Publications by authors named "Barbara Jarząb"

189 Publications

Heterogeneity of the Clinical Presentation of the MEN1 LRG_509 c.781C>T (p.Leu261Phe) Variant Within a Three-Generation Family.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;12(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-008 Cracow, Poland.

Multiple neuroendocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare genetic disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance, predisposing carriers to benign and malignant tumors. The phenotype of MEN1 syndrome varies between patients in terms of tumor localization, age of onset, and clinical aggressiveness, even between affected members within the same family. We describe a heterogenic phenotype of the variant c.781C>T (LRG_509t1), which was previously reported only once in a family with isolated hyperparathyroidism. A heterozygous missense variant in exon 4 of the gene was identified in the sequence of the gene, i.e., c.781C>T, leading to the amino acid change p.Leu261Phe in a three-generation family. In the screened family, 5/6 affected members had already developed hyperparathyroidism. In the index patient and two other family members, an aggressive course of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (insulinoma and non-functioning neuroendocrine tumors) with dissemination was diagnosed. In the index patient, late diagnosis and slow progression of the disseminated neuroendocrine tumor have been observed (24 years of follow-up). The very rare variant of , LRG_509t1 c.781C>T /p.Leu261Phe (LRG_509p1), diagnosed within a three-generation family has a heterogenic clinical presentation. Further follow-up of the family members should be carried out to confirm the spectrum and exact time of clinical presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12040512DOI Listing
March 2021

Shared and unique metabolic features of the malignant and benign thyroid lesions determined with use of H HR MAS NMR spectroscopy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 14;11(1):1344. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Medical Physics, Maria Skłodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, 44-102, Gliwice, Poland.

The purpose of this work was to investigate the distinct and common metabolic features of the malignant and benign thyroid lesions in reference to the non-transformed tissue from the contralateral gland (chronic thyroiditis and colloid goiter). H HR MAS NMR spectra of 38 malignant lesions, 32 benign lesions and 112 samples from the non-tumoral tissue (32 from chronic thyroiditis and 80 samples from colloid goiter) were subjected both to multivariate and univariate analysis. The increased succinate, glutamine, glutathione, serine/cysteine, ascorbate, lactate, taurine, threonine, glycine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine and decreased lipids were found in both lesion types in comparison to either colloid goiter or chronic thyroiditis. The elevated glutamate and choline, and reduced citrate and glucose were additionally evident in these lesions in reference to goiter, while the increased myo-inositol-in comparison to thyroiditis. The malignant lesions were characterized by the higher alanine and lysine levels than colloid goiter and thyroiditis, while scyllo-inositol was uniquely increased in the benign lesions (not in cancer) in comparison to both non-tumoral tissue types. Moreover, the benign lesions presented with the unique increase of choline in reference to thyroiditis (not observed in the cancerous tissue). The metabolic heterogeneity of the non-tumoral tissue should be considered in the analysis of metabolic reprogramming in the thyroid lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79565-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809111PMC
January 2021

Laparoscopic cortical-sparing adrenal surgery in pheochromocytomas associated with hereditary neoplasia syndromes.

Endokrynol Pol 2020 30;71(6):518-523. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Poland.

Introduction: Pheochromocytomas in hereditary syndromes tend to grow multifocal with adrenal involvement on both sides. Surgical treatment with bilateral adrenalectomy inevitably leads to life-long hormonal dependence, which significantly affects quality of life. The development of minimally invasive adrenal surgery has created a chance to preserve adrenal cortex function in these patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic cortical-sparing adrenal surgeries and their efficacy in the prevention of postoperative adrenal insufficiency in patients with hereditary pheochromocytomas.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively analysed the medical histories of 10 patients, who underwent 10 laparoscopic cortical sparing adrenal surgeries from January 2015 to January 2019 in our centre. The decision to perform sparing surgery was based on preoperative diagnosis of hereditary syndrome in line with the result of DNA analysis or its diagnosis based on the clinical appearance. All surgeries were performed laparoscopically from transperitoneal access in the lateral decubitus position, with preserving 1/3-1/4 adrenal tissue. The sufficiency of remnant adrenal tissue was assessed in all patients. The median time of follow-up was three years (ranged 0.5-4 years).

Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. One case of acute heart failure was the only early postoperative adverse event. There were no late postoperative complications and no local recurrences observed. In one out of three patients undergoing sparing surgery as a second procedure after former total adrenalectomy, adrenal cortex failure occurred. In all patients after unilateral surgery or after bilateral surgery performed simultaneously (total adrenalectomy at one side and sparing surgery contralaterally), function of remnant adrenal tissue was preserved.

Conclusions: In hereditary pheochromocytomas, with minimal risk of malignant process, laparoscopic cortical sparing adrenal surgeries are the safe approach and provide the chance to preserve adrenal cortex function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0075DOI Listing
October 2020

Early Diagnosis of Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Cancer Results Rather in Overtreatment Than a Better Survival.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 6;11:571421. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, M.Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

We are witnessing a rapid worldwide increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in the last thirty years. Extensive implementation of cancer screening and wide availability of neck ultrasound or other imaging studies is the main reason responsible for this phenomenon. It resulted in a detection of a growing number of clinically asymptomatic PTCs, mainly low-risk tumors, without any beneficial impact on survival. An indolent nature of low-risk PTC, particularly papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), and the excellent outcomes raise an ongoing discussion regarding the adequacy of treatment applied. The question of whether PTMC is overtreated or not is currently completed by another, whether PTMC requires any treatment. Current ATA guidelines propose less extensive preoperative diagnostics and, if differentiated thyroid cancer is diagnosed, less aggressive surgical approach and limit indications for postoperative radioiodine therapy. However, in intrathyroidal PTMCs in the absence of lymph node or distant metastases, active surveillance may constitute alternative management with a low progression rate of 1%-5% and without any increase in the risk of poorer outcomes related to delayed surgery in patients, in whom it was necessary. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives of active surveillance in low-risk PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.571421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573306PMC
October 2020

Current status of the prognostic molecular markers in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Endocr Connect 2020 Dec;9(12):R251-R263

Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, M. Sklodowska-Curie Institute National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid malignancy, which arises from parafollicular C-cells. It occurs in the hereditary or sporadic form. Hereditary type is a consequence of activation of the RET proto-oncogene by germline mutations, whereas about 80% of sporadic MTC tumors harbor somatic, mainly RET or rarely RAS mutations. According to the current ATA guidelines, a postoperative MTC risk stratification and long-term follow-up are mainly based on histopathological data, including tumor stage, the presence of lymph node and/or distant metastases (TNM classification), and serum concentration of two biomarkers: calcitonin (Ctn) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The type of RET germline mutation also correlates with MTC clinical characteristics. The most common and the best known RET mutation in sporadic MTC, localized at codon 918, is related to a more aggressive MTC course and poorer survival. However, even if histopathological or clinical features allow to predict a long-term prognosis, they are not sufficient to select the patients showing aggressive MTC courses requiring immediate treatment or those, who are refractory to different therapeutic methods. Besides the RET gene mutations, there are currently no other reliable molecular prognostic markers. This review summarizes the present data of genomic investigation on molecular prognostic factors in medullary thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-20-0374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774764PMC
December 2020

Differences in Gene Expression Profile of Primary Tumors in Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma-Do They Exist?

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 29;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland.

Molecular mechanisms of distant metastases (M1) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are poorly understood. We attempted to analyze the gene expression profile in PTC primary tumors to seek the genes associated with M1 status and characterize their molecular function. One hundred and twenty-three patients, including 36 M1 cases, were subjected to transcriptome oligonucleotide microarray analyses: (set A-U133, set B-HG 1.0 ST) at transcript and gene group level (limma, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA)). An additional independent set of 63 PTCs, including 9 M1 cases, was used to validate results by qPCR. The analysis on dataset A detected eleven transcripts showing significant differences in expression between metastatic and non-metastatic PTC. These genes were validated on microarray dataset B. The differential expression was positively confirmed for only two genes: (most significant) and . However, when analyzed on an independent dataset by qPCR, the gene showed no differences in expression. Gene group analysis showed differences mainly among immune-related transcripts, indicating the potential influence of tumor immune infiltration or signal within the primary tumor. The differences in gene expression profile between metastatic and non-metastatic PTC, if they exist, are subtle and potentially detectable only in large datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7369779PMC
June 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Vandetanib in Progressive and Symptomatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Post Hoc Analysis From the ZETA Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 08 25;38(24):2773-2781. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the vandetanib phase III trial involving patients with advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) to assess the efficacy and safety of vandetanib in patients with progressive and symptomatic MTC. The primary objective of the analysis was to determine progression-free survival (PFS) of these patients.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients from the ZETA trial were divided into 4 disease severity subgroups: progression and symptoms, symptoms only, progression only, and no progression and no symptoms assessed at baseline. PFS, determined from objective tumor measurements performed by the local investigator, overall survival (OS), time to worsening of pain (TWP), and objective response rate (ORR) were evaluated.

Results: Of the 331 patients in this trial, 184 had symptomatic and progressive disease at baseline. In this subgroup, results were similar in magnitude to those observed in the overall trial for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.64; < .0001), OS (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.61; = .71), and TWP (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.04; = .07), and the observed adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of vandetanib. In this subgroup, the ORR was 37% in the treatment arm versus 2% in the placebo arm.

Conclusion: Vandetanib demonstrated clinical benefit-specifically, increased PFS-in patients with symptomatic and progressive MTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430220PMC
August 2020

Promoter Mutations and Their Impact on Gene Expression Profile in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 17;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Genetic and Molecular Diagnostics of Cancer, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, 44-102 Gliwice, Poland.

Background: Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (p) mutations are related to a worse prognosis in various malignancies, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Since mechanisms responsible for the poorer outcome of TERTp(+) patients are still unknown, searching for molecular consequences of p mutations in PTC was the aim of our study.

Methods: The studied cohort consisted of 54 PTCs, among them 24 cases with distant metastases. V600E, and p mutational status was evaluated in all cases. Differences in gene expression profile between TERTp(+) and TERTp(-) PTCs were examined using microarrays. The evaluation of signaling pathways and gene ontology was based on the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis.

Results: Fifty-nine percent (32/54) of analyzed PTCs were positive for at least one mutation: 27 were BRAF(+), among them eight were TERTp(+), and 1 NRAS(+), whereas five other samples harbored mutations. Expression of four genes significantly differed in BRAF(+)TERTp(+) and BRAF(+)TERTp(-) PTCs. Deregulation of pathways involved in key cell processes was observed.

Conclusions: p mutations are related to higher PTC aggressiveness. gene was validated as associated with p mutations. However, its potential use in diagnostics or risk stratification in PTC patients needs further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352936PMC
June 2020

Primary hyperparathyroidism as first manifestation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: an international multicenter study.

Endocr Connect 2020 Jun;9(6):489-497

Department of ORL Head & Neck Surgery and Audiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Objective: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is a rare syndrome caused by RET germline mutations and has been associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in up to 30% of cases. Recommendations on RET screening in patients with apparently sporadic PHPT are unclear. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cases presenting with PHPT as first manifestation among MEN 2A index cases and to characterize the former cases.

Design And Methods: An international retrospective multicenter study of 1085 MEN 2A index cases. Experts from MEN 2 centers all over the world were invited to participate. A total of 19 centers in 17 different countries provided registry data of index cases followed from 1974 to 2017.

Results: Ten cases presented with PHPT as their first manifestation of MEN 2A, yielding a prevalence of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.6). 9/10 cases were diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in relation to parathyroid surgery and 1/10 was diagnosed 15 years after parathyroid surgery. 7/9 cases with full TNM data were node-positive at MTC diagnosis.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the prevalence of MEN 2A index cases that present with PHPT as their first manifestation is very low. The majority of index cases presenting with PHPT as first manifestation have synchronous MTC and are often node-positive. Thus, our observations suggest that not performing RET mutation analysis in patients with apparently sporadic PHPT would result in an extremely low false-negative rate, if no other MEN 2A component, specifically MTC, are found during work-up or resection of PHPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-20-0163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354718PMC
June 2020

Impact of the Tumor Microenvironment on the Gene Expression Profile in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Pathobiology 2020 22;87(2):143-154. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, M. Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Transcriptome of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is well characterized and correlates with some prognostic and genotypic factors, but data addressing the interaction between PTC and tumor microenvironment (TME) are scarce. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of TME on gene expression profile in PTC. We evaluated the gene expression profile in PTC and normal thyroid cells isolated by laser capture microdissection and in whole tissue slides corresponding to the entire tumor. We included 26 microdissected samples for gene expression analysis (HG-U133 PLUS 2.0, Affymetrix, currently Thermo Fisher Scientific USA): 15 PTC samples, 11 samples of normal thyrocytes, and 30 whole slides (15 PTC and 15 normal thyroid). Transcripts were divided into three groups: differentially expressed both in microdissected and whole slides, transcripts differently expressed in microdissected samples and not changed in whole slides, and transcripts differentially expressed in whole slides and not changed in microdissected samples. Eleven genes were selected for validation in an independent set of samples; among them, four genes differentiated only microdissected PTC and normal cells. Two genes (PTCSC and CTGF) were confirmed. One gene (FOS) was not confirmed by the validation, whereas EGR1 was also significant in whole slide analysis. The other seven genes (TFF3, FN1, MPPED2, MET, KCNJ2, TACSTD2, and GALE) showed differentiated expression in microdissected thyrocytes and in whole tumor slides. Most of identified genes were related to the tumor-microenvironment interaction and confirmed the crosstalk between TME and cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507223DOI Listing
April 2020

European perspective on the use of molecular tests in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid neoplasms.

Gland Surg 2020 Feb;9(Suppl 2):S69-S76

The Oncologic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute-Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Thyroid nodules are frequently observed, particularly in individuals of over 60 years of age. On the other hand, most of the detected changes are benign and they do not require surgery. Therefore, differentiation between benign and malignant lesions in preoperative diagnosis is of crucial importance. Currently, the use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and cytological assessment are the gold standard in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. This procedure significantly reduces the need for diagnostic surgical intervention. However, approximately 15-30% of cytological results are classified as indeterminate. This is mainly due to the lack of specific cytomorphologic features that would facilitate the diagnosis based on cell evaluation under microscopic assessment. For the diagnoses of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), the assessment of invasion is crucial. Such an evaluation is not possible in cytology. Recently, molecular tests have been developed. They improve cytological diagnosis, particularly in the case of indeterminate results. Commercially available tests are developed based on the North American population. It is important to assess whether such tests can be used in the evaluation of e.g., European population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs.2019.10.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044080PMC
February 2020

The Association of SNPs Located in the CDKN2B-AS1 and LPA Genes With Carotid Artery Stenosis and Atherogenic Stroke.

Front Neurol 2019 22;10:1170. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of General Surgery, Vascular Surgery, Angiology and Phlebology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

The aim of this project was to assess the prevalence of four selected SNPs rs4977574 and rs7857345 (CDKN2B-AS1 gene) and rs3798220 and rs10455872 polymorphisms (the LPA gene) in the subpopulation of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. This study included 623 individuals (244 patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, 176 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 203 healthy people. All the participants underwent neurological examination, duplex Doppler ultrasound examination and molecular procedures. In the first part of the analysis the assiociation of SNPs with stroke/TIA was investigated. The association was seen in symptomatic vs. control group for two SNPs: rs4977574 and rs7857345 (CDKN2B-AS1 gene); genotype distributions for rs4977574 and rs7857345 showed the statistically significant differences between patients and controls ( = 0.043 and 0.017, respectively). No association was observed for rs3798220 and rs10455872 located in the LPA gene. There were statistically significant differences between asymptomatic patients vs. control group in genotype distribution for the SNPs located in CDKN2B-AS1: rs4977574 and rs7857345 ( = 0.031 and 0.0099, respectively); and for the rs3798220 (LPA gene; = 0.003); however, statistically significant differences did not occur for the rs10455872 polymorphism located in the LPA gene. In the next part of the evaluation, a comparison between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients was performed. Significant differences in genotype distribution were seen only for the rs3798220 polymorphism located in the LPA gene ( = 0.0015). The analysis of the prevalence of the polymorphisms in the total group (symptomatic and asymptomatic) patients in comparison with the control group showed significant differences for three polymorphisms: rs4977574 and rs7857345 (CDKN2B-AS1 gene; = 0.015 and 0.0046, respectively) and rs3798220 (LPA gene, = 0.044). The present research on the carotid artery stenosis patient cohort suggests the significant association between the rs4977574, rs7857345 and rs3798220 polymorphisms and carotid artery stenosis as well as between the rs4977574 and rs7857345 polymorphisms and atherogenic stroke. The rs4977574 and rs7857345 polymorphisms in patients with carotid artery stenosis appear to affect a person's susceptibility to atherogenic brain ischemia. Our results need to be replicated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883000PMC
November 2019

BRAF V600E status may facilitate decision-making on active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

Eur J Cancer 2020 01 29;124:161-169. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Conservative active surveillance has been proposed for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), defined as ≤1.0 cm and lacking clinical aggressive features, but controversy exists with accepting it as not all such PTMCs are uniformly destined for benign prognosis. This study investigated whether BRAF V600E status could further risk stratify PTMC, particularly low-risk PTMC, and can thus help with more accurate case selection for conservative management.

Methods: This international multicenter study included 743 patients treated with total thyroidectomy for PTMC (584 women and 159 men), with a median age of 49 years (interquartile range [IQR], 39-59 years) and a median follow-up time of 53 months (IQR, 25-93 months).

Results: On overall analyses of all PTMCs, tumour recurrences were 6.4% (32/502) versus 10.8% (26/241) in BRAF mutation-negative versus BRAF mutation-positive patients (P = 0.041), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.44 (95% CI (confidence interval), 1.15-5.20) after multivariate adjustment for confounding clinical factors. On the analyses of low-risk PTMC, recurrences were 1.3% (5/383) versus 4.3% (6/139) in BRAF mutation-negative versus BRAF mutation-positive patients, with an HR of 6.65 (95% CI, 1.80-24.65) after adjustment for confounding clinical factors. BRAF mutation was associated with a significant decline in the Kaplan-Meier recurrence-free survival curve in low-risk PTMC.

Conclusions: BRAF V600E differentiates the recurrence risk of PTMC, particularly low-risk PTMC. Given the robust negative predictive value, conservative active surveillance of BRAF mutation-negative low-risk PTMC is reasonable whereas the increased recurrence risk and other well-known adverse effects of BRAF V600E make the feasibility of long-term conservative surveillance uncertain for BRAF mutation-positive PTMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.10.017DOI Listing
January 2020

The role of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in the local control in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Endocr Connect 2019 Nov 1. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

B Jarzab, Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, M.Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Background: The value of postoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has not been unequivocally demonstrated. Therefore our study aimed to answer the question of whether adjuvant radiotherapy showed any impact on the risk of local recurrence and whether there were any differences in response to radiotherapy between hereditary and sporadic MTC.

Methods: A retrospective analysis involved 254 MTC patients, among them 73 patients with a hereditary disease. Two hundred and twenty-four patients, including 43 persons at high risk of local relapse, underwent only initial surgery, 18 other patients were operated due to MTC recurrences, whereas the remaining 12 patients had cytoreductive procedure or were not amenable for surgery. Radiotherapy was carried out in 132 patients. One hundred and twenty patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy, among them 102 patients after initial surgery. The median follow up was 10 years (range 0.5-29 years).

Results: Local recurrence occurred in 107/254 patients, among them in 63 subjects after prior radiotherapy. The frequency of relapse showed significant, increasing trend toward higher MTC stages (p<0.001). More relapses were noticed in patients with lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with a lower risk of nodal recurrence only in high-risk patients, particularly if lymph node metastases were present at MTC diagnosis. The differences between hereditary and sporadic subgroups were not significant.

Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy has a limited importance in MTC treatment. It should be considered in high-risk MTC patients. The presence of RET mutation does not influence the response to radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-19-0387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933828PMC
November 2019

2019 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Treatment and Follow-Up of Advanced Radioiodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer.

Eur Thyroid J 2019 Oct 28;8(5):227-245. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The vast majority of thyroid cancers of follicular origin (TC) have a very favourable outcome, but 5-10% of cases will develop metastatic disease. Around 60-70% of this subset, hence less than 5% of all patients with TC, will become radioiodine refractory (RAI-R), with a significant negative impact on prognosis and a mean life expectancy of 3-5 years. Since no European expert consensus or guidance for this challenging condition is currently available, a task force of TC experts was nominated by the European Thyroid Association (ETA) to prepare this document based on the principles of clinical evidence. The task force started to work in September 2018 and after several revision rounds, prepared a list of recommendations to support the treatment and follow-up of patients with advanced TC. Criteria for advanced RAI-R TC were proposed, and the most appropriate diagnostic tools and the local, systemic and palliative treatments are described. Systemic therapy with multikinase inhibitors is fully discussed, including recommendations on how to start it and at which dosage, on the duration of treatment, and on the management of side effects. The appropriate relationship between the specialist and the patient/family as well as ethical issues are covered. Based on the available studies and on personal experience, the experts provided 39 recommendations aimed to improve the management of advanced RAI-R TCs. Above all of them is the indication to treat and follow these patients in a specialized setting which allows the interaction between several specialists in a multidisciplinary team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873012PMC
October 2019

Postoperative Radioiodine Treatment within 9 Months from Diagnosis Significantly Reduces the Risk of Relapse in Low-Risk Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2019 Oct 5;53(5):320-327. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, M.Sklodowska-Curie Institute-Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze AK 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland.

Purpose: Although postoperative radioiodine (RAI) therapy has been used in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) for many years, there is still lack of data defining the timing of RAI administration. A retrospective analysis was carried out to answer the question whether the time of postoperative RAI treatment demonstrated any impact on long-term outcomes, particularly in low-risk DTC.

Material: The analyzed group involved 701 DTC patients staged pT-TN-NM, who underwent total thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy. According to the time interval between DTC diagnosis and RAI administration, patients were allocated to one of three groups: up to 9 months ( = 150), between 9 and 24 months ( = 323), and > 24 months ( = 228). Median follow-up was 12.1 years (1.5-15.2).

Results: Based on an initial DTC advancement and postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin concentration patients were stratified as a low-, intermediate-, and high-risk group. Low-risk patients, who received RAI therapy up to 9 months, demonstrated significantly lower risk of relapse comparing to those, in whom RAI was administered between 9 and 24 months and after 24 months since DTC diagnosis: 0%, 5.5%, and 7.1%, respectively. Regarding intermediate- and high-risk groups, the differences in the timing of postoperative RAI treatment were not significant.

Conclusion: If postoperative RAI treatment is considered in low-risk DTC, any delay in RAI administration above 9 months since diagnosis may be related to poorer long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13139-019-00608-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821904PMC
October 2019

Current surgical management in RET mutation carriers [Aktualne postępowanie chirurgiczne u nosicieli mutacji proto-onkogenu RET].

Endokrynol Pol 2019 ;70(4):367-379

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Centre Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) still remains a rare endocrine tumor. 20-25% of MTC cases are genetically determined. The detection of the RET proto-oncogene mutation in 1993 allowed to understand the unique genotype-phenotype relationships in hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (HMTC) and formed the basis for therapeutic decisions based on the molecular results. Currently, prophylactic thyroidectomy is a commonly adopted and accepted therapeutic method. The decision on the time and extent of surgery should be made based on the results of molecular examination, the assessment of calcitonin (Ct) concentration and family history. Treatment of patients with HMTC requires the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team of experts and should be done in specialized centers only. The study is a review of the current guidelines for surgical management in the MEN2 syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0021DOI Listing
February 2020

Surgical approach to differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) in children [Specyfika leczenia chirurgicznego zróżnicowanych raków tarczycy (ZRT) u dzieci].

Endokrynol Pol 2019 ;70(4):357-366

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, M. Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Centre, Gliwice, Poland.

Thyroid cancer in children is rare and accounts for 1-3% of all malignant tumours. Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (90% of cases) are the most prevalent. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in patients with DTC. The current recommendations are based not on prospective randomised clinical trials, but on retrospective trials and expert opinions. Therefore, it is not easy to choose the optimal therapeutic strategy to obtain the best treatment and to avoid serious complications and adverse events. In children and adolescents, the clinical presentation, course, and prognosis are different from those seen in adults. Children are generally at low risk of death but at higher risk of long-term harm due to overly aggressive treatment. Therefore, optimisation of the therapeutic strategy is particularly important. The present paper provides a summary of the current guidelines on surgical management in thyroid tumours and DTC in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0033DOI Listing
February 2020

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in Poland: a two-centre experience.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 5;70(5):385-391. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Internal Diseases and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been causing problems for clinicians since it was first described in 1954 by Wermer. Not only its rarity, but also its variable clinical manifestations and lack of genotype-phenotype correlation make it hard to establish evidence-based guidelines for the management of this syndrome. Nationwide registers and population-based research are the best means to improve knowledge about this rare disease. As yet, there is no example of such research in the Polish population of MEN1 patients.

Material And Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and genetic data of patients diagnosed with MEN1 syndrome and followed-up in two polish referral centres in the years 1994-2018.

Results: We analysed 79 patients, of whom the majority were women. The mean age of the patient population was 43 years, mean age at MEN1 diagnosis was 37.95 years, and mean interval from initial symptoms to MEN1 diagnosis was 6.93 years. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (GEP-NET), and pituitary adenoma (PA) developed in 90%, 52%, and 47% of patients, respectively. The dominance of insulinoma with low prevalence of gastrinoma is the most vivid difference, when compared to previously described populations. Moreover, we found 3.5-fold higher risk of developing a pituitary tumour in patients with a frameshift mutation with the STOP codon of the MEN1 gene.

Conclusions: The Polish population of patients with MEN1 is different than previously described European and Asian populations, primarily in prevalence of functional NETs. A frameshift mutation with the STOP codon of the MEN1 gene significantly increases the risk of PA. Further studies with a larger cohort of patients are needed to fully describe the Polish population and improve diagnosis and management of the syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0031DOI Listing
July 2020

Important considerations when choosing pharmacotherapy for Graves' disease in children.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2019 10 5;20(14):1675-1677. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center , Gliwice , Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2019.1638365DOI Listing
October 2019

Novel TG-FGFR1 and TRIM33-NTRK1 transcript fusions in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2019 08 18;58(8):558-566. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is most common among all thyroid cancers. Multiple genomic alterations occur in PTC, and gene rearrangements are one of them. Here we screened 14 tumors for novel fusion transcripts by RNA-Seq. Two samples harboring RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were positive controls whereas the remaining ones were negative regarding the common PTC alterations. We used Sanger sequencing to validate potential fusions. We detected 2 novel potentially oncogenic transcript fusions: TG-FGFR1 and TRIM33-NTRK1. We detected 4 novel fusion transcripts of unknown significance accompanying the TRIM33-NTRK1 fusion: ZSWIM5-TP53BP2, TAF4B-WDR1, ABI2-MTA3, and ARID1B-PSMA1. Apart from confirming the presence of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in positive control samples, we also detected known oncogenic fusion transcripts in remaining samples: TFG-NTRK1, ETV6-NTRK3, MKRN1-BRAF, EML4-ALK, and novel isoform of CCDC6-RET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594006PMC
August 2019

Natural history, treatment, and long-term follow up of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: an international, multicentre, retrospective study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019 03 16;7(3):213-220. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Endocrine Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy Ecole Doctorale de Cancerologie, Villejuif, France.

Background: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B is a rare syndrome caused mainly by Met918Thr germline RET mutation, and characterised by medullary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, and extra-endocrine features. Data are scarce on the natural history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. We aimed to advance understanding of the phenotype and natural history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, to increase awareness and improve detection.

Methods: This study was a retrospective, multicentre, international study in patients carrying the Met918Thr RET variant with no age restrictions. The study was done with registry data from 48 centres globally. Data from patients followed-up from 1970 to 2016 were retrieved from May 1, 2016, to May 31, 2018. Our primary objectives were to determine overall survival, and medullary thyroid carcinoma-specific survival based on whether the patient had undergone early thyroidectomy before the age of 1 year. We also assessed remission of medullary thyroid carcinoma, incidence and treatment of phaeochromocytoma, and the penetrance of extra-endocrine features.

Findings: 345 patients were included, of whom 338 (98%) had a thyroidectomy. 71 patients (21%) of the total cohort died at a median age of 25 years (range <1-59). Thyroidectomy was done before the age of 1 year in 20 patients, which led to long-term remission (ie, undetectable calcitonin level) in 15 (83%) of 18 individuals (2 patients died of causes unrelated to medullary thyroid carcinoma). Medullary thyroid carcinoma-specific survival curves did not show any significant difference between patients who had thyroidectomy before or after 1 year (comparison of survival curves by log-rank test: p=0·2; hazard ratio 0·35; 95% CI 0.07-1.74). However, there was a significant difference in remission status between patients who underwent thyroidectomy before and after the age of 1 year (p<0·0001). There was a significant difference in remission status between patients who underwent thyroidectomy before and after the age of 1 year (p<0·0001). In the other 318 patients who underwent thyroidectomy after 1 year of age, biochemical and structural remission was obtained in 47 (15%) of 318 individuals. Bilateral phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed in 156 (50%) of 313 patients by 28 years of age. Adrenal-sparing surgery was done in 31 patients: three (10%) of 31 patients had long-term recurrence, while normal adrenal function was obtained in 16 (62%) patients. All patients with available data (n=287) had at least one extra-endocrine feature, including 106 (56%) of 190 patients showing marfanoid body habitus, mucosal neuromas, and gastrointestinal signs.

Interpretation: Thyroidectomy done at no later than 1 year of age is associated with a high probability of cure. The reality is that the majority of children with the syndrome will be diagnosed after this recommended age. Adrenal-sparing surgery is feasible in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and affords a good chance for normal adrenal function. To improve the prognosis of such patients, it is imperative that every health-care provider be aware of the extra-endocrine signs and the natural history of this rare syndrome. The implications of this research include increasing awareness of the extra-endocrine symptoms and also recommendations for thyroidectomy before the age of 1 year.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30336-XDOI Listing
March 2019

Concentrations of Selected Adipokines, Interleukin-6, and Vitamin D in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Respect to Thyroid Cancer Stages.

Int J Endocrinol 2018 3;2018:4921803. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland.

The relationships between thyroid cancer and obesity are not fully understood. Adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and vitamin D may mediate these associations. In this study, we estimated serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, chemerin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and vitamin D in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We searched for associations between the adipokines, IL-6, vitamin D, anthropometric parameters, and TNM AJCC/UICC 2017 classification in 177 patients diagnosed with PTC (151 women and 26 men). Normal weight patients were predominantly classified as clinical stage I. The prevalence of stages higher than I was significantly higher in PTC patients with BMI ≥ 25 or with metabolic syndrome. Using logistic regression waist circumference ≥ 88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men, upper tertiles of IL-6 and leptin were associated with a higher clinical stage. There were no differences in the prevalence of microcarcinomas in analyzed groups (BMI ≥ 25 versus BMI < 25 and with metabolic syndrome presence versus without metabolic syndrome). No significant relationships between serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, chemerin, IL-6, vitamin D, and tumor size in PTC were found. Although insulin resistance represented by the HOMA index was associated with anthropometric variables and with serum leptin, adiponectin, chemerin, and IL-6 concentrations, in our study, no statistically significant relations with PTC staging were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4921803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304902PMC
December 2018

Endocrine complications of cancer immunotherapy.

Endokrynol Pol 2018 ;69(6):722-733

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Centre, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.

Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies - checkpoint inhibitors - is a dynamically evolving discipline of clinical oncology and a new hope for patients with advanced and disseminated cancer. However, the activation of T-lymphocytes can at the same time lead to autoimmune response and destruction of healthy organs, which is a serious adverse effect that can also affect the endocrine system. Here we present possible endocrine complications of immunotherapy with contemporary inhibitors of immune checkpoints (CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1/L2), their frequency, symptoms, and proposed grade-dependent treatment.Failure to diagnose endocrine pathology can in adverse circumstances lead to treatment failure and condemn the patient's fate. Due to tremendous progress in cancer immunotherapy during the last few years and an increase in the number of treated patients, endocrinologists should become acquainted with the specificity of this mode of oncological treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2018.0073DOI Listing
April 2019

European Perspective on 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Proceedings of an Interactive International Symposium.

Thyroid 2019 01 7;29(1):7-26. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

18 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Endocrine Tumor Center at WTZ, Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany.

Background: The American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are highly influential practice recommendations. The latest revision appeared in 2015 ("ATA 2015"). These guidelines were developed predominantly by North American experts. European experts frequently have different perspectives, given epidemiological, technological/methodological, practice organization, and medicolegal differences between the respective regions.

Summary: Divergent viewpoints were the focus of an invited symposium organized by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine involving 17 European thyroidologists, four ATA Guidelines Taskforce members, and an audience of 200 international experts. The group discussed the preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules, surgery and the role of pathology, radioiodine (RAI) therapy (RAIT), the assessment of initial therapy and dynamic risk stratification, and the treatment of persistent disease, recurrences, and advanced thyroid cancer. The dialogue resulted in this position paper contrasting European and ATA 2015 perspectives on key issues. One difference pertains to the permissiveness of ATA 2015 regarding lobectomy for primary tumors ≤4 cm. European panelists cited preclusion of RAIT, potential need for completion thyroidectomy, frequent inability to avoid chronic thyroid hormone replacement, and limitations of supportive evidence as arguments against widely applying lobectomy. Significant divergence involved ATA 2015's guidance regarding RAIT. European panelists favored wider use of postoperative RAIT than does ATA 2015. Rationales included the modality's association with favorable patient outcomes and generally limited toxicity, and lack of high-quality evidence supporting withholding RAIT. Additionally, European panelists favored recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) in more settings than does ATA 2015, citing avoidance of hypothyroid morbidity and quality-of-life impairment, without apparent sacrifice in oncologic outcomes. Based on clinical evidence plus theoretical advantages, European experts advocated dosimetric versus fixed-activity RAIT approaches for advanced DTC. European panelists noted that the ATA 2015 risk-stratification system requires information sometimes unavailable in everyday practice. ATA 2015 recommendations regarding RAI-refractory DTC should consider potential palliative benefits of RAIT in patients who also have RAI-susceptible lesions.

Conclusions: European panelists suggested modifications to approximately one-third of ATA 2015 recommendations. Varying European and ATA 2015 perspectives can stimulate analysis and discussion of the literature and performance of primary research to resolve discrepant recommendations and potentially improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2017.0129DOI Listing
January 2019

Paediatric-onset and adult-onset Graves' disease share multiple genetic risk factors.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2019 02 15;90(2):320-327. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with a peak incidence between 30 and 50 years of age. Although children and adolescents may also develop the disease, the genetic background of paediatric-onset GD (POGD) remains largely unknown. Here, we looked for similarities and differences in the genetic risk factors for POGD and adult-onset GD (AOGD) as well as for variants associated with age of GD onset.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1267 GD patients and 1054 healthy controls were included in the study. Allele frequencies of 40 established and suggested GD/AITD genetic risk variants (39 SNPs and HLA-DRB1*03) were compared between POGD (N = 179), AOGD (N = 1088) and healthy controls. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was used to explore the relationship between age of GD onset and genotype for each locus.

Results: We identified six POGD risk loci, all of them were also strongly associated with AOGD. Although for some of the analysed variants, including HCP5 (rs3094228), PRICKLE1 (rs4768412) and SCGB3A2 (rs1368408), allele frequencies differed nominally between POGD and AOGD patients, these differences were not significant after applying multiple testing correction (P = 0.05/40 = 1.25 × 10 ). Regression analysis showed that patients with higher number of HCP5 risk alleles tend to have a significantly earlier onset of GD (P = 6.9 × 10 ).

Conclusions: The results of our study revealed that POGD and AOGD share multiple common genetic risk variants. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that HCP5 polymorphism is associated with an earlier age of GD onset in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.13887DOI Listing
February 2019

Coexistence of Promoter Mutations and the V600E Alteration and Its Impact on Histopathological Features of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Selected Series of Polish Patients.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 6;19(9). Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute, Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland.

promoter (p) mutations are important factors in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). They are associated with tumor aggressiveness, recurrence, and disease-specific mortality and their use in risk stratification of PTC patients has been proposed. In this study we investigated the prevalence of p mutations in a cohort of Polish patients with PTCs and the association of these mutations with histopathological factors, particularly in coexistence with the V600E mutation. A total of 189 consecutive PTC specimens with known mutational status were evaluated. p mutations were detected in 8.5% of cases (16/189) with the C228T mutation being the most frequent. In six of the PTC specimens (3.2%), four additional p alterations were found, which included one known polymorphism (rs2735943) and three previously unreported alterations. The association analysis revealed that the p hotspot mutations were highly correlated with the presence of the V600E mutation and their coexistence was significantly associated with gender, advanced patient age, advanced disease stage, presence of lymph node metastases, larger tumor size, and tumor-capsule infiltration. While correlations were identified, the possibility of p mutations being key molecular modulators responsible for PTC aggressiveness requires further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163174PMC
September 2018

BRAF V600E Confers Male Sex Disease-Specific Mortality Risk in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2018 09 2;36(27):2787-2795. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Fei Wang, Shihua Zhao, and Yangang Wang, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China; Fei Wang, Xiaopei Shen, Guangwu Zhu, Rengyun Liu, and Mingzhao Xing, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; David Viola and Rossella Elisei, University of Pisa, Pisa; Efisio Puxeddu, University of Perugia, Perugia; Laura Fugazzola and Carla Colombo, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto di Recovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), and University of Milan, Milan; Caterina Mian, University of Padua; Federica Vianello, Veneto Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Padua, Italy; Barbara Jarzab and Agnieszka Czarniecka, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute Oncology Center, Gliwice, Poland; Alfred K. Lam, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland; Christine J. O'Neill, Mark S. Sywak, and Roderick Clifton-Bligh, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Linwah Yip, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Hospital Universitario La Paz and Hospital Universitario de Móstoles; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre and Pilar Santisteban, Biomedical Research Institute "Alberto Sols" and Health Institute Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; and Bela Bendlova and Vlasta Sýkorová, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose To test whether the prognostic risk of male sex in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is determined by BRAF V600E and can thus be stratified by BRAF status. Patients and Methods We retrospectively investigated the relationship between male sex and clinicopathologic outcomes in PTC, particularly mortality, with respect to BRAF status in 2,638 patients (male, n = 623; female, n = 2,015) from 11 centers in six countries, with median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 35-58 years) at diagnosis and median follow-up time of 58 months (interquartile range, 26-107 months). Results Distant metastasis rates in men and women were not different in wild-type BRAF PTC but were different in BRAF V600E PTC: 8.9% (24 of 270) and 3.7% (30 of 817; P = .001), respectively. In wild-type BRAF PTC, mortality rates were 1.4% (five of 349) versus 0.9% (11 of 1175) in men versus women ( P = .384), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 (95% CI, 0.55 to 4.57), which remained insignificant at 0.70 (95% CI, 0.23 to 2.09) after clinicopathologic multivariable adjustment. In BRAF V600E PTC, mortality rates were 6.6% (18 of 272) versus 2.9% (24 of 822) in men versus women ( P = .006), with an HR of 2.43 (95% CI, 1.30 to 4.53), which remained significant at 2.74 (95% CI, 1.38 to 5.43) after multivariable adjustment. In conventional-variant PTC, male sex similarly had no effect in wild-type BRAF patients; mortality rates in BRAF V600E patients were 7.2% (16 of 221) versus 2.9% (19 of 662) in men versus women ( P = .004), with an HR of 2.86 (95% CI, 1.45 to 5.67), which remained significant at 3.51 (95% CI, 1.62 to 7.63) after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion Male sex is a robust independent risk factor for PTC-specific mortality in BRAF V600E patients but not in wild-type BRAF patients. The prognostic risk of male sex in PTC can thus be stratified by BRAF status in clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.78.5097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145834PMC
September 2018

Preventive medicine of von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2018 09 10;25(9):783-793. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Medicine IIFaculty of Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are rare in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) but cause serious morbidity and mortality. Management guidelines for VHL-PanNETs continue to be based on limited evidence, and survival data to guide surgical management are lacking. We established the European-American-Asian-VHL-PanNET-Registry to assess data for risks for metastases, survival and long-term outcomes to provide best management recommendations. Of 2330 VHL patients, 273 had a total of 484 PanNETs. Median age at diagnosis of PanNET was 35 years (range 10-75). Fifty-five (20%) patients had metastatic PanNETs. Metastatic PanNETs were significantly larger (median size 5 vs 2 cm;  < 0.001) and tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) was faster (22 vs 126 months;  = 0.001). All metastatic tumors were ≥2.8 cm. Codons 161 and 167 were hotspots for germline mutations with enhanced risk for metastatic PanNETs. Multivariate prediction modeling disclosed maximum tumor diameter and TVDT as significant predictors for metastatic disease (positive and negative predictive values of 51% and 100% for diameter cut-off ≥2.8 cm, 44% and 91% for TVDT cut-off of ≤24 months). In 117 of 273 patients, PanNETs >1.5 cm in diameter were operated. Ten-year survival was significantly longer in operated vs non-operated patients, in particular for PanNETs <2.8 cm vs ≥2.8 cm (94% vs 85% by 10 years;  = 0.020; 80% vs 50% at 10 years;  = 0.030). This study demonstrates that patients with PanNET approaching the cut-off diameter of 2.8 cm should be operated. Mutations in exon 3, especially of codons 161/167 are at enhanced risk for metastatic PanNETs. Survival is significantly longer in operated non-metastatic VHL-PanNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-18-0100DOI Listing
September 2018

131-I MIBG therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumours - a single-centre study.

Endokrynol Pol 2018 12;69(3):246-251. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology,, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeża Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland.

Introduction: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare tumors deriving from chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla or paraganglia. They are usually benign but 10-35% of them present malignant behavior. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 131-I MIBG therapy in malignant pheochromocytoma /paraganglioma patients (MPPGL).

Material And Methods: 18 patients (7 women and 11 men) were included in this study. Between 2002 and 2016 they underwent 131-I MIBG therapy because of MPPGL and their medical data were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical indications for the treatment included progressive disease or massive tissue involvement independently from disease progression. Tumor response for the first time was assessed 3 months after the last treatment according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and by 131-I MIBG scans.

Results: The mean single dose used was 7.25 GBq (196 mCi) and mean cumulative dose 33.08 GBq ( 894 mCi). In 2 (11%) patients complete tumor response was achieved. In 1 (6%) patient partial response was obtained. In 13 (72%) patients stable disease was observed. In 2 (11%) patients progression was diagnosed three months after treatment discontinuation. In the whole studied group the progression free survival time was 85 months and overall 5-year survival was 87%.

Conclusions: Radionuclide treatment with use of 131-I MIBG may be effective form of palliative treatment for patients with inoperative neoplasm spread, progressive disease or patients requiring alleviation of symptoms. < p > < /p >.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2018.0024DOI Listing
October 2018