Publications by authors named "Azizul Hasan Aamir"

12 Publications

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Evaluation of the effectiveness and tolerability of gliclazide modified release 60 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes observing fasting during Ramadan in Pakistan: An analysis from the global DIA-RAMADAN study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Nov 9;181:109086. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Diabetic's Institute of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan.

Aim: To assess safety and effectiveness of gliclazide MR 60 mg in people with controlled or suboptimal controlled T2DM treated with breakable gliclazide MR 60 mg formulation.

Method: This study data has been extracted from an international, observational study conducted in nine Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Total 220 patients with T2DM were recruited from Pakistan. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reporting at least 1 symptomatic HE, whereas secondary endpoints were changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA) %, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) mg/dL, and body weight (kg) and proportion of patients reporting any HE (confirmed or severe), between inclusion visit (V0) and end of the study visit (V1).

Results: During Ramadan, 3.6% (n = 8/220) patients had experienced at least one symptomatic HEs. A significant (p-value < 0.001) reduction was observed in HbA: (mean [SD]) (-0.4 [0.9] %), and body weight (-0.7 [4.8] kg). Thirteen adverse events (AEs) unrelated to gliclazide MR were reported during the study pre-Ramadan and post-Ramadan periods.

Conclusion: This study shows safety and effectiveness profile of gliclazide MR 60 mg by emphasizing on the low risk of HEs, effective glycaemic control and body weight reduction in T2DM patients, who are inclined to fasting during Ramadan.
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November 2021

Frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus and its associated risk factors.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Sep-Oct;37(5):1335-1341

Dr. Khalid Usman, MRCP (UK), MRCP (IR). Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Objective: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem globally especially in patients with Type-2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the frequency of NAFLD in patients with T2DM and to study its associated risk factors.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted from April 2020 to October 2020 at the Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Adult patients with T2DM were included in the study and underwent abdominal ultrasound for the identification of NAFLD. All the relevant clinical and biochemical characteristics were measured.

Results: Out of 384 participants, 236 patients (61.5%) had NAFLD on ultrasound. Patients with NAFLD had higher mean BMI, higher HbA1c, increased waist circumference, raised ALT, higher triglyceride, and low HDL. Logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association with central obesity (OR = 5.448, 95% CI = 1.416-20.959, p = 0.014), higher BMI (OR = 4.435, 95% CI = 2.127-9.246, p < 0.0001), higher HbA1c [> 11%] (OR = 3.602, 95% CI = 1.438-9.019, p = 0.006), and elevated ALT (OR = 3.211, 95% CI = 1.509-6.835, p = 0.002). The highest odds for NAFLD were found for hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 11.624, 95% CI = 5.405-24.998, p < 0.0001) and low HDL (OR = 11.543, 95% CI = 2.590-51.439, p = 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: High frequency of NAFLD along with its associated clinical and laboratory risk factors were revealed. This underpins the significance of screening T2DM patients for NAFLD and assessment for and modification of its associated risk factors in routine clinical practice.
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January 2021

Asymptomatic urinary tract infections and associated risk factors in Pakistani Muslim type 2 diabetic patients.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 26;21(1):388. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: One of the leading long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) includes renal dysfunction and urinary tract infections (UTI) which are considered to be prevalent in uncontrolled diabetes. Moreover, physiological factors like age, gender, duration of diabetes, other diabetic complications like neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy and glycosuria are also considered as predisposing factors for increased prevalence of UTI in diabetes which can be symptomatic or asymptomatic.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multi-centre study including diabetic patients from 12 clinical sites spread across major cities of Pakistan. The inclusion criteria were adult Pakistani population of age between 18 to 75 years both genders and suffering from T2DM irrespective of duration. A detailed clinical history of the past 3 months was recorded and, biochemical investigations of blood samples were conducted. Urine culture analysis performed identified the type of pathogen present and was done only for asymptomatic patients.

Results: A total of 745 type 2 diabetic patients were initially screened, out of 545 patients considered for final analysis 501 (91.92%) were negative and the rest 44 (8.08%) had positive urine culture. Female gender had a significantly higher proportion of positive urine culture (77.27%, p-value< 0.001). Body mass index and mean age had insignificant distribution among the two groups of positive and negative urine culture, with age 40-59 years having higher proportion (70.45%) in the positive group. Escherichia coli was detected in most of the positive samples (52.3%). All bacterial samples were found resistant to Ciprofloxacin.

Conclusion: Diabetic Pakistani muslim female patients are identified to be at high risk of suffering from asymptomatic UTI and age more than 40 years is an important risk factor. Escherichia coli was the most common causative organism among people living in this geographical area.
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April 2021

Type 2 diabetes prevalence in Pakistan: what is driving this? Clues from subgroup analysis of normal weight individuals in diabetes prevalence survey of Pakistan.

Cardiovasc Endocrinol Metab 2020 Dec 19;9(4):159-164. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

The School of Medicine and Manchester Academic Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health tissue. We determined factors relating to the likelihood of developing T2DM in normal BMI individuals.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional community-based representative survey, of people aged ≥20 years in Pakistan, using HBA1c as the screening tool. The prevalence of T2DM/prediabetes in people having normal BMI together with associated risk factors was estimated.

Results: Of 6824 normal BMI individuals, there was still a high prevalence of T2DM 14.92% and in underweight at 10.14% (overall prevalence 16.96%). Corresponding rates for prediabetes for the normal BMI category: 9.79% and underweight 8.99%. Multivariate logistic regression modeling for normal BMI individuals, showed a significantly increased risk of T2DM with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 3.3, 4.5 and 4.8,  < 0.001 for 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61 years and above respectively, compared to age decade 20-30 years). Similarly, there was a significantly high risk of T2DM with lower education level [OR for no vs graduate 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.8]. There was a significantly increased risk of T2DM in individuals having a positive family history [OR 4.3 (95% CI 7.0-11.5)]. Overall the influence of overweight/obese on T2DM occurrence (20% increased risk) was much less than in other regions of the world.

Conclusion: There are higher than expected rates of T2DM/prediabetes in Pakistani ethnicity normal BMI individuals. Targeted screening of older individuals with historical lack of educational opportunity, with a family history of T2DM even if of normal BMI may result in a significant benefit in the Pakistan population.
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December 2020

Consensus Recommendations on GLP-1 RA Use in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: South Asian Task Force.

Diabetes Ther 2019 Oct 29;10(5):1645-1717. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

The advent of incretin mimetics such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) has enriched the armamentarium for diabetes management owing to their glycaemic as well as extra-glycaemic benefits. The approval status and availability of this class of drugs vary widely across the globe. Being a relatively newer class of drug with numerous benefits, several national and international guidelines are working towards addressing clinical questions pertaining to the optimal use of GLP-1 RAs for the management of diabetes. Although the newer class of drugs are associated with significant benefits such as patient-centric approach, these drugs demand the providers to be vigilant and knowledgeable about the medication. The South Asian population is at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of their genetic predisposition and lifestyle changes. Hence, prevention and management of T2DM and its associated complications in this population are of paramount importance. The current report aims to present an overview of current knowledge on GLP-1 RAs based on pragmatic review of the available clinical evidence. In addition, this report is a consensus of expert endocrinologists representing South Asian countries including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and the Maldives on essential recommendations related to the use of GLP-1 RAs in a real-world scenario.
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October 2019

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Pakistani population with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study of selected family practitioner clinics in four provinces of Pakistan (CardiP Study).

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 Mar;69(3):306-312

Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To explore cardiovascular risk factors in people with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The cross-sectional, prospective, multicentre, study was conducted from June 2014 till July 2015 at family practice clinics in 27 cities across Pakistan, and comprised individuals aged 30-50 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus within the preceding six months. Laboratory investigations were conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. The 10-year absolute risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease and stroke was calculated using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine version 2.0. Data were analysed using SPSS 19.

Results: Out of 888 subjects, 362(40.8%) were women and 526(59.2%) were men. The overall mean presenting age was 42.4}5.8 years. After stratification by age, those ≥40 years were significantly associated with higher glycated haemoglobin (p=0.02) and those ≤39 years were associated with higher levels of very low density lipoprotein (p=0.001) and triglyceride (p=0.006). The mean risk estimate for CHD was 9.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 9.0- 10.1)), for fatal CHD 4.4% (95% CI 4.0-4.6), for stroke 1.5% (95% CI 1.2-1.7), and for fatal stroke 0.25% (95% CI 0.24- 0.26).

Conclusions: There is a need for screening cardiovascular risk factors even in younger age groups of newlydiagnosed diabetes.
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March 2019

Diabetes Prevalence Survey of Pakistan (DPS-PAK): prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes using HbA1c: a population-based survey from Pakistan.

BMJ Open 2019 02 21;9(2):e025300. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

The School of Medicine and Manchester Academic Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: We conducted a Pakistan-wide community-based survey on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as the screening test. The aim was to estimate diabetes prevalence across different demographic groups as well as all regions of Pakistan.

Design, Settings And Participants: Multistaged stratified cluster sampling was used for the representative selection of people aged ≥20 years, residing in 378 sampled clusters of 16 randomly selected districts, in this cross-sectional study. Eligible participants had blood drawn for HbA1c analyses at field clinics near to their homes. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on a subsample of the participants. Overall and stratified prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its association with risk factors were estimated using logistic regression models.

Main Outcome Measures: Prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Results: Of 18 856 eligible participants the prevalence of prediabetes was 10.91% (95% CI 10.46 to 11.36, n=2057) and type 2 diabetes was 16.98% (95% CI 16.44 to 17.51, n=3201). Overall, the mean HbA1c level was 5.62% (SD 1.96), and among newly diagnosed was 8.56% (SD 2.08). The prevalence was highest in age 51-60 years (26.03%, p<0.001), no formal education (17.66%, p<0.001), class III obese (35.09%, p<0.001), family history (31.29%, p<0.001) and female (17.80%, p=0.009). On multivariate analysis, there was a significant association between type 2 diabetes and older age, increase in body mass index and central obesity, positive family history, and having hypertension and an inverse relation with education as a categorical variable. On a subsample (n=1027), summary statistics for diagnosis of diabetes on HbA1c showed a sensitivity of 84.7%, specificity of 87.2% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86, compared with OGTT.

Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes is much higher than previously thought in Pakistan. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to incorporate screening, prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes at a community level.
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February 2019

Switch from biphasic human insulin 30 to biphasic insulin aspart 30 in Pakistani subjects.

J Pak Med Assoc 2013 Oct;63(10):1290-4

Depatment of Medicine, Ziauddin University, Karachi.

Objective: To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in type 2 diabetes subjects switched from biphasic human insulin 30 (BHI 30) in the Pakistani subgroup of the multinational, prospective, non-interventional A1chieve study.

Methods: Subjects who switched therapy from BHI 30 to BIAsp 30 were included in this analysis. Serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs, including major hypoglycaemia) and effectiveness parameters (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial plasma glucose [PPPG], systolic blood pressure [SBP]) and body weight were evaluated at the end of 24 weeks.

Results: A total of 152 subjects (79 males, 73 females; mean age, 53.4 +/- 10.3 years; BMI, 28.4 +/- 5.8 kg/m2) with an average diabetes duration of 11.2 +/- 4.8 years switched therapy from BHI 30 to BIAsp 30. The mean pre-study BHI 30 dose was 0.66 +/- 0.25 IU/kg and the mean starting BIAsp 30 dose was 0.65 +/- 0.23 U/kg, titrated up to 0.77 +/- 0.22 U/kg after 24 weeks. No SADRs were reported. From baseline to Week 24, overall hypoglycaemia did not change and no major hypoglycaemia was reported at Week 24. HbA1c levels decreased significantly from 9.1 +/- 1.1% at baseline to 7.4 +/- 0.7% (57 +/- 8 mmol/mol) at Week 24 (p < 0.001). Significant improvements in FPG, post-breakfast PPPG and SBP were reported (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Switching from BHI 30 to BIAsp 30 was well tolerated and improved glucose control without an increased incidence of hypoglycaemia in this Pakistani cohort.
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October 2013

Assessment of baseline characteristics, glycemic control and oral antidiabetic treatment in Asian patients with diabetes: The Registry for Assessing OAD Usage in Diabetes Management (REASON) Asia study.

J Diabetes 2013 Sep 28;5(3):309-18. Epub 2013 May 28.

Department of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: To assess baseline characteristics, glycemic control, and treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: This multinational, observational study recruited patients ≥ 21 years of age who were newly diagnosed and/or treated with OAD monotherapy for <6 months but were inadequately controlled. In cross-sectional phase, data on demographics, medical history, diabetic complications and comorbidities, OAD treatment, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were collected. In longitudinal phase evaluating 6-month follow-up of sulfonylurea (SU)-treated patients, additional data on reasons for not achieving HbA1c targets were collected.

Results: Of 1487 patients (mean [± SD] age 52.0 ± 11.6 years; 46.7% men; mean BMI 25.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2) ) recruited, 75.9% were newly diagnosed, 73.3% had central obesity, 43.8% had hypertension, and 60.5% had dyslipidemia. The mean HbA1c was 9.8 ± 2.4%, and the mean FBG was 11.3 ± 4.3 mmol/L. At T0 (baseline) and T6 (month 6 visit), 99.8% (n=1066) and 97.1% (n=830) patients received SU, respectively. There was decrease from T0 to T6 in mean HbA1c (10.2% vs 7.3%, respectively; P<0.0001) and mean FBG (12.0 vs 7.6 mmol/L, respectively; P<0.0001). Number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased from T0 (4.5%) to T6 (46.8%). Reasons for not achieving target HbA1c included poor diabetes education (50.7%), non-compliance to OADs (21.4%), and fear of hypoglycemia (19.7%).

Conclusion: Marked reductions in HbA1c and FBG are achievable in T2DM patients managed with OADs. However, patient education and compliance are important for achieving and maintaining treatment targets.
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September 2013

Safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (Biasp 30) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pakistani population: results from the A1chieve study.

J Pak Med Assoc 2012 Sep;62(9):929-36

Department of Diabetes, Diabetic Institute of Pakistan, 71 Jail Road, Lahore.

Objective: To explore the safety and effectiveness of treatment with the insulin analogue, biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a subgroup of a Pakistani population from the A1chieve study.

Methods: A1chieve was a 24-week, international, prospective, multicentre, open label, observational, non-interventional study designed to evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of 66,726 people with T2DM who were initiated with basal insulin detemir, fast actinginsulin aspart, and BIAsp 30 (30% soluble insulin aspart, 70% protamine-crystallized insulin aspart). The study was conducted in 28 countries across Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Europe. Here, we report data from a subgroup of 762 people with T2DM from the Pakistani cohort (insulin naïve and insulin users) who were treated withpremix insulin (BIAsp 30) +/- oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs).

Results: The decrease in HbAlc at week 24 was statistically significant in the entire cohort, the insulin naïve, and insulin users (1.7 +/- 1.1%, 1.8 +/- 1.3% and 1.7 +/- 0.9%, respectively, p<0.001 for all).There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) from baseline toweek 24 in the entire cohort, in the insulin naïve and in the insulin users with BIAsp 30 treatment (p<0.001 for all).No major hypoglycaemic events were reported during the entire study period. There was a statistically significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) in all groups (p<0.001). The improvement in the quality of life score (QoL)was statistically significant in all groups (p<0.001 for all).

Conclusion: BIAsp 30 treatment appeared to be well tolerated and effective as indicated byimproved glycaemiccontrol and QoL in people with T2DM in the Pakistani population after 24 weeks.
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September 2012

Frequency of diabetic retinopathy in hypertensive diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital of Peshawar, Pakistan.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011 Apr-Jun;23(2):133-5

Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. If left untreated, it can progress to serious visual disability. Coexistence of hypertension with diabetes has been described as another risk factor adding to the problem. We designed this study to assess the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in hypertensive diabetic patients of this region and to compare it with normotensive diabetic patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 previously diagnosed diabetic patients. Apart from routine examination and investigations, retinopathy and blood pressure assessment of each patient was done using standard techniques. Hypertensive diabetic subjects (Group-I, n = 107) were compared with non-hypertensive diabetics (Group-II, n = 93) for the presence of retinopathy.

Results: Retinopathy and hypertension were observed in 51% and 53.5% of the total diabetic patients respectively. Hypertensive diabetic patients had significantly higher percentage of retinopathy compared to non-hypertensive diabetic patients (58 vs 43%; p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Retinopathy and hypertension are highly prevalent in our diabetic patients. The proportion of retinopathy is significantly more in hypertensive as compared to normotensive diabetics.
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June 2014

Diabetic foot infections and their management in a tertiary care hospital.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011 Jan-Mar;23(1):58-62

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Background: Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes world over. We conducted this study to determine common microbiological pathogens in Diabetic Foot Infections (DFI) at a tertiary care hospital and their management.

Methods: In this observational study deep wound swabs of all admitted diabetic patients were taken, pathogens isolated, antibiotic used and its response depending on complete resolution of symptoms and biochemical markers were recorded. Data were analysed on SPSS-11.

Results: A total of 114 cases were recorded. Sixty-eight (59%) cases had ulcers on forefoot, 28 (25%) mid-foot and 18 (16%) hind-foot. One hundred and four pathogens were isolated from wound swabs after debridement. Commonest pathogen isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (52, 46%) followed by E. coli (11, 10%), MRSA was found in 10 (9%) cases, streptococcus in 6 (5%) and pseudomonas in 5 (4%) cases. Polymicrobial infection was also seen in a few cases. Surgical intervention included superficial debridement in 88 (77%) cases, toe amputation/forefoot amputation in 19 (17%) cases, and below/above knee (major) amputation in 7 (6%) cases. Commonest antibiotic used was Cefoperazone/Sulbactam in 43 (38%) cases, alone or in combination, followed by Ceftraixone 36 (33%) cases. Linezolid was used for MRSA. Ninety-four (82%) patients responded to treatment and- were recorded as 'cured'.

Conclusion: Diabetic Foot ulcers often present with serious foot infections. Commonest pathogens are Staph. aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp. and MRSA. Treatment was effective with Cefoperazone/Sulbactam and Ceftraixone. MRSA was treated successfully with Linezolid.
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August 2012