Publications by authors named "Bo Xiao"

777 Publications

SVM classifier of cervical histopathology images based on texture and morphological features.

Technol Health Care 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, Ministry of Education, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Cervical histopathology image classification is a crucial indicator in cervical biopsy results.

Objective: The objective of this study is to identify histopathology images of cervical cancer at an early stage by extracting texture and morphological features for the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier.

Methods: We extract three different texture features and one morphological feature of cervical histopathology images: first-order histogram, K-means clustering, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and nucleus feature. The original dataset used in our experiment is obtained from 20 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, including 135 whole slide images (WSIs). Given an entire WSI, the patches on its tissue region are extracted randomly.

Results: We finally obtain 3,000 patches, including 1,000 normal, 1,000 hysteromyoma and 1,000 cancer images. Among them, 80% of the entire data set is randomly selected as training set and the remaining 20% as test set. The accuracy of SVM classification using first-order histogram, K-means clustering, GLAM and nucleus feature for extracting features are respectively 87.4%, 90.6%, 91.6% and 93.5%.

Conclusions: The classification accuracy of the SVM combining the four features is 96.8%, and the proposed nucleus feature plays a key role in the SVM classification of cervical histopathology images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-220031DOI Listing
June 2022

Wavelength extension and power improvement of red Pr:YLF lasers.

Opt Lett 2022 Jun;47(12):3051-3054

High-power red lasers (mainly at 639 and 670 nm) based on Pr:YLF crystals have been presented in many works. However, the spectral resources of Pr:YLF in the red region have not been fully developed to obtain lasers due to their relatively low emission cross sections and the irrepressible strong emission at ∼639 nm. In this work, we propose a scheme to further develop the spectral resources of Pr:YLF in the red region and improve the red laser powers based on this crystal. The laser wavelengths are obtained from 634.5 to 674.7 nm (continuous tunings are achieved at some wavebands). To the best of our knowledge, the output powers obtained at 638.7, 644.6, 670.1, and 674.7 nm (2.88 W, 1.87 W, 3.55 W, and 1.73 W, respectively) are the highest to date. Furthermore, lasing originating from the P energy level of Pr:YLF (∼653 nm) is realized for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.459408DOI Listing
June 2022

Imaging Genetics in Epilepsy: Current Knowledge and New Perspectives.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 30;15:891621. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Epilepsy is a neurological network disease with genetics playing a much greater role than was previously appreciated. Unfortunately, the relationship between genetic basis and imaging phenotype is by no means simple. Imaging genetics integrates multidimensional datasets within a unified framework, providing a unique opportunity to pursue a global vision for epilepsy. This review delineates the current knowledge of underlying genetic mechanisms for brain networks in different epilepsy syndromes, particularly from a neural developmental perspective. Further, endophenotypes and their potential value are discussed. Finally, we highlight current challenges and provide perspectives for the future development of imaging genetics in epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.891621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9189397PMC
May 2022

Interictal dynamic network transitions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: To reveal the possible routine of brain network dynamic alterations in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and to establish a predicted model of seizure recurrence during interictal periods.

Methods: Seventy-nine unilateral mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 97 healthy controls from two centers were retrospectively enrolled. Dynamic brain configuration analyses were performed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify the functional stability over time and the dynamic interactions between brain regions. Relationships between seizure frequency and ipsilateral hippocampal module allegiance were evaluated using a machine learning predictive model.

Results: Compared to the healthy controls, patients with mTLE displayed an overall higher dynamic network, switching mainly in the epileptogenic regions (false discovery rate [FDR] corrected p-FDR < .05). Moreover, the dynamic network configuration in mTLE was characterized by decreased recruitment (intra-network communication), and increased integration (inter-network communication) among hippocampal systems and large-scale higher-order brain networks (p-FDR < .05). We further found that the dynamic interactions between the hippocampal system and the default-mode network (DMN) or control networks exhibited an opposite distribution pattern (p-FDR < .05). Strikingly, we showed that there was a robust association between predicted seizure frequency based on the ipsilateral hippocampal-DMN dynamics model and actual seizure frequency (p-perm < .001).

Significance: These findings suggest that the interictal brain of mTLE is characterized by dynamical shifts toward unstable state. Our study provides novel insights into the brain dynamic network alterations and supports the potential use of DMN dynamic parameters as candidate neuroimaging markers in monitoring the seizure frequency clinically during interictal periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.17325DOI Listing
June 2022

Electroacupuncture Promotes Autophagy by Regulating the AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Neurochem Res 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

The People's Hospital of Suzhou New District, Suzhou, China.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a complex neurological disease, and its occurrence and development are closely related to the autophagy signaling pathway. However, the mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) affects the regulation of autophagy has not been fully elucidated. TLE gene chip dataset GSE27166 and data from rats without epilepsy (n = 6) and rats with epilepsy (n = 6) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the TLE and control groups were identified with the online tool GEO2R. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases were used to analyse the functional and pathway enrichment of genes in the most important modules. A rat model of TLE induced by lithium-pilocarpine treatment was established. EA treatment at DU20 and DU14 in TLE rats was performed for 2 weeks. Neuronal regeneration was determined using immunofluorescence staining. The protein levels of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy markers were detected through western blotting and immunohistochemistry. This study identified 1837 DEGs, including 798 upregulated genes and 1039 downregulated genes. GO enrichment and KEGG analyses were performed on DEGs and revealed functional enrichment mainly in the mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy-animal. Furthermore, the number of mature neurons was significantly increased upon coexpressing BrdU/NeuN in TLE rats treated with EA. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed significantly decreased levels of the phosphorylated-AKT and p-mTOR in the hippocampal CA3 and DG regions of TLE rats with EA treatment. And increased p-ULK1/ULK1, LC3-II/LC3-I and p62 levels in TLE rats with EA stimulation. Therefore, this study suggested that EA promoted autophagy in hippocampal neurons during the onset of epilepsy by regulating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway to treat epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-022-03634-9DOI Listing
May 2022

Oral antimicrobial peptide-EGCG nanomedicines for synergistic treatment of ulcerative colitis.

J Control Release 2022 Jul 25;347:544-560. Epub 2022 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, College of Sericulture, Textile, and Biomass Sciences, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Microsporidia Infection and Control, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with severe inflammation, damaged colonic barriers, increased oxidative stress, and intestinal dysbiosis. The majority of current medications strive to alleviate inflammation but fail to target additional disease pathologies. Addressing multiple symptoms using a single 'magic bullet' remains a challenge. To overcome this, a smart epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-loaded silk fibroin-based nanoparticle (NP) with the surface functionalization of antimicrobial peptides (Cathelicidin-BF, CBF) was constructed, which could be internalized by Colon-26 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages with high efficiencies. The resulting CBF-EGCG-NPs efficiently restored colonic epithelial barriers by relieving oxidative stress and promoting epithelium migration. They also alleviated immune responses through downregulation of pro-inflammatory factors, upregulation of anti-inflammatory factors, M2 macrophage polarization, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elimination. Interestingly, oral administration of hydrogel (chitosan/alginate)-embedding CBF-EGCG-NPs could not only retard progression and treat UC, but also modulate intestinal microbiota by increasing their overall diversity and richness and augmenting the abundance of beneficial bacteria (e.g., Firmicutes and Lactobacillaceae). Our work provides a "many birds with one stone" strategy for addressing UC symptoms using a single NP-based oral platform that targets immune microenvironment modulation, LPS clearance, and microbial remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.05.025DOI Listing
July 2022

Energy restriction induced SIRT6 inhibits microglia activation and promotes angiogenesis in cerebral ischemia via transcriptional inhibition of TXNIP.

Cell Death Dis 2022 May 11;13(5):449. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan Province, P.R. China.

Energy restriction (ER) protects against cerebral ischemic injury, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here, rats were fed ad libitum (AL) or on an alternate-day food deprivation intermittent fasting (IF) diet for 3 months, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. The body weight, infarct volume, and neurological deficit score were accessed at the designated time points. ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to determine cytokine secretion and the expression of SIRT6, TXNIP, and signaling molecules, respectively. Immunofluorescence evaluated microglial activation and angiogenesis in vivo. For in vitro study, oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-treated cell model was generated. MTT and tube formation assays were employed to determine cell viability and tube formation capability. ChIP assay detected chromatin occupancy of SIRT6 and SIRT6-mediated H3 deacetylation. We found that IF or ER mimetics ameliorated cerebral ischemic brain damage and microglial activation, and potentiated angiogenesis in vivo. ER mimetics or SIRT6 overexpression alleviated cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury in vitro. SIRT6 suppressed TXNIP via deacetylation of H3K9ac and H3K56ac in HAPI cells and BMVECs. Downregulation of SIRT6 reversed ER mimetics-mediated protection during cerebral I/R in vitro. Our study demonstrated that ER-mediated upregulation of SIRT6 inhibited microglia activation and potentiated angiogenesis in cerebral ischemia via suppressing TXNIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04866-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9095711PMC
May 2022

Enhancing anaerobic digestion of sulphate wastewater by adding nano-zero valent iron.

Environ Technol 2022 May 29:1-9. Epub 2022 May 29.

School of Environmental Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, the effects of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) on anaerobic digestion of sulphate wastewater with different /COD ratios, including the COD removal rate, methane yield, intermediate products and the change of microbial community structure, were investigated. The results showed that nZVI could effectively enhance the treatment efficiency and methane yield. Compared with the control group without nZVI, the methane yield increased from 348.6833 to 1007.05 mL CH/gCOD with 4 g nZVI loading at /COD = 0.1. nZVI could make electron flow from sulphate reduction to methane production, which increased methane yield even at high sulphate concentration. The microbial community analysis showed that adding nZVI could increase the abundance of acetoclastic methanogens, which accelerated hydrolysis acidification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2022.2077137DOI Listing
May 2022

Near-Infrared-Enpowered Nanomotor-Mediated Targeted Chemotherapy and Mitochondrial Phototherapy to Boost Systematic Antitumor Immunity.

Adv Healthc Mater 2022 May 10:e2200255. Epub 2022 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, College of Sericulture, Textile and Biomass Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Phototherapy is an important strategy to inhibit tumor growth and activate antitumor immunity. However, the effect of photothermal/photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) is restricted by limited tumor penetration depth and unsatisfactory potentiation of antitumor immunity. Here, a near-infrared (NIR)-driven nanomotor is constructed with a mesoporous silicon nanoparticle (MSN) as the core, end-capped with Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ApSF) comprising arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) tripeptides. Upon NIR irradiation, the resulting ApSF-coated MSNs (DIMs) loading with photosensitizers (ICG derivatives, IDs) and chemotherapeutic drugs (doxorubicin, Dox) can efficiently penetrate into the internal tumor tissues and achieve effective phototherapy. Combined with chemotherapy, a triple-modal treatment (PTT, PDT, and chemotherapy) approach is developed to induce the immunogenic cell death of tumor cells and to accelerate the release of damage-associated molecular patterns. In vivo results suggest that DIMs can promote the maturation of dendritic cells and surge the number of infiltrated immune cells. Meanwhile, DIMs can polarize macrophages from M2 to M1 phenotypes and reduce the percentages of immunosuppressive Tregs, which reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and activate systemic antitumor immunity. By achieving synergistic effects on the tumor inhibition and the antitumor immunity activation, DIMs show great promise as new nanoplatforms to treat metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202200255DOI Listing
May 2022

Efficient capture of U(VI) by magnetic Zr(IV)-ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid inorganic-organic hybrid.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China University of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, Jiangxi, China.

The separation of magnetic adsorbents from aqueous solutions is made simple by using an external magnetic field. Herein, magnetic Zr(IV)-ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMPA) hybrids (MZrOP-x-T, x, and T were the different quality of [email protected] and temperature in the synthesis process, respectively). A study was conducted on the uses of MZrOP-x-T in the capture of U(VI). The influences of pH, adsorption period, initial concentration, and temperature were all investigated. Furthermore, the desorption and reusability of the materials were explored. The optimal values of x and T were 0.2 g and 100 °C, respectively. At 298.15 K, the maximum adsorption capacity of MZrOP-0.2-100 was 330.30 mg·g. The current research demonstrates that MZrOP-0.2-100 is a potentially effective material in removing U(VI) from radioactive solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20548-9DOI Listing
May 2022

Altered Temporal Variations of Functional Connectivity Associated With Surgical Outcomes in Drug-Resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Front Neurosci 2022 19;16:840481. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Currently, more than one-third of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) continue to develop seizures after resection surgery. Dynamic functional network connectivity (DFNC) analyses, capturing temporal properties of functional connectivity during MRI acquisition, may help us identify unfavorable surgical outcomes. The purpose of this work was to explore the association of DFNC variations of preoperative resting-state MRI and surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant TLE.

Methods: We evaluated 61 patients with TLE matched for age and gender with 51 healthy controls (HC). Patients with TLE were classified as seizure-free ( = 39) and not seizure-free ( = 16) based on the Engel surgical outcome scale. Six patients were unable to confirm the postoperative status and were not included in the subgroup analysis. The DFNC was calculated using group spatial independent component analysis and the sliding window approach.

Results: Dynamic functional network connectivity analyses suggested two distinct connectivity "States." The dynamic connectivity state of patients with TLE was different from HC. TLE subgroup analyses showed not seizure-free (NSF) patients spent significantly more time in State II compared to seizure-free (SF) patients and HC. Further, the number of transitions from State II to State I was significantly lower in NSF patients. SF patients had compensatory enhancement of DFNC strengths between default and dorsal attention network, as well as within the default network. While reduced DFNC strengths of within-network and inter-network were both observed in NSF patients, patients with abnormally temporal properties and more extension DFNC strength alterations were less likely to receive seizure freedom.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that DFNC could offer a better understanding of dynamic neural impairment mechanisms of drug-resistant TLE functional network, epileptic brain network reorganization, and provide an additional preoperative evaluation support for surgical treatment of drug-resistant TLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.840481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9063407PMC
April 2022

A Leak-Free Inducible CRISPRi/a System for Gene Functional Studies in Plasmodium falciparum.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 5;10(3):e0278221. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Floridagrid.170693.a, Tampa, Florida, USA.

By fusing catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) to active domains of histone deacetylase (Sir2a) or acetyltransferase (GCN5), this CRISPR interference/activation (CRISPRi/a) system allows gene regulation at the transcriptional level without causing permanent changes in the parasite genome. However, the constitutive expression of dCas9 poses a challenge for studying essential genes, which may lead to adaptive changes in the parasite, masking the true phenotypes. Here, we developed a leak-free inducible CRISPRi/a system by integrating the DiCre/ regulon to allow the expression of dCas9-GCN5/-Sir2a upon transient induction with rapamycin, which allows convenient transcriptional regulation of a gene of interest by introducing a guide RNA targeting its transcription start region. Using eight genes that are either silent or expressed from low to high levels during asexual erythrocytic development, we evaluated the robustness and versatility of this system in the asexual parasites. For most genes analyzed, this inducible CRISPRi/a system led to 1.5- to 3-fold up-or downregulation of the target genes at the mRNA level. Alteration in the expression of and resulted in altered sensitivities to artemisinin. For autophagy-related protein 18, an essential gene related to artemisinin resistance, a >2-fold up- or downregulation was obtained by inducible CRISPRi/a, leading to growth retardation. For the master regulator of gametocytogenesis, , a >10-fold increase of the transcripts was obtained by CRISPRa, resulting in >4-fold higher gametocytemia in the induced parasites. Additionally, inducible CRISPRi/a could also regulate gene expression in gametocytes. This inducible epigenetic regulation system offers a fast way of studying gene functions in Plasmodium falciparum. Understanding the fundamental biology of malaria parasites through functional genetic/genomic studies is critical for identifying novel targets for antimalarial development. Conditional knockout/knockdown systems are required to study essential genes in the haploid blood stages of the parasite. In this study, we developed an inducible CRISPRi/a system via the integration of DiCre/. We evaluated the robustness and versatility of this system by activating or repressing eight selected genes and achieved up- and downregulation of the targeted genes located in both the euchromatin and heterochromatin regions. This system offers the malaria research community another tool for functional genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02782-21DOI Listing
June 2022

Tracking Control for Nonlinear Systems With Actuator Saturation via Interval Type-2 T-S Fuzzy Framework.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2022 May 3;PP. Epub 2022 May 3.

In this work, the problem of tracking control for discrete-time nonlinear actuator-saturated systems via interval type-2 (IT2) T-S fuzzy framework is investigated. Improved on the (type-1) T-S fuzzy system, the IT2 T-S fuzzy system has a better capability for the expression of system uncertainty, and correspondingly, it will increase the difficulty of analysis, especially for the membership-functions-dependent (MFD) method. In addition, in this case, the control input nonlinearity caused by actuator saturation will complicate the stability analysis of the systems. We make an attempt to address the challenges that the information of membership functions (MFs) is underutilized or not utilized, by developing an MFD analysis approach, which allows the enhancement of design flexibility of IT2 fuzzy controller and effectiveness of lessening the conservativeness of the analysis result. The piecewise MFs which are formed by connecting the sample point on or close to the original IT2 MFs are utilized to approximate the original IT2 MFs, and the error between the piecewise MFs and the original upper and lower MFs is taken into account in the stability analysis. To acquire the linear matrix inequality-based (LMI-based) constraint, the actuator saturation is converted to a sector nonlinear issue. performance is considered to limit the difference between the reference system and the control saturated system. Examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2022.3167917DOI Listing
May 2022

Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Elucidate the Potential Mechanism of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Against Osteoarthritis.

Front Pharmacol 2022 14;13:854215. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease which serious affects patients. Ligusticum chuanxiong (CX) has been shown to have a certain curative effect on osteoarthritis in traditional Chinese medicine therapy. This study is based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology to explore the potential mechanism of CX. Components of CX to treat osteoarthritis were screened in the TCMSP database and targets were predicted by the PharmMapper database, the osteoarthritis targets were collected from the GeneCards database, and intersection genes were found to be the possible targets of CX anti-OA. The STRING database and Cytoscape software were utilized for protein-protein interaction analysis and further screening of core targets. The Metascape database was used for KEGG and GO enrichment analyses. Then, the top 10 pathways were selected to construct "drug-compound-target-pathway-disease" network analysis. Finally, molecular docking was used to analyze the binding affinity of seven compounds with core targets and TNF-α. Seven compounds with 253 non-repetitive targets of CX were screened from the TCMSP database and 60 potential intersection targets of CX anti-OA were found. PPI network analysis showed that the core targets were ALB, AKT1, IGF1, CASP3, MAPK1, ANXA5, and MAPK14, while GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that the relevant biological processes involved in the treatment of osteoarthritis by CX might include the MAPK cascade and reactive oxygen species metabolic process. The KEGG pathway analysis result was mainly associated with the MAPK signaling pathway and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. We further docked seven ingredients with MAPK1 and MAPK14 enriched in the MAPK pathway, and TNF-α as the typical inflammatory cytokine. The results also showed good binding affinity, especially FA, which may be the most important component of CX anti-OA. Our research revealed the potential mechanism of CX in the treatment of OA, and our findings can also pave the way for subsequent basic experimental verification and a new research direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.854215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9050356PMC
April 2022

Urodynamic study findings and related influential factors in pediatric spastic cerebral palsy.

Sci Rep 2022 04 28;12(1):6962. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 355 Luding Road, Shanghai, 200062, China.

To investigate the urodynamic study (UDS) result in pediatric patients suffering from spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Medical records of patients diagnosed CP having pre-operative UDS results underwent selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) from Jan. 2020 to May. 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-seven cases diagnosed spastic CP were included in the study (mean age, 6.73 ± 2.84 years), among which, 46 were ambulatory and 11 non-ambulatory. Average gross motor function measure-66 (GMFM-66) score was 62.16 ± 11.39. Reduced bladder capacity was seen in 49.12% of these cases and cases with lower GMFM-66 score possessed a higher incidence rate of having low bladder capacity (p < 0.01). Detrusor overactivity (DO) was shown in 33.33% of the patients. Cases with younger age presented a higher prevalence of DO (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, more non-ambulant patients suffered from DO (p < 0.05). Increased post-voiding residual (PVR) was seen in 21.05% of the cases. Those with higher average threshold in sphincter-associated input spinal nerve roots (rootlets) witnessed a higher rate of having abnormal PVR (p < 0.05). Abnormal UDS results were prevalent in pediatric patients suffering from CP. Motor function, age and threshold of their sphincter-associated spinal nerve roots laid corresponding effect on the abnormal UDS results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11057-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9050687PMC
April 2022

Differences Between Sorafenib and Lenvatinib Treatment from Genetic and Clinical Perspectives for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Med Sci Monit 2022 Apr 27;28:e934936. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Immunology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to systematically compare the differences between sorafenib and lenvatinib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from genetic and clinical perspectives. MATERIAL AND METHODS The mRNA and miRNA sequencing information of patients with HCC treated with either sorafenib or lenvatinib was analyzed using differential expression and a protein-protein interaction assay. The clinical manifestations and adverse events of the 2 drugs were also investigated. RESULTS Compared with patients with HCC treated with sorafenib, patients treated with lenvatinib developed 8 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, FGF4, FGF23, UNC13C, RIMBP2, STXBP5L, PHOX2B, NEUROD4, and POU4F2) and 3 miRNAs (DEMs, has-miR-548ah, has-miR-888, and has-miR-196a-1), of which hsa-miR-548 regulated 4 target genes, the largest number among the 3 miRNAs. The functions of these DEMs and DEGs were verified by external experiments in the HCC cell line Hep3B2.1-7. We further investigated the adverse events of the drugs for patients with advanced HCC in clinical treatment. The patients in the sorafenib group developed less frequent symptoms of hypertension and diarrhea. Also, the frequency of hand-foot skin reactions in patients treated with lenvatinib was lower than that of patients treated with sorafenib (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in nausea, fatigue, frequent urination, and dizziness (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a time of increasing interest in chemotherapy drug treatments for patients with HCC, this study provided a better understanding of the clinical evaluations of sorafenib and lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.934936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9059551PMC
April 2022

Animal models of male subfertility targeted on LanCL1-regulated spermatogenic redox homeostasis.

Lab Anim (NY) 2022 05 25;51(5):133-145. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Experimental Animal Disease Model, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, P. R. China.

Oxidative stress in spermatozoa is a major contributor to male subfertility, which makes it an informed choice to generate animal models of male subfertility with targeted modifications of the antioxidant systems. However, the critical male germ cell-specific antioxidant mechanisms have not been well defined yet. Here we identify LanCL1 as a major male germ cell-specific antioxidant gene, reduced expression of which is related to human male infertility. Mice deficient in LanCL1 display spermatozoal oxidative damage and impaired male fertility. Histopathological studies reveal that LanCL1-mediated antioxidant response is required for mouse testicular homeostasis, from the initiation of spermatogenesis to the maintenance of viability and functionality of male germ cells. Conversely, a mouse model expressing LanCL1 transgene is protected against high-fat-diet/obesity-induced oxidative damage and subfertility. We further show that germ cell-expressed LanCL1, in response to spermatogenic reactive oxygen species, is regulated by transcription factor specific protein 1 (SP1) during spermatogenesis. This study demonstrates a critical role for the SP1-LanCL1 axis in regulating testicular homeostasis and male fertility mediated by redox balance, and provides evidence that LanCL1 genetically modified mice have attractive applications as animal models of male subfertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41684-022-00961-wDOI Listing
May 2022

DNAH14 variants are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Hum Mutat 2022 Jul 28;43(7):940-949. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are complex and multifaceted diseases involving genetic and environmental sciences. Rapid developments in sequencing techniques have made it possible to identify new disease-causing genes. Our study aimed to identify novel genes associated with NDDs. Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to evaluate potential NDD variants. We identified three unrelated patients with compound heterozygous DNAH14 variants. The detailed clinical information and genetic results of the recruited patients were obtained and systematically reviewed. Three compound heterozygous DNAH14 variants were identified as follows: c.6100C > T(p.Arg2034Ter) and c.5167A > G(p.Arg1723Gly), c.12640_12641delAA(p.Lys4214Valfs*7) and c.4811T > A(p.Leu1604Gln), andc.7615C > A(p.Pro2539Thr) and c.11578G > A(p.Gly3860Ser), including one nonsense, one frameshift, and four missense variants, which were not existent or with low minor allele frequencies based on the gnomAD database. The missense variants were assumed to be damaging or probably damaging by using multiple bioinformatics tools. Four of these variants were located in the AAA+ ATPase domain, while two were located in the C-terminal domain. Most affected amino acids were highly conserved in various species. A spectrum of neurological and developmental phenotypes was observed, including seizures, global developmental delay, microcephaly, and hypotonia. Thus, our findings indicate that variants of DNAH14 could lead to previously unrecognized NDDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24386DOI Listing
July 2022

Efficacy comparison of oxcarbazepine and levetiracetam monotherapy among patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy in China: A multicenter, open-label, randomized study.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 Jul 15;28(7):1072-1080. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Aims: This multicenter, open-label, randomized study (Registration No. ChiCTR-OCH-14004528) aimed to compare the efficacy and effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) with levetiracetam (LEV) as monotherapies on patient quality of life and mental health for patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy from China.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy who had experienced 2 or more unprovoked seizures at greater than a 24-h interval during the previous year were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to the OXC group or LEV group. Efficacy, safety, quality of life, and mental health were evaluated over 12-week and 24-week periods.

Results: In total, we recruited 271 newly diagnosed patients from 23 centers. Forty-four patients were excluded before treatment for reasons. The rate of seizure freedom of OXC was significantly superior to that of LEV at 12 weeks and 24 weeks (p < 0.05). The quality of life (except for the seizure worry subsection) and anxiety scale scores also showed significant differences from before to after treatment in the OXC and LEV groups.

Conclusions: OXC monotherapy may be more effective than LEV monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy. Both OXC and LEV could improve the quality of life and anxiety state in adult patients with focal epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13840DOI Listing
July 2022

Lactobacillus and intestinal diseases: Mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

Microbiol Res 2022 Jul 9;260:127019. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. Electronic address:

The gut microbial ecosystem, which is a collection of the host-microbiota interactions and the inter-species interplay among bacteria-dominated microbiota, has become a research hotspot due to its contribution to host health in recent years. Lactobacillus, which has worldwide usage in fermented dairy products, has aroused increasing attention and becomes one of the commonly used probiotics given its promising applications in intestinal health and disease, though it occupies a relatively small proportion of the intestinal microbiota. In the review, we first update the current understanding of determinants of Lactobacillus abundance in the intestinal tract. We then review evidence from animal models to human trials that provided insights into Lactobacillus's applications in common intestinal disorders including the Helicobacter pylori infection, colorectal cancer, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Mechanisms underlying the probiotic role of Lactobacillus are finally discussed in five aspects: microbial interactions, the improvement of intestinal barrier function, the immunoregulation, the anticancer activity, and the metabolic regulation. This review aims to yield a profound understanding of how Lactobacillus will contribute to disease prevention and individualized therapies in future clinical practice, and to inspire novel microbial strategies utilizing both probiotics and their products in the fields of biology and medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2022.127019DOI Listing
July 2022

Molecular mechanisms of topiramate and its clinical value in epilepsy.

Seizure 2022 May 4;98:51-56. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Topiramate (TPM) is widely used as monotherapy or add-on therapy in adults and children (aged 2 to 16 years) with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures or focal-onset seizures. TPM has also expanded its treatment spectrum to other seizure types and epileptic encephalopathies. Moreover, TPM has beneficial effects in some comorbidities of epilepsy such as migraine/headache and obesity. Interestingly, it also exhibited neuroprotective effects in several preclinical studies. The most common side effects of TPM are generally mild to moderate, including somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia and weight loss, which may be reduced through starting with a low dose and slowing titration to effective dosages. The mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic effect and adverse reactions of TPM have been extensively studied in the past 14 years since the last comprehensive review of TPM. Multiple mechanisms including but not limited to: (1) blockade of voltage-gated Na channels, (2) inhibition of voltage-gated Ca channels, (3) inhibition of glutamate-mediated neurotransmission, (4) inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme, as well as (5) enhancement of GABA-mediated neurotransmission are involved in its antiepileptic effect. In this review, we aim to summarize the mechanisms, clinical benefits and adverse reactions of TPM in epilepsy treatment, and to briefly discuss the prospects of TPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2022.03.024DOI Listing
May 2022

m6A echoes with DNA methylation: Coordinated DNA methylation and gene expression data analysis identified critical m6A genes associated with asthma.

Gene 2022 Jun 11;828:146457. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541000, PR China. Electronic address:

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves complex gene-environment interactions. Methylation of nucleotides, such as 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA and N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mRNA, carries important information for gene regulation. Our study screened m6A genes and genes associated with asthma from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases GSE63383, GSE119580, GSE38003, GSE34313, GSE13168, and GSE35643. GSE52778, GSE35643, GSE40996, and GSE64744), and DNA methylation data from GSE85568 and GSE146377. We screened out 6 m6A related genes (FTO, IGF2BP2, RBM15, RBMX, WTAP, and YTHDC1) that were significantly dysregulated in asthma or proinflammatory conditions. A correlation study showed a high correlation between m6A genes and gene pairs such as WTAP, IL7R, and TLR2; RBMX, SLC22A4, IL33, TNC, FLG, and IL6R (|r| ≥ 0.8). Following DNA methylation dataset analysis, we proposed several DNA methylation-m6A modification asthma-related gene axes such as cg19032951/cg15153914-IGF2BP2-SMAD3. Interestingly, several target genes, such as SMAD3, possess the ability to participate in DNA methylation processes, which may reciprocally regulate the expression of m6A genes and form a closed-loop regulation axis. Some classic DNA methylation-related genes, such as TET1, UHRF1, and ZBTB4, were also involved. We identified an integrated profile of m6A gene expression in asthma and proposed a novel potential interplay between DNA methylation and m6A modification in asthma pathogenesis. Using the CMAP database, we found that resveratrol may target these dysregulated m6A genes, and therefore may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146457DOI Listing
June 2022

A Rare case of central nervous system actinomycosis presenting with moyamoya syndrome.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 Jul 11;28(7):1139-1142. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13842DOI Listing
July 2022

Expansion of Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in 23 Chinese Patients.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 22;15:793001. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Aim: variants account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability cases in females and very rarely in males. Yet, the clinical and genetic features of neurodevelopmental disorder in the Chinese cohort have not been characterized.

Method: A total of 23 Chinese patients (i.e., 22 female and 1 male) with 22 deleterious variants were detected among 2,317 probands with unexplained intellectual disability (ID) undertaking whole exome sequencing (WES). The age, sex, genetic data, feeding situation, growth, developmental conditions, and auxiliary examinations of the cohort were collected. The Chinese version of the Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GDDS-C) was used to evaluate neurodevelopment of patients. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)-Lifetime version was applied as a primary screener to assess risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Result: A total of 17 variants were novel and 22 were . Missense variants overall were only slightly more common than loss-of-function variants and were mainly located in two functional subdomains. The average age of this cohort was 2.67 (±1.42) years old. The overlapping phenotypic spectrum between this cohort and previously described reports includes intellectual disability (23/23, 100%) with varying degrees of severity, muscle tone abnormalities (17/23, 73.9%), feeding difficulties (13/23, 56.5%), ophthalmologic problems (11/23, 47.8%), and seizures (6/23, 26.1%). A total of 15 individuals had notable brain anatomical disruption (15/23, 65.2%), including lateral ventricle enlargement, corpus callosum abnormalities, and delayed myelination. Furthermore, 9 patients showed abnormal electroencephalogram results (9/23, 39.1%). Hypothyroidism was first noted as a novel clinical feature (6/23, 26.1%). The five primary neurodevelopmental domains of GDDS-C in 21 patients were impaired severely, and 13 individuals were above the "at-risk" threshold for ASD.

Interpretation: Although a certain degree of phenotypic overlap with previously reported cohorts, our study described the phenotypic and variation spectrum of 23 additional individuals carrying variants in the Chinese population, adding hypothyroidism as a novel finding. We confirmed the importance of as a pathogenic gene in unexplained intellectual disability, supporting the necessity of the application of WES in patients with unexplained intellectual disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.793001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8981727PMC
March 2022

Rheb Promotes Triglyceride Secretion and Ameliorates Diet-Induced Steatosis in the Liver.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 16;10:808140. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Systems Biology, School of Life Sciences, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Hepatosteatosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver, is a major health issue in modern society. Understanding how altered hepatic lipid metabolism/homeostasis causes hepatosteatosis helps to develop therapeutic interventions. Previous studies identify mitochondrial dysfunction as a contributor to hepatosteatosis. But, the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered lipid metabolism remain incompletely understood. Our previous work shows that Rheb, a Ras-like small GTPase, not only activates mTORC1 but also promotes mitochondrial ATP production through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). In this study, we further demonstrate that Rheb controls hepatic triglyceride secretion and reduces diet-induced lipid accumulation in a mouse liver. Genetic deletion of causes rapid and spontaneous steatosis in the liver, which is unexpected from the role of mTORC1 that enhances lipid synthesis, whereas Rheb transgene remarkably reduces diet-induced hepatosteatosis. Results suggest that the hepatosteatosis in KO is an outcome of impaired lipid secretion, which is linked to mitochondrial ATP production of hepatocytes. Our findings highlight an under-appreciated role of Rheb in the regulation of hepatic lipid secretion through mitochondrial energy production, with therapeutic implication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.808140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965806PMC
March 2022

Effect of Fufang Huangqi Decoction on the Gut Microbiota in Patients With Class I or II Myasthenia Gravis.

Front Neurol 2022 18;13:785040. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

The Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Fufang Huangqi Decoction on the gut microbiota in patients with class I or II myasthenia gravis (MG) and to explore the correlation between gut microbiota and MG (registration number, ChiCTR2100048367; registration website, http://www.chictr.org.cn/listbycreater.aspx; NCBI: SRP338707).

Methods: In this study, microbial community composition and diversity analyses were carried out on fecal specimens from MG patients who did not take Fufang Huangqi Decoction (control group, = 8) and those who took Fufang Huangqi Decoction and achieved remarkable alleviation of symptoms (medication group, = 8). The abundance, diversity within and between habitats, taxonomic differences and corresponding discrimination markers of gut microbiota in the control group and medicated group were assessed.

Results: Compared with the control group, the medicated group showed a significantly decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes ( < 0.05) and significantly increased abundance of Actinobacteria at the phylum level, a significantly decreased abundance of Bacteroidaceae ( < 0.05) and significantly increased abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae at the family level and a significantly decreased abundance of and ( < 0.05) and significantly increased abundance of and at the genus level. Compared to the control group, the medicated group had decreased abundance, diversity, and genetic diversity of the communities and increased coverage, but the differences were not significant ( > 0.05); the markers that differed significantly between communities at the genus level and influenced the differences between groups were and .

Conclusions: MG patients have obvious gut microbiota-associated metabolic disorders. Fufang Huangqi Decoction regulates the gut microbiota in patients with class I or II MG by reducing the abundance of and and increasing the abundance of and . The correlation between gut microbiota and MG may be related to cell-mediated immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.785040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971287PMC
March 2022

Artificial intelligence for medical image analysis in epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2022 05 19;182:106861. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Neurology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Given improvements in computing power, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning has emerged as the state-of-the art method for the analysis of medical imaging data and will increasingly be used in the clinical setting. Recent work in epilepsy research has aimed to use AI methods to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, with the ultimate goal of developing highly accurate and reliable tools to aid clinical decision making. Here, we review how researchers are currently using AI methods in the analysis of neuroimaging data in epilepsy, focusing on challenges unique to each imaging modality with an emphasis on clinical significance. We further provide critical analyses of existing techniques and recommend areas for future work. We call for: (1) a multimodal approach that leverages the strengths of different modalities while compensating for their individual weaknesses, and (2) widespread implementation of generalizability testing of proposed models, a needed step before their introduction into clinical workflows. To achieve both goals, more collaborations among research groups and institutions in this field will be required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2022.106861DOI Listing
May 2022

Novel dominant and recessive variants in human ROBO1 cause distinct neurodevelopmental defects through different mechanisms.

Hum Mol Genet 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

The Roundabout (Robo) receptors, located on growth cones of neurons, induce axon repulsion in response to the extracellular ligand Slit. The Robo family of proteins controls midline crossing of commissural neurons during development in flies. Mono- and bi-allelic variants in human ROBO1 (HGNC: 10249) have been associated with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity for a breath of phenotypes, including neurodevelopmental defects such as strabismus, pituitary defects, intellectual impairment, as well as defects in heart and kidney. Here, we report two novel ROBO1 variants associated with very distinct phenotypes. A homozygous missense p.S1522L variant in three affected siblings with nystagmus; and a monoallelic de novo p.D422G variant in a proband who presented with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We modeled these variants in Drosophila and first generated a null allele by inserting a CRIMIC T2A-GAL4 in an intron. Flies that lack robo1 exhibit reduced viability but have very severe midline crossing defects in the central nervous system. The fly wild-type cDNA driven by T2A-Gal4 partially rescues both defects. Overexpression of the human reference ROBO1 with T2A-GAL4 is toxic and reduces viability, whereas the recessive p.S1522L variant is less toxic, suggesting it is a partial loss-of-function allele. In contrast, the dominant variant in fly robo1 (p.D413G) affects protein localization, impairs axonal guidance activity and induces mild phototransduction defects, suggesting that it is a neomorphic allele. In summary, our studies expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with ROBO1 variant alleles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddac070DOI Listing
March 2022

PCNL Combined with 3D Printing Technology for the Treatment of Complex Staghorn Kidney Stones.

J Healthc Eng 2022 15;2022:7554673. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Urology, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical application value of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) combined with 3D printing technology in the treatment of complex staghorn kidney stones.

Methods: From January 2018 to February 2020, a total of 72 patients with complex staghorn kidney stones admitted to our center were divided into experimental group (3D printing group) and control group (computed tomography, CT, imaging group)) according to the random block method, and a prospective cohort study was conducted. Preoperative computed tomography urography (CTU) examination was performed on all patients in the two groups, and the original CT scan Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data of patients in the experimental group were separately extracted for three-dimensional reconstruction and 3D model printing and designed a doctor-patient communication evaluation score table. The two groups were compared in score table, puncture location time, total operation time, consistency between estimated calyx and target calyx, incidence of surgical complications, stone free rate, postoperative recovery, and other aspects.

Results: Both groups completed preoperative CTU examination and showed good kidney and stone morphology. In the experimental group, all 3D printed models were completed and the internal anatomical structure could be clearly displayed. Simulation puncture and relevant measurement parameters could be obtained. The experimental group was significantly better than the control group in doctor-patient communication evaluation score, puncture location time, target calyx consistency, and stone free rate ( < 0.05), and there was no statistical difference in total operation time, postoperative complications, and postoperative recovery.

Conclusions: Individualized 3D printing technology can fully evaluate and design percutaneous renal access and stone clearing strategies before surgery. Compared with traditional preoperative imaging evaluation, 3D printing makes PCNL more accurate and efficient in the treatment of complex staghorn shaped kidney stones, with a high stone free rate at the first stage and better doctor-patient communication satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7554673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8941555PMC
May 2022

Clinical analysis of adult MOG antibody-associated cortical encephalitis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Apr 5;60:103727. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410002, China;. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the clinical and neuroimaging features, treatment response and outcomes of adult myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated cortical encephalitis.

Methods: In this retrospective study, adult patients fulling the criteria of encephalitis but not fulfilling those of ADEM and tested positive for serum MOG antibody were recruited from Xiangya Hospital, Central South University (2019-2021). Clinical symptoms, laboratory data, imaging, and outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Eleven MOG antibody-associated cortical encephalitis patients consisting of 4 female (36.4%) and 7 male (63.6%) were included with a median onset age of 27 years (ranging: 16-32 years). Fever (8/11), headache (9/11) and seizures (7/11) were the most common symptoms of adult MOG cortical encephalitis, and generalized seizure was the dominant seizure type (4/7). Increased intracranial pressure (5/10, median 280 mm H2O, ranging 240-380 mm H2O), CSF pleocytosis (5/10, median 48 cells/μL, ranging: 18-1800 cells/μL), and protein elevation (4/10, median 0.67 g/L, ranging: 0.46-1.92 g/L) were common. Serum MOG antibody was detected in all patients and the coexistence of CSF NMDAR antibody was found in one case. Imaging showed abnormal brain MRI in 10 patients (90.9%) and 10/10 had the cortical involvement. 8/10 had unilateral lesions while 2/10 had bilateral lesions. 2/10 had the juxta cortical white matter lesions and 2/10 had the corpus callosum lesions. No involvement of deep gray matter or other white matter structure was noted. 5/11 had leptomeningeal and/or lesional enhancements. 10/11 patients had favorable outcomes and 2/11 had clinical relapses with persisting MOG antibody positive during the median follow-up interval of 10 months (ranging: 3-23months).

Conclusion: Atypical clinical features for demyelinating diseases including seizures, remarkably increased intracranial pressure, pleocytosis, and protein elevation are common in MOG cortical encephalitis. Involvement of the corpus callosum and cortex around the midline could be unique imaging features of MOG antibody-associated bilateral cortical encephalitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2022.103727DOI Listing
April 2022
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