:693613. Epub 2012 Dec 24.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/693613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3591205PMC
September 2013

The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L.

J Biomed Biotechnol 2012 21;2012:171956. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43300 Selangor, Malaysia.

With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/171956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518271PMC
April 2013

Antihyperglycemic effects of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts on alloxan-induced-diabetic mice.

J Biomed Biotechnol 2012 3;2012:285430. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia.

Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/285430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3469204PMC
January 2013

In vitro and in vivo toxicity of garcinia or hydroxycitric Acid: a review.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 9;2012:197920. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

School of Industrial Technology, University Science Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown "no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)" at levels up to 2800 mg/day, suggesting its safety for use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/197920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3424601PMC
August 2012

Production of a solvent, detergent, and thermotolerant lipase by a newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. in submerged and solid-state fermentations.

J Biomed Biotechnol 2011 27;2011:702179. Epub 2011 Sep 27.

Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia.

The lipase production ability of a newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. in submerged (SmF) and solid-state (SSF) fermentations was evaluated. The results demonstrated this strain as one of the rare bacterium, which is able to grow and produce lipase in SSF even more than SmF. Coconut oil cake as a cheap agroindustrial residue was employed as the solid substrate. The lipase production was optimized in both media using artificial neural network. Multilayer normal and full feed forward backpropagation networks were selected to build predictive models to optimize the culture parameters for lipase production in SmF and SSF systems, respectively. The produced models for both systems showed high predictive accuracy where the obtained conditions were close together. The produced enzyme was characterized as a thermotolerant lipase, although the organism was mesophile. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was 45°C where 63% of its activity remained at 70°C after 2 h. This lipase remained active after 24 h in a broad range of pH (6-11). The lipase demonstrated strong solvent and detergent tolerance potentials. Therefore, this inexpensive lipase production for such a potent and industrially valuable lipase is promising and of considerable commercial interest for biotechnological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/702179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180788PMC
January 2012

Immunomodulatory Effect of Rhaphidophora korthalsii on Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 15;2012:786487. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Institute of Bioscience, Putra University, Malaysia, Serdang, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia.

The in vivo immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extracts from leaves of Rhaphidophora korthalsii was determined via immune cell proliferation, T/NK cell phenotyping, and splenocyte cytotoxicity of BALB/c mice after 5 consecutive days of i.p. administration at various concentrations. Splenocyte proliferation index, cytotoxicity, peripheral blood T/NK cell population, and plasma cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ) in mice were assessed on day 5 and day 15. High concentration of extract (350 μg/mice/day for 5 consecutive days) was able to stimulate immune cell proliferation, peripheral blood NK cell population, IL-2, and IFN- γ cytokines, as well as splenocyte cytotoxicity against Yac-1 cell line. Unlike rIL-2 which degraded rapidly, the stimulatory effect from the extract managed to last until day 15. These results suggested the potential of this extract as an alternative immunostimulator, and they encourage further study on guided fractionation and purification to identify the active ingredients that contribute to this in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/786487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175394PMC
November 2011
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