Publications by authors named "Bette Caan"

347 Publications

Sarcopenia in the Older Adult With Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 27;39(19):2068-2078. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260902PMC
July 2021

Low-fat dietary pattern and breast cancer mortality by metabolic syndrome components: a secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomised trial.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Lundquist Institute for Biomedical Innovation at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.

Background: In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) dietary modification (DM) randomised trial, the low-fat dietary intervention reduced deaths from breast cancer (P = 0.02). Extending these findings, secondary analysis examined dietary intervention influence on breast cancer mortality by metabolic syndrome (MS) components.

Methods: In total, 48,835 postmenopausal women with no prior breast cancer were randomised to a low-fat dietary intervention or comparison groups. Four MS components were determined at entry in 45,833 participants: (1) high waist circumference, (2) high blood pressure, (3) high cholesterol and (4) diabetes history. Forest plots of hazard ratios (HRs) were generated with P-values for interaction between randomisation groups and MS component score. Primary outcome was death from breast cancer by metabolic syndrome score.

Results: HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dietary intervention influence on death from breast cancer were with no MS components (n = 10,639), HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.87; with 1-2 MS components (n = 30,948), HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.02; with 3-4 MS components (n = 4,246), HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69 (interaction P = 0.01).

Conclusions: While postmenopausal women with 3-4 MS components were at higher risk of death from breast cancer, those randomised to a low-fat dietary intervention more likely had reduction in this risk.

Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00000611).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01379-wDOI Listing
May 2021

The Role of Home-Based Exercise in Maintaining Skeletal Muscle During Preoperative Pancreatic Cancer Treatment.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1534735420986615

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Loss of skeletal muscle and inferior muscle quality are associated with poor prognosis in patients undergoing preoperative treatment for pancreatic cancer, so maintaining skeletal muscle health before surgery may help accelerate patients' functional recovery and improve their quality of life following surgery. While exercise helps maintain or increase skeletal muscle in individuals undergoing cancer treatment, its efficacy during pancreatic cancer treatment is unclear. Accordingly, in this study we compared changes in skeletal muscle quantity (skeletal muscle index [SMI]) and quality (skeletal muscle density [SMD]) during preoperative pancreatic cancer treatment in participants in a home-based exercise program (EP) and a historical cohort of patients who received the usual care (UC) with no formal exercise programming. Recommendations for the EP cohort included both aerobic and resistance exercise. We assessed changes in SMI and SMD using computed tomography scans administered at treatment planning (T0, prior to EP enrollment) and preoperative restaging (T1) for 33 EP and 64 UC patients and compared changes between groups. The UC patients had statistically significant SMI decreases from T0 to T1 (-1.4 ± 3.8 cm/m;  = .005), while the EP patients did not (0.2 ± 3.2 cm/m;  = .7). The SMI loss was significantly worse for the UC than for the EP patients ( = .03). Neither group demonstrated statistically significant changes in SMD from T0 to T1, nor did the groups differ in the amount of change in SMD. An adjusted linear regression model demonstrated that EP participation was significantly associated with better SMI maintenance ( = .02). These results suggest that participation in a home-based EP during preoperative treatment may help improve skeletal muscle health and clinical and quality of life outcomes for pancreatic cancer survivors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735420986615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056559PMC
April 2021

Weight stability masks changes in body composition in colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1482-1489

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: There is an emerging viewpoint that change in body weight is not sufficiently sensitive to promptly identify clinically meaningful change in body composition, such as skeletal muscle depletion.

Objectives: We aimed to determine whether body weight stability is associated with skeletal muscle depletion and whether skeletal muscle depletion is prognostic of death independently of change in body weight.

Methods: This retrospective cohort included 1921 patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer. Computed tomography (CT)-based skeletal muscle characteristics and body weight were measured at diagnosis and after a mean 15.0-mo follow-up. Body weight stability was defined as weight change less than ±5% during follow-up. Sarcopenia and myosteatosis were defined using established thresholds for patients with cancer. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and flexible parametric proportional hazards survival models were used to quantify statistical associations.

Results: At follow-up, 1026 (53.3%) patients were weight stable. Among patients with weight stability, incident sarcopenia and myosteatosis occurred in 8.5% (95% CI: 6.3%, 10.6%) and 13.5% (95% CI: 11.1%, 15.9%), respectively. Men were more likely to be weight stable than were women (56.7% compared with 49.9%; P = 0.04). Weight-stable men were less likely to develop incident sarcopenia (5.4% compared with 15.4%; P = 0.003) and myosteatosis (9.3% compared with 20.8%; P = 0.001) than weight-stable women. Among all patients, the development of incident sarcopenia (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.91) and of myosteatosis (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90) were associated with a higher risk of death, independently of change in body weight. Patient sex did not modify the relation between skeletal muscle depletion and death.

Conclusions: Body weight stability masks clinically meaningful skeletal muscle depletion. Body composition quantified using clinically acquired CT images may provide a vital sign to identify patients at increased risk of death. These data may inform the design of future cachexia trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168363PMC
June 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223655PMC
July 2021

Alignment of Dietary Patterns With the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 and Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 05;190(5):886-892

Poor diet quality is a leading risk factor for death in the United States. We examined the association between Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores and death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, Alzheimer disease, and dementia not otherwise specified (NOS) among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1993-2017). This analysis included 59,388 participants who completed a food frequency questionnaire and were free of cancer, CVD, and diabetes at enrollment. Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were fit using person-years from enrollment as the underlying time metric. We estimated multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of death associated with HEI-2015 quintiles, with higher scores reflecting more optimal diet quality. Over a median of 18.2 years, 9,679 total deaths 3,303 cancer deaths, 2,362 CVD deaths, and 488 deaths from Alzheimer disease and dementia NOS occurred. Compared with those with lower scores, women with higher HEI-2015 scores had an 18% lower risk of all-cause death and 21% lower risk of cancer death. HEI-2015 scores were not associated with death due to CVD, Alzheimer disease, and dementia NOS. Consuming a diet aligned with 2015-2020 US dietary guidelines may have beneficial impacts for preventing overall causes of death and death from cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa268DOI Listing
May 2021

Recruitment strategies and design considerations in a trial of resistance training to prevent dose-limiting toxicities in colon cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 02 7;101:106242. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Penn State Cancer Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. Electronic address:

Low muscle is associated with an increased risk of chemotherapy-related dose limiting toxicities (DLT) in cancer patients. Resistance training (RT) improves muscle mass; however, the effects of RT on preventing DLTs and dose reductions in colon cancer patients has not been investigated. FOcus on Reducing dose-limiting toxicities in Colon cancer with resistance Exercise (FORCE) is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial examining the effects of RT on relative dose intensity (RDI; primary outcome) and moderate and severe chemotoxicities (primary outcome) in non-metastatic colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients (N = 180) will be recruited from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Penn State Cancer Institute. This paper describes recruitment strategies and design considerations. Patients will be randomized in equal numbers to RT intervention or control. Patients have baseline and post completion of chemotherapy visits where information on anthropometry, physical function, body composition, quality of life, physical activity and dietary behaviors, and inflammatory blood markers will be collected. Patient-reported outcomes of chemotherapy side effects will be collected around the time of chemotherapy throughout the duration of the trial. Intervention participants will be prescribed a progressive RT program consisting of 4-6 visits with a certified exercise trainer, delivered either in-person or remotely by video conference, and will be asked to engage twice weekly in-home training sessions. Control patients at the end of the study receive a consult with a FORCE exercise trainer, an online exercise RT training program and a set of resistance bands. Results of this trial will provide information on the benefit of resistance exercise as a treatment to increase RDI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2020.106242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954871PMC
February 2021

Authors Response.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2021 02 13;121(2):210-212. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.10.015DOI Listing
February 2021

Cardiometabolic risk factors and survival after cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

Cancer 2021 Feb 5;127(4):598-608. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Background: Cardiometabolic abnormalities are a leading cause of death among women, including women with cancer.

Methods: This study examined the association between prediagnosis cardiovascular health and total and cause-specific mortality among 12,076 postmenopausal women who developed local- or regional-stage invasive cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Cardiovascular risk factors included waist circumference, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Obesity-related cancers included breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for important predictors of survival.

Results: After a median follow-up of 10.0 years from the date of the cancer diagnosis, there were 3607 total deaths, with 1546 (43%) due to cancer. Most participants (62.9%) had 1 or 2 cardiometabolic risk factors, and 8.1% had 3 or 4. In adjusted models, women with 3 to 4 risk factors (vs none) had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.73-2.30), death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR, 4.01; 95% CI, 2.88-5.57), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.1-1.72), and other-cause mortality (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.70-2.69). A higher waist circumference was associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.30) and cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.42).

Conclusions: Among postmenopausal women diagnosed with cancer in the WHI, cardiometabolic risk factors before the cancer diagnosis were associated with greater all-cause, CVD, cancer-specific, and other-cause mortality. These results raise hypotheses regarding potential clinical intervention strategies targeting cardiometabolic abnormalities that require future prospective studies for confirmation.

Lay Summary: This study uses information from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) to find out whether cardiac risk factors are related to a greater risk of dying among older women with cancer. The WHI is the largest study of medical problems faced by older women in this country. The results show that women who have 3 or 4 risk factors are more likely to die of any cause, heart disease, or cancer in comparison with women with no risk factors. It is concluded that interventions to help to lower the burden of cardiac risk factors can have an important impact on survivorship among women with cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33295DOI Listing
February 2021

Re. "Association between low muscle mass and survival in incurable cancer patients: A systematic review".

Nutrition 2021 01 31;81:111005. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111005DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of Prediagnostic Frailty, Change in Frailty Status, and Mortality After Cancer Diagnosis in the Women's Health Initiative.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 09 1;3(9):e2016747. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Importance: Understanding changes in frailty in relation to cancer diagnosis can inform optimal selection of cancer treatments and survivorship care.

Objective: To investigate associations of prediagnostic frailty and change in frailty status with mortality after a cancer diagnosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter, prospective cohort study included 7257 community-dwelling, postmenopausal women in the United States who had frailty assessed at the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) enrollment (1993-1998) and the 3-year visit who were subsequently diagnosed as having invasive cancer. The data were analyzed from January 7, 2019, to June, 8, 2020.

Exposure: Frailty scores were defined from validated questionnaire items conceptually aligned with the Fried frailty phenotype, including at least 3 of the following characteristics: self-reported unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, and muscle weakness or impaired walking. Physical function components of the frailty score were updated a median of 10 (range, 1-18) times.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, this study examined associations of prediagnostic frailty (at the 3-year visit, before cancer diagnosis) and prediagnostic changes in frailty (from enrollment to the 3-year visit) with mortality. Women were followed up beginning from cancer diagnosis for mortality outcomes through March 2018. In linear mixed-effects models with frailty scores as a function of time since cancer diagnosis, this study evaluated whether the time slope, ie, the rate of change in frailty score, increased after cancer diagnosis.

Results: This study included 7257 women in the WHI cohort who completed frailty assessments at enrollment and the 3-year WHI visit before cancer diagnosis and subsequently developed cancer. Cancer cases included 2644 breast cancers (36%), 822 lung cancers (11%), 691 colorectal cancers (10%), 445 endometrial cancers (6%), and 286 ovarian cancers (4%). At the 3-year visit, prior to cancer diagnosis, the mean (SD) age was 63 (7) years, and 1161 of 7257 (16%) of participating women met criteria for frailty; 2129 of 7257 (29%) were prefrail, and 3967 of 7257 (55%) were nonfrail. Over a median follow-up of 5.8 years after cancer diagnosis (range, 1 day to 19.9 years), 3056 women died. After multivariable adjustment, women who were frail (vs nonfrail) before cancer diagnosis had an increased risk of mortality after cancer diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.26-1.55; P for trend <.001). Sustained frailty (21% [1537 of 7257] of women) or worsening frailty (22% [1578 of 7257]) vs being consistently nonfrail (45% [3266 of 7257]) before cancer diagnosis increased the risk of mortality after cancer diagnosis (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14-1.38 and 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11-1.34, respectively; P for trend <.001). In linear mixed-effects models, the rate of increase in physical frailty over time was statistically significantly higher after cancer diagnosis.

Conclusions And Relevance: Sustained and worsening frailty before cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of mortality after cancer diagnosis in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, the rate of decline in physical function accelerated after cancer diagnosis. Frailty assessment could provide valuable information and perhaps prompt interventions to reduce and preempt worsening of physical frailty after cancer diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490646PMC
September 2020

Deep learning method for localization and segmentation of abdominal CT.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2020 10 14;85:101776. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Canada.

Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is widely used for studying body composition, i.e., the proportion of muscle and fat tissues with applications in areas such as nutrition or chemotherapy dose design. In particular, axial CT slices from the 3rd lumbar (L3) vertebral location are commonly used for body composition analysis. However, selection of the third lumbar vertebral slice and the segmentation of muscle/fat in the slice is a tedious operation if performed manually. The objective of this study is to automatically find the middle axial slice at L3 level from a full or partial body CT scan volume and segment the skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) on that slice. The proposed algorithm includes an L3 axial slice localization network followed by a muscle-fat segmentation network. The localization network is a fully convolutional classifier trained on more than 12,000 images. The segmentation network is a convolutional neural network with an encoder-decoder architecture. Three datasets with CT images taken for patients with different types of cancers are used for training and validation of the networks. The mean slice error of 0.87±2.54 was achieved for L3 slice localization on 1748 CT scan volumes. The performance of five class tissue segmentation network evaluated on two datasets with 1327 and 1202 test samples. The mean Jaccard score of 97% was achieved for SM and VAT tissue segmentation on 1327 images. The mean Jaccard scores of 98% and 83% are corresponding to SAT and IMAT tissue segmentation on the same dataset. The localization and segmentation network performance indicates the potential for fully automated body composition analysis with high accuracy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2020.101776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803471PMC
October 2020

Association of Low Muscle Mass and Low Muscle Radiodensity With Morbidity and Mortality for Colon Cancer Surgery.

JAMA Surg 2020 10;155(10):942-949

Human Nutrition Research Unit, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Importance: Given the risks of postoperative morbidity and its consequent economic burden and impairment to patients undergoing colon resection, evaluating risk factors associated with complications will allow risk stratification and the targeting of supportive interventions. Evaluation of muscle characteristics is an emerging area for improving preoperative risk stratification.

Objective: To examine the associations of muscle characteristics with postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), readmission, and mortality in patients with colon cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 1630 patients who received a diagnosis of stage I to III colon cancer from January 2006 to December 2011 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health care system. Preliminary data analysis started in 2017. Because major complication data were collected between 2018 and 2019, the final analysis using the current cohort was conducted between 2019 and 2020.

Exposures: Low skeletal muscle index (SMI) and/or low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) levels were assessed using preoperative computerized tomography images.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Length of stay, any complication (≥1 predefined complications) or major complications (Clavien-Dindo classification score ≥3), 30-day mortality and readmission up to 30 days postdischarge, and overall mortality.

Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 64.0 (11.3) years and 906 (55.6%) were women. Patients with low SMI or low SMD were more likely to remain hospitalized 7 days or longer after surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.68; OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84, respectively) and had higher risks of overall mortality (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.13-1.74; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85, respectively). Additionally, patients with low SMI were more likely to have 1 or more postsurgical complications (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and had higher risk of 30-day mortality (OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 1.23-19.15). Low SMD was associated with higher odds of having major complications (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.44-4.04).

Conclusions And Relevance: Low SMI and low SMD were associated with longer LOS, higher risk of postsurgical complications, and short-term and long-term mortality. Research should evaluate whether targeting potentially modifiable factors preoperatively, such as preserving muscle mass, could reverse the observed negative associations with postoperative outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2020.2497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424546PMC
October 2020

Dietary Intakes of Women's Health Initiative Long Life Study Participants Falls Short of the Dietary Reference Intakes.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2020 09 14;120(9):1530-1537. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Background: Understanding how nutrient intake in older women compares with recommendations is important. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position statement summarizes the nutrient needs of older adults (aged ≥60 years) based on a systematic review.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intake of Women's Health Initiative Long Life Study participants to the Dietary Reference Intakes for nutrients reviewed in the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position statement.

Design: The study is a cross-sectional analysis.

Participants/setting: Participants (n=7,875) were mailed the General Nutrition Assessment Food Frequency Questionnaire during 2012-2013, of whom 77% (n=6,095) completed it, and 5,732 were included in the analytic sample after exclusion for implausible energy intakes.

Main Outcome Measures: Mean intake of energy and protein, calcium, fiber, folate, potassium, sodium, vitamins B-12, D, E, and K were described overall and compared with recommendations.

Statistical Analyses Performed: Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics. The proportion of participants meeting recommendations was computed.

Results: Mean age of completers was 79±7 years and 53.5% were non-Hispanic white, 30% were non-Hispanic black, and 16.5% were Hispanic/Latina. Only one-third of women consumed ≥21 g/day fiber, whereas fewer met the Recommended Dietary Allowance for calcium (18.6%), vitamin E (16.9%), and vitamin D (1.7%). Just more than half (56%) of participants met the Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, and just less than half (47.0%) met potassium guidelines.

Conclusions: These findings suggest older women within the Women's Health Initiative were generally not achieving recommended intake for several key nutrients highlighted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position statement. These findings underscore the need to identify effective approaches for improving the nutrient density of dietary intake in older women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566285PMC
September 2020

Myocardial infarction accelerates breast cancer via innate immune reprogramming.

Nat Med 2020 09 13;26(9):1452-1458. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

NYU Cardiovascular Research Center, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Disruption of systemic homeostasis by either chronic or acute stressors, such as obesity or surgery, alters cancer pathogenesis. Patients with cancer, particularly those with breast cancer, can be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to treatment toxicity and changes in lifestyle behaviors. While elevated risk and incidence of cardiovascular events in breast cancer is well established, whether such events impact cancer pathogenesis is not known. Here we show that myocardial infarction (MI) accelerates breast cancer outgrowth and cancer-specific mortality in mice and humans. In mouse models of breast cancer, MI epigenetically reprogrammed Ly6C monocytes in the bone marrow reservoir to an immunosuppressive phenotype that was maintained at the transcriptional level in monocytes in both the circulation and tumor. In parallel, MI increased circulating Ly6C monocyte levels and recruitment to tumors and depletion of these cells abrogated MI-induced tumor growth. Furthermore, patients with early-stage breast cancer who experienced cardiovascular events after cancer diagnosis had increased risk of recurrence and cancer-specific death. These preclinical and clinical results demonstrate that MI induces alterations in systemic homeostasis, triggering cross-disease communication that accelerates breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0964-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789095PMC
September 2020

American Cancer Society guideline for diet and physical activity for cancer prevention.

CA Cancer J Clin 2020 07 9;70(4):245-271. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Cancer Control, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes the Diet and Physical Activity Guideline to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. This guideline is developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and reflects the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS guideline focuses on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. This 2020 ACS guideline is consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21591DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluation of automated computed tomography segmentation to assess body composition and mortality associations in cancer patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 10 20;11(5):1258-1269. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.

Background: Body composition from computed tomography (CT) scans is associated with cancer outcomes including surgical complications, chemotoxicity, and survival. Most studies manually segment CT scans, but Automatic Body composition Analyser using Computed tomography image Segmentation (ABACS) software automatically segments muscle and adipose tissues to speed analysis. Here, we externally evaluate ABACS in an independent dataset.

Methods: Among patients with non-metastatic colorectal (n = 3102) and breast (n = 2888) cancer diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente, expert raters annotated tissue areas at the third lumbar vertebra (L3). To compare ABACS segmentation results to manual analysis, we quantified the proportion of pixel-level image overlap using Jaccard scores and agreement between methods using intra-class correlation coefficients for continuous tissue areas. We examined performance overall and among subgroups defined by patient and imaging characteristics. To compare the strength of the mortality associations obtained from ABACS's segmentations to manual analysis, we computed Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by tertile of tissue area.

Results: Mean ± SD age was 63 ± 11 years for colorectal cancer patients and 56 ± 12 for breast cancer patients. There was strong agreement between manual and automatic segmentations overall and within subgroups of age, sex, body mass index, and cancer stage: average Jaccard scores and intra-class correlation coefficients exceeded 90% for all tissues. ABACS underestimated muscle and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas by 1-2% versus manual analysis: mean differences were small at -2.35, -1.97 and -2.38 cm , respectively. ABACS's performance was lowest for the <2% of patients who were underweight or had anatomic abnormalities. ABACS and manual analysis produced similar associations with mortality; comparing the lowest to highest tertile of skeletal muscle from ABACS versus manual analysis, the HRs were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.00-1.52) versus 1.38 (95% CI: 1.11-1.70) for colorectal cancer patients and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.01-1.66) versus 1.29 (95% CI: 1.00-1.65) for breast cancer patients.

Conclusions: In the first study to externally evaluate a commercially available software to assess body composition, automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissues using ABACS was similar to manual analysis and associated with mortality after non-metastatic cancer. Automated methods will accelerate body composition research and, eventually, facilitate integration of body composition measures into clinical care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567141PMC
October 2020

Prenatal Depression and Diet Quality During Pregnancy.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2020 06 13;120(6):972-984. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has a significant effect on the health of the offspring and mother, highlighting the need for identifying factors that may affect diet during pregnancy. Research in nonpregnant and pregnant populations suggest depression may play a role.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between prenatal depression and diet quality during pregnancy overall and by race/ethnicity and to explore the relationships between prenatal depression and the 12 Healthy Eating Index 2010 dietary components.

Design: A cross-sectional secondary analysis of a cohort study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California women entering prenatal care between October 2011 and April 2013.

Participants/setting: Participants included 1,160 adult pregnant women.

Main Outcome Measures: Poor diet quality was defined as a Healthy Eating Index 2010 score in the lowest quartile.

Statistical Analyses Performed: Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prenatal depression (defined as a depression diagnosis, Patient Health Questionnaire score of 10 or greater or antidepressant medication dispensing between the last menstrual period and completion of the food frequency questionnaire) and poor diet quality overall and by race/ethnicity. Relationships between prenatal depression and each of the 12 Healthy Eating Index 2010 dietary components were assessed using t-tests and linear regression analyses.

Results: One hundred fifty-nine (14%) participants had prenatal depression. Women with prenatal depression had nearly two times the odds of poor diet quality (odds ratio 1.80, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.60) compared with women without prenatal depression, after adjusting for potential confounders. Differences emerged by race/ethnicity; after adjusting for potential confounders the adjusted odds of poor diet quality were significant only among Hispanic women. Hispanic women with prenatal depression had an increased odds of poor diet quality compared with Hispanic women without prenatal depression (odds ratio 2.66, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.06). Women with prenatal depression had a higher consumption of empty calories (from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars; threshold for counting alcohol >13 g/1,000 kcal) (P=0.01) and lower consumption of greens and beans (P<0.05), total fruit (P<0.01), and whole fruit (P<0.01), compared with women without prenatal depression. Except for empty calories, these findings remained after adjusting for potential confounders.

Conclusions: Study findings suggest that women with prenatal depression are at a higher risk of poor diet quality compared with women without prenatal depression, and the relationship is stronger among Hispanic women. Nutrition counseling interventions for women with depression should consider the use of culturally sensitive materials and target limiting empty calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars and encourage eating more greens, beans, and fruit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006531PMC
June 2020

Lights on MsFLASH: a review of contributions.

Menopause 2020 04;27(4):473-484

Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Objective: The Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health clinical trials network was funded by the National Institutes of Health to find new ways to alleviate the most common, bothersome menopausal symptoms by designing and conducting multiple concurrent clinical intervention studies, accommodating a wide scope of populations and intervention strategies.

Methods: Trials were conducted in Boston, Indianapolis, Minneapolis, Oakland, Philadelphia, and Seattle, with the Data Coordinating Center in Seattle, and were designed with standardized eligibility criteria and endpoints. Primary outcomes focused on vasomotor symptoms, sleep quality and insomnia symptoms, and vaginal symptoms. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, sexual function, and mood.

Results: We completed five randomized clinical trials and three ancillary studies, testing nine interventions in over 1,300 women and collecting nearly 16,000 bio-specimens. Escitalopram, venlafaxine hydrochloride extended release, and low-dose estradiol diminished hot flashes by approximately 50% as compared with a 30% decrease by placebo. No benefits on vasomotor symptoms were observed with yoga or exercise compared with usual activity, nor with omega-3 supplementation compared with placebo. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia reduced self-reported insomnia symptoms and improved overall sleep quality compared with menopause education control. We did not find significant benefit from a vaginal estradiol tablet or a vaginal moisturizer compared with placebo tablet and gel in diminishing the severity of vaginal symptoms.

Conclusions: The MsFLASH trials contributed substantially to our understanding of bothersome menopausal symptom treatment. It is important that clinicians counseling women about available treatment options consider all therapies-both nonhormonal and hormonal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009305PMC
April 2020

Associations between nutritional factors and chemotherapy toxicity in older adults with solid tumors.

Cancer 2020 04 24;126(8):1708-1716. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, California.

Background: Nutritional status can directly affect morbidity and mortality in older adults with cancer. This study evaluated the association between pretreatment body mass index (BMI), albumin level, and unintentional weight loss (UWL) in the prior 6 months and chemotherapy toxicity among older adults with solid tumors.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter study involving chemotherapy-treated patients 65 years old or older. Geriatric assessment, BMI, albumin level, and UWL data were collected before treatment. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the associations between nutritional factors and the risk of grade 3 or higher (grade 3+) chemotherapy toxicity.

Results: Seven hundred fifty patients with a median age of 72 years (range, 65-94 years) and mostly stage IV disease were enrolled. The median pretreatment BMI and albumin values were 26 kg/m (range, 15.1-52.1 kg/m ) and 3.9 mg/dL (range, 1.0-5.0 mg/dL), respectively. Nearly 50% of the patients reported UWL, with 17.6% reporting >10% UWL. Multivariable analysis revealed no association between >10% UWL and a risk for grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.87; P = .58). Multivariable analysis showed a trend toward an association between a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and a decreased risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity (AOR, 0.65; P = .06), whereas a low albumin level (≤3.6 mg/dL) was associated with a higher risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity (AOR, 1.50; P = .03). An analysis of the joint effect of BMI and albumin demonstrated the lowest risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity among patients with high BMIs (≥30 kg/m ) and normal albumin levels (AOR, 0.41; P = .008).

Conclusions: Among older adults with solid tumors, higher BMIs and normal albumin levels are associated with a lower risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity. Additional research is warranted to define the clinical significance of nutritional markers and to inform future interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494013PMC
April 2020

Prediagnosis social support, social integration, living status, and colorectal cancer mortality in postmenopausal women from the women's health initiative.

Cancer 2020 04 23;126(8):1766-1775. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Background: We evaluated associations between perceived social support, social integration, living alone, and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes in postmenopausal women.

Methods: The study included 1431 women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed from 1993 through 2017 with stage I through IV CRC and who responded to the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support survey before their CRC diagnosis. We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of social support (tertiles) and types of support, assessed up to 6 years before diagnosis, with overall and CRC-specific mortality. We also assessed associations of social integration and living alone with outcomes also in a subset of 1141 women who had information available on social ties (marital/partner status, community and religious participation) and living situation.

Results: In multivariable analyses, women with low (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% CI, 1.23-1.88) and moderate (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.98-1.50) perceived social support had significantly higher overall mortality than those with high support (P [continuous] < .001). Similarly, women with low (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.88) and moderate (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.96-1.70) perceived social support had higher CRC mortality than those with high social support (P [continuous] = .007). Emotional, informational, and tangible support and positive interaction were all significantly associated with outcomes, whereas affection was not. In main-effects analyses, the level of social integration was related to overall mortality (P for trend = .02), but not CRC mortality (P for trend = .25), and living alone was not associated with mortality outcomes. However, both the level of social integration and living alone were related to outcomes in patients with rectal cancer.

Conclusions: Women with low perceived social support before diagnosis have higher overall and CRC-specific mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297047PMC
April 2020

Sustained Weight Loss and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women 50 Years and Older: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Data.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 09;112(9):929-937

Department of Epidemiology.

Background: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk.

Methods: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up.

Results: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight.

Conclusions: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492760PMC
September 2020

Body Composition, Adherence to Anthracycline and Taxane-Based Chemotherapy, and Survival After Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2020 02;6(2):264-270

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Importance: Although most chemotherapies are dosed on body surface area or weight, body composition (ie, the amount and distribution of muscle and adipose tissues) is thought to be associated with chemotherapy tolerance and adherence.

Objectives: To evaluate whether body composition is associated with relative dose intensity (RDI) on anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy or hematologic toxic effects and whether lower RDI mediates the association of adiposity with mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: An observational cohort study with prospectively collected electronic medical record data was conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a multicenter, community oncology setting within an integrated health care delivery system. Participants included 1395 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2013, and treated with anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Data analysis was performed between February 25 and September 4, 2019.

Exposures: Intramuscular, visceral, and subcutaneous adiposity as well as skeletal muscle were evaluated from clinically acquired computed tomographic scans at diagnosis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was low RDI (<0.85), which is the ratio of delivered to planned chemotherapy dose, derived from infusion records; in addition, hematologic toxic effects were defined based on laboratory test values. To evaluate associations with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality, logistic regression models adjusted for age and body surface area were fit as well as Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, adiposity, Charlson comorbidity index score, and tumor stage and subtype. The mediation proportion was computed using the difference method.

Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis of the 1395 women included in the study was 52.8 (10.2) years. Greater visceral (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39 per SD) and intramuscular (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34 per SD) adiposity were associated with increased odds of RDI less than 0.85. Greater muscle mass was associated with a decreased odds of hematologic toxic effects (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.98 per SD). Relative dose intensity less than 0.85 was associated with a 30% increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.65). Lower RDI partially explained the association of adiposity with breast cancer-specific mortality (mediation proportion, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.55).

Conclusions And Relevance: Excess adiposity, presenting as larger visceral or intramuscular adiposity, was associated with lower RDI. Lower RDI partially mediated the association of adiposity with worse breast cancer-specific survival. Body composition may help to identify patients likely to experience toxic effects and subsequent dose delays or reductions, which could compromise chemotherapeutic efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.4668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902178PMC
February 2020

It's Absolutely Relative: The Effect of Age on the BMI-Mortality Relationship in Postmenopausal Women.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2020 01 4;28(1):171-177. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Objective: The use of relative and absolute effect estimates has important implications for the interpretation of study findings. Likewise, examining additive and multiplicative interaction can lead to differing conclusions about the joint effects of two exposure variables. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between BMI and mortality on the relative and absolute scales and investigate interaction between BMI and age.

Methods: Data from 68,132 participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study were used. The risk ratio and risk difference of BMI on mortality were estimated. A product term was also included to examine interaction between BMI and age on the multiplicative scale, and the relative excess risk of interaction was calculated to measure additive interaction.

Results: Results demonstrated that the mortality risk ratio decreased as women aged, but the mortality risk difference increased as women aged. Evidence of additive and multiplicative interaction between age and BMI was found.

Conclusions: In postmenopausal women, the relative mortality risk associated with high BMI decreased with increasing age, but the absolute risk of high BMI increased with increasing age. This indicates the importance of considering the interaction between age and BMI to understand mortality risk in older women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989046PMC
January 2020

Guideline-concordant endometrial cancer treatment and survival in the Women's Health Initiative Life and Longevity After Cancer study.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 31;147(2):404-412. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) cohort, we examined predictors of guideline-concordant treatment among endometrial cancer (EC) survivors and associations between receipt of guideline-concordant treatment and survival. Receipt of guideline-concordant EC treatment was defined according to year-specific National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of guideline-concordant treatment receipt. We estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for relationships between guideline-concordant treatment and overall survival using Cox proportional hazards regression. We included 629 women with EC, of whom 83.6% (n = 526) received guideline-concordant treatment. Receipt of guideline-concordant treatment was less common among women with nonendometrioid histology (OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.13-0.45) but was more common among women living in the Midwest (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) or West (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.49-6.13) compared to the Northeast. In Cox regression models adjusted for age, histology and stage, receipt of guideline-concordant EC treatment was borderline associated with improved overall survival (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.60-1.01) in the overall population. Guideline-concordant treatment was also linked with better overall survival among women with low-grade uterine-confined endometrioid EC or widely metastatic endometrioid EC. Guideline-concordant treatment varies by some patient characteristics and those women in receipt of guideline-concordant care had borderline improved survival. Studies evaluating regional differences in treatment along with randomized clinical trials to determine appropriate treatment regimens for women with aggressive tumor characteristics are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160046PMC
July 2020

Postdiagnosis Loss of Skeletal Muscle, but Not Adipose Tissue, Is Associated with Shorter Survival of Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 12 18;28(12):2062-2069. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Pancreatic cancer is associated with development of cachexia, a wasting syndrome thought to limit survival. Few studies have longitudinally quantified peripheral tissues or identified biomarkers predictive of future tissue wasting.

Methods: Adipose and muscle tissue were measured by computed tomography (CT) at diagnosis and 50 to 120 days later in 164 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Tissue changes and survival were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Baseline levels of circulating markers were examined in relation to future tissue wasting.

Results: Compared with patients in the bottom quartile of muscle change per 30 days (average gain of 0.8 ± 2.0 cm), those in the top quartile (average loss of 12.9 ± 4.9 cm) had a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 2.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.62]. Patients in the top quartile of muscle attenuation change (average decrease of 4.9 ± 2.4 Hounsfield units) had an HR of 2.19 (95% CI, 1.18-4.04) compared with those in the bottom quartile (average increase of 2.4 ± 1.6 Hounsfield units). Changes in adipose tissue were not associated with survival. Higher plasma branched chain amino acids (BCAA; = 0.004) and lower monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; = 0.005) at diagnosis were associated with greater future muscle loss.

Conclusions: In patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, muscle loss and decrease in muscle density in 2 to 4 months after diagnosis were associated with reduced survival. BCAAs and MCP-1 levels at diagnosis were associated with subsequent muscle loss.

Impact: BCAAs and MCP-1 levels at diagnosis could identify a high-risk group for future tissue wasting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891169PMC
December 2019

Statins as a free pass: Body mass index and other cardiovascular risk factors among lipid-lowering medication users and nonusers in the California Men's Health Study.

Prev Med 2019 12 27;129:105822. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, 100 S. Los Robles, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.

To lower risk from cardiovascular disease (CVD), national guidelines recommend lifestyle changes followed by use of lipid-lowering medications when appropriate. Previous studies have questioned whether individuals taking these medications are less likely to modify their dietary intake and physical activity, resulting in increased body mass index (BMI). We assessed BMI and CVD clinical risk factors over time between lipid-lowering medication users and nonusers in a diverse cohort of middle-aged and older men. The cohort consisted of 63,357 men who enrolled in the California Men's Health Study between 2002 and 2003 and were not taking lipid-lowering medications at baseline. Lipid-lowering medication use was determined over twelve years of follow-up. BMI and other CVD risk factors were assessed with longitudinal linear mixed effect models adjusting for possible confounders. Overall, lipid-lowering medication users had higher BMI than nonusers (p < .0001); however, there was a decrease over time for both groups (p < .0001). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides decreased for users and nonusers (p < .0001). While HDL-C was higher for nonusers (p < .05), over time this measure increased in both groups (p < .0001). We found no evidence of increases in BMI after initiation of lipid-lowering medication in this cohort. Instead, BMI decreased and several cholesterol-related CVD risk factors improved for lipid-lowering medication users and nonusers. This suggests that men placed on lipid-lowering medications do not view them as a panacea for their increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Instead, they appear to perceive them as one component of a multi-pronged strategy including lifestyle and nutrition as suggested by current guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105822DOI Listing
December 2019

Intentional weight loss, weight cycling, and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2019 11 26;29(9):1361-1371. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Division of Epidemiology, The Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, OH, USA

Purpose: Weight cycling, defined as intentional weight loss followed by unintentional weight regain, may attenuate the benefit of intentional weight loss on endometrial cancer risk. We summarized the literature on intentional weight loss, weight cycling after intentional weight loss, bariatric surgery, and endometrial cancer risk.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases published between January 2000 and November 2018. We followed Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We qualitatively summarized studies related to intentional weight loss and weight cycling due to the inconsistent definition, and quantitatively summarized studies when bariatric surgery was the mechanism of intentional weight loss.

Results: A total of 127 full-text articles were reviewed, and 13 were included (bariatric surgery n=7, self-reported intentional weight loss n=2, self-reported weight cycling n=4). Qualitative synthesis suggested that, compared with stable weight, self-reported intentional weight loss was associated with lower endometrial cancer risk (RR range 0.61-0.96), whereas self-reported weight cycling was associated with higher endometrial cancer risk (OR range 1.07-2.33). The meta-analysis yielded a 59% lower risk of endometrial cancer following bariatric surgery (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.74).

Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that intentional weight loss and maintenance of a stable, healthy weight can lower endometrial cancer risk. Strategies to improve awareness and maintenance of weight loss among women with obesity are needed to reduce endometrial cancer risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2019-000728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832748PMC
November 2019

Adipose Tissue Distribution and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

J Clin Oncol 2019 10 1;37(28):2528-2536. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA.

Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality among breast cancer survivors. Although body mass index (BMI) is associated with CVD risk, adipose tissue distribution may better identify patients with a high risk of CVD after breast cancer.

Methods: Among 2,943 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer without prior CVD, we used International Classification of Diseases (9th and 10th revisions) codes to identify incidence of nonfatal stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, or CVD death. From clinically acquired computed tomography scans obtained near diagnosis, we measured visceral adiposity (centimeters squared), subcutaneous adiposity (centimeters squared), and intramuscular adiposity (fatty infiltration into muscle [Hounsfield Units, scored inversely]). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs per SD increase in adiposity accounting for competing risks and adjusting for demographics, smoking, cancer treatment, and pre-existing CVD risk factors.

Results: Mean (SD) age was 56 (12) years. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, 328 CVD events occurred. Each SD increase in visceral or intramuscular adiposity was associated with an increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.29] and HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06 to 1.37]), respectively). Excess visceral and intramuscular adiposity occurred across all BMI categories. Among normal-weight patients, each SD greater visceral adiposity increased CVD risk by 70% (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.10 to 2.62]).

Conclusion: Visceral and intramuscular adiposity were associated with increased CVD incidence after breast cancer diagnosis, independent of pre-existing CVD risk factors and cancer treatments. The increased CVD incidence among normal-weight patients with greater visceral adiposity would go undetected with BMI alone. Measures of adipose tissue distribution may help identify high-risk patients and tailor CVD prevention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001794PMC
October 2019