Publications by authors named "Arnold S Mmbando"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fine-scale distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside human dwellings in three low-altitude Tanzanian villages.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(1):e0245750. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: While malaria transmission in Africa still happens primarily inside houses, there is a substantial proportion of Anopheles mosquitoes that bite or rest outdoors. This situation may compromise the performance of indoor insecticidal interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study investigated the distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside dwellings in three low-altitude villages in south-eastern Tanzania. The likelihood of malaria infections outdoors was also assessed.

Methods: Nightly trapping was done outdoors for 12 months to collect resting mosquitoes (using resting bucket traps) and host-seeking mosquitoes (using odour-baited Suna® traps). The mosquitoes were sorted by species and physiological states. Pooled samples of Anopheles were tested to estimate proportions infected with Plasmodium falciparum parasites, estimate proportions carrying human blood as opposed to other vertebrate blood and identify sibling species in the Anopheles gambiae complex and An. funestus group. Environmental and anthropogenic factors were observed and recorded within 100 meters from each trapping positions. Generalised additive models were used to investigate relationships between these variables and vector densities, produce predictive maps of expected abundance and compare outcomes within and between villages.

Results: A high degree of fine-scale heterogeneity in Anopheles densities was observed between and within villages. Water bodies covered with vegetation were associated with 22% higher densities of An. arabiensis and 51% lower densities of An. funestus. Increasing densities of houses and people outdoors were both associated with reduced densities of An. arabiensis and An. funestus. Vector densities were highest around the end of the rainy season and beginning of the dry seasons. More than half (14) 58.3% of blood-fed An. arabiensis had bovine blood, (6) 25% had human blood. None of the Anopheles mosquitoes caught outdoors was found infected with malaria parasites.

Conclusion: Outdoor densities of both host-seeking and resting Anopheles mosquitoes had significant heterogeneities between and within villages, and were influenced by multiple environmental and anthropogenic factors. Despite the high Anopheles densities outside dwellings, the substantial proportion of non-human blood-meals and absence of malaria-infected mosquitoes after 12 months of nightly trapping suggests very low-levels of outdoor malaria transmission in these villages.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245750PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842886PMC
January 2021

Protecting migratory farmers in rural Tanzania using eave ribbons treated with the spatial mosquito repellent, transfluthrin.

Malar J 2019 Dec 10;18(1):414. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Environmental Health and Ecological Science Department, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania.

Background: Many subsistence farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania regularly relocate to distant farms in river valleys to tend to crops for several weeks or months each year. While there, they live in makeshift semi-open structures, usually far from organized health systems and where insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) do not provide adequate protection. This study evaluated the potential of a recently developed technology, eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent transfluthrin, for protecting migratory rice farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes.

Methods: In the first test, eave ribbons (0.1 m × 24 m each) treated with 1.5% transfluthrin solution were compared to untreated ribbons in 24 randomly selected huts in three migratory communities over 48 nights. Host-seeking mosquitoes indoors and outdoors were monitored nightly (18.00-07.00 h) using CDC light traps and CO-baited BG malaria traps, respectively. The second test compared efficacies of eave ribbons treated with 1.5% or 2.5% transfluthrin in 12 huts over 21 nights. Finally, 286 farmers were interviewed to assess perceptions about eave ribbons, and their willingness to pay for them.

Results: In the two experiments, when treated eave ribbons were applied, the reduction in indoor densities ranged from 56 to 77% for Anopheles arabiensis, 36 to 60% for Anopheles funestus, 72 to 84% for Culex, and 80 to 98% for Mansonia compared to untreated ribbons. Reduction in outdoor densities was 38 to 77% against An. arabiensis, 36 to 64% against An. funestus, 63 to 88% against Culex, and 47 to 98% against Mansonia. There was no difference in protection between the two transfluthrin doses. In the survey, 58% of participants perceived the ribbons to be effective in reducing mosquito bites. Ninety per cent were willing to pay for the ribbons, the majority of whom were willing to pay but less than US$2.17 (5000 TZS), one-third of the current prototype cost.

Conclusions: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons can protect migratory rice farmers, living in semi-open makeshift houses in remote farms, against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes. The technology is acceptable to users and could potentially complement ITNs. Further studies should investigate durability and epidemiological impact of eave ribbons, and the opportunities for improving affordability to users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-3048-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905030PMC
December 2019

Eave ribbons treated with transfluthrin can protect both users and non-users against malaria vectors.

Malar J 2019 Sep 18;18(1):314. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Background: Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits.

Methods: Five experimental huts were constructed inside a 110 m long, screened tunnel, in which 1000 Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Eave ribbons treated with 0.25 g/m transfluthrin were fitted to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 huts, achieving 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% coverage, respectively. Volunteers sat near each hut and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors to sleep under untreated bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (indoor-biting). Caged mosquitoes kept inside the huts were monitored for 24 h-mortality. Separately, eave ribbons, UV-LED mosquito traps (Mosclean) or both the ribbons and traps were fitted, each time leaving the central hut unfitted to represent non-user households and assess communal protection. Biting risk was measured concurrently in all huts, before and after introducing interventions.

Results: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons provided 83% and 62% protection indoors and outdoors respectively to users, plus 57% and 48% protection indoors and outdoors to the non-user. Protection for users remained constant, but protection for non-users increased with eave ribbons coverage, peaking once 80% of huts were fitted. Mortality of mosquitoes caged inside huts with eave ribbons was 100%. The UV-LED traps increased indoor exposure to users and non-users, but marginally reduced outdoor-biting. Combining the traps and eave ribbons did not improve user protection relative to eave ribbons alone.

Conclusion: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons protect both users and non-users against malaria mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. The mosquito-killing property of transfluthrin can magnify the communal benefits by limiting unwanted diversion to non-users, but should be validated in field trials against pyrethroid-resistant vectors. Benefits of the UV-LED traps as an intervention alone or alongside eave ribbons were however undetectable in this study. These findings extend the evidence that transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons could complement ITNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2958-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751741PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of an ultraviolet LED trap for catching Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes in south-eastern Tanzania.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Aug 27;12(1):418. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Background: Improved surveillance techniques are required to accelerate efforts against major arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, Zika and yellow-fever. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly used in mosquito traps because they improve energy efficiency and battery longevity relative to incandescent bulbs. This study evaluated the efficacy of a new ultraviolet LED trap (Mosclean) against standard mosquito collection methods.

Methods: The study was conducted in controlled semi-field settings and in field conditions in rural south-eastern Tanzania. The Mosclean trap was compared to commonly used techniques, namely CDC-light traps, human landing catches (HLCs), BG-Sentinel traps and Suna traps.

Results: When simultaneously placed inside the same semi-field chamber, the Mosclean trap caught twice as many Anopheles arabiensis as the CDC-light trap, and equal numbers to HLCs. Similar results were obtained when traps were tested individually in the chambers. Under field settings, Mosclean traps caught equal numbers of An. arabiensis and twice as many Culex mosquitoes as CDC-light traps. It was also better at trapping malaria vectors compared to both Suna and BG-Sentinel traps, and was more efficient in collecting mosquitoes indoors than outdoors. The majority of An. arabiensis females caught by Mosclean traps were parous (63.6%) and inseminated (89.8%). In comparison, the females caught by CDC-light traps were 43.9% parous and 92.8% inseminated.

Conclusions: The UV LED trap (Mosclean trap) was efficacious for sampling Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Its efficacy was comparable to and in some instances better than traps commonly used for vector surveillance. The Mosclean trap was more productive in sampling mosquitoes indoors compared to outdoors. The trap can be used indoors near human-occupied nets, or outdoors, in which case additional CO improves catches. We conclude that this trap may have potential for mosquito surveillance. However, we recommend additional field tests to validate these findings in multiple settings and to assess the potential of LEDs to attract non-target organisms, especially outdoors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3673-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712696PMC
August 2019

Evaluation of a push-pull system consisting of transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons and odour-baited traps for control of indoor- and outdoor-biting malaria vectors.

Malar J 2019 Mar 20;18(1):87. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.

Background: Push-pull strategies have been proposed as options to complement primary malaria prevention tools, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), by targeting particularly early-night biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes. This study evaluated different configurations of a push-pull system consisting of spatial repellents [transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons (0.25 g/m ai)] and odour-baited traps (CO-baited BG-Malaria traps), against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting malaria vectors inside large semi-field systems.

Methods: Two experimental huts were used to evaluate protective efficacy of the spatial repellents (push-only), traps (pull-only) or their combinations (push-pull), relative to controls. Adult volunteers sat outdoors (1830 h-2200 h) catching mosquitoes attempting to bite them (outdoor-biting risk), and then went indoors (2200 h-0630 h) to sleep under bed nets beside which CDC-light traps caught host-seeking mosquitoes (indoor-biting risk). Number of traps and their distance from huts were varied to optimize protection, and 500 laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis released nightly inside the semi-field chambers over 122 experimentation nights.

Results: Push-pull offered higher protection than traps alone against indoor-biting (83.4% vs. 35.0%) and outdoor-biting (79% vs. 31%), but its advantage over repellents alone was non-existent against indoor-biting (83.4% vs. 81%) and modest for outdoor-biting (79% vs. 63%). Using two traps (1 per hut) offered higher protection than either one trap (0.5 per hut) or four traps (2 per hut). Compared to original distance (5 m from huts), efficacy of push-pull against indoor-biting peaked when traps were 15 m away, while efficacy against outdoor-biting peaked when traps were 30 m away.

Conclusion: The best configuration of push-pull comprised transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons plus two traps, each at least 15 m from huts. Efficacy of push-pull was mainly due to the spatial repellent component. Adding odour-baited traps slightly improved personal protection indoors, but excessive trap densities increased exposure near users outdoors. Given the marginal efficacy gains over spatial repellents alone and complexity of push-pull, it may be prudent to promote just spatial repellents alongside existing interventions, e.g. LLINs or non-pyrethroid IRS. However, since both transfluthrin and traps also kill mosquitoes, and because transfluthrin can inhibit blood-feeding, field studies should be done to assess potential community-level benefits that push-pull or its components may offer to users and non-users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2714-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427877PMC
March 2019

Swarms of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Tanzania.

Malar J 2019 Jan 29;18(1):29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Environmental Health and Ecological Science Department, Ifakara Health Institute, P. O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania.

Background: Anopheles funestus mosquitoes currently contribute more than 85% of ongoing malaria transmission events in south-eastern Tanzania, even though they occur in lower densities than other vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis. Unfortunately, the species ecology is minimally understood, partly because of difficulties in laboratory colonization. This study describes the first observations of An. funestus swarms in Tanzania, possibly heralding new opportunities for control.

Method: Using systematic searches by community-based volunteers and expert entomologists, An. funestus swarms were identified in two villages in Ulanga and Kilombero districts in south-eastern Tanzania, starting June 2018. Swarms were characterized by size, height, start- and end-times, presence of copulation and associated environmental features. Samples of male mosquitoes from the swarms were examined for sexual maturity by observing genitalia rotation, species identity using polymerase chain reaction and wing sizes.

Results: 581 An. funestus (98.1% males (n = 570) and 1.9% (n = 11) females) and 9 Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) males were sampled using sweep nets from the 81 confirmed swarms in two villages (Ikwambi in Kilombero district and Tulizamoyo in Ulanga district). Six copulation events were observed in the swarms. Mean density (95% CL) of An. funestus caught/swarm/village/evening was 6.6 (5.9-7.2) in Tulizamoyo and 10.8 (5.8-15.8) in Ikwambi. 87.7% (n = 71) of the swarms were found in Tulizamoyo, while 12.3% (n = 10) were in Ikwambi. Mean height of swarms was 1.7 m (0.9-2.5 m), while mean duration was 12.9 (7.9-17.9) minutes. The PCR analysis confirmed that 100% of all An. funestus s.l. samples processed were An. funestus sensu stricto. Mean wing length of An. funestus males was 2.47 mm (2.0-2.8 mm), but there was no difference between swarming males and indoor-resting males. Most swarms (95.0%) occurred above bare ground, sometime on front lawns near human dwellings, and repeatedly in the same locations.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated occurrence of An. funestus swarms for the first time in Tanzania. Further investigations could identify new opportunities for improved control of this dominant malaria vector, possibly by targeting the swarms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2660-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350364PMC
January 2019

Eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, can effectively protect against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes.

Malar J 2018 Oct 17;17(1):368. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.

Background: Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying protect against indoor-biting and indoor-resting mosquitoes but are largely ineffective for early-biting and outdoor-biting malaria vectors. Complementary tools are, therefore, needed to accelerate control efforts. This paper describes simple hessian ribbons treated with spatial repellents and wrapped around eaves of houses to prevent outdoor-biting and indoor-biting mosquitoes over long periods of time.

Methods: The eave ribbons are 15 cm-wide triple-layered hessian fabrics, in lengths starting 1 m. They can be fitted onto houses using nails, adhesives or Velcro, without completely closing eave-spaces. In 75 experimental nights, untreated ribbons and ribbons treated with 0.02%, 0.2%, 1.5% or 5% transfluthrin emulsion (spatial repellent) were evaluated against blank controls using two experimental huts inside a 202 m semi-field chamber where 500 laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Two volunteers sat outdoors (one/hut) and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors and slept under bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6.30 a.m. (indoor-biting). To assess survival, 200 caged mosquitoes were suspended near the huts nightly and monitored for 24 h thereafter. Additionally, field tests were done in experimental huts in a rural Tanzanian village to evaluate treated ribbons (1.5% transfluthrin). Here, indoor-biting was assessed using window traps and Prokopack aspirators, and outdoor-biting assessed using volunteer-occupied double-net traps.

Results: Indoor-biting and outdoor-biting decreased > 99% in huts fitted with eave ribbons having ≥ 0.2% transfluthrin. Even 0.02% transfluthrin-treated ribbons provided 79% protection indoors and 60% outdoors. Untreated ribbons however reduced indoor-biting by only 27% and increased outdoor-biting by 18%, though these were non-significant (P > 0.05). Of all caged mosquitoes exposed near treated huts, 99.5% died within 24 h. In field tests, the ribbons provided 96% protection indoors and 84% outdoors against An. arabiensis, plus 42% protection indoors and 40% outdoors against Anopheles funestus. Current prototypes cost ~ 7USD/hut, are made of widely-available hessian and require no specialized expertise.

Conclusion: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons significantly prevented outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria vectors and could potentially complement current tools. The technique is simple, low-cost, highly-scalable and easy-to-use; making it suitable even for poorly-constructed houses and low-income groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2520-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192339PMC
October 2018

Potential benefits of combining transfluthrin-treated sisal products and long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling indoor-biting malaria vectors.

Parasit Vectors 2018 04 10;11(1):231. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.

Background: Transfluthrin vapour prevents mosquito bites by disrupting their host-seeking behaviors. We measured the additional benefits of combining transfluthrin-treated sisal decorations and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) with an aim of extending protection against early evening, indoor-biting malaria vectors when LLINs are ineffective.

Methods: We investigated the indoor protective efficacy of locally made sisal decorative baskets (0.28 m) treated with 2.5 ml and 5.0 ml transfluthrin, in terms of mosquito density, exposure to bites and 24 h mortality. Experiments were conducted in experimental huts, located in Lupiro village, Ulanga District, south-eastern Tanzania. Human landing catches (HLC) were used to measure exposure to bites between 19:00-23:00 h. Each morning, at 06:00 h, mosquitoes were collected inside huts and in exit traps and monitored for 24 h mortality.

Results: Sisal decorative baskets (0.28 m) treated with 2.5 ml and 5.0 ml transfluthrin deterred three-quarters of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes from entering huts (relative rate, RR = 0.26, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.20-0.34, P < 0.001 and RR= 0.29, 95% CI: 0.22-0.37, P < 0.001, respectively). Both treatments induced a 10-fold increase in 24 h mortality of An. arabiensis mosquitoes (odds ratio, OR = 12.26, 95% CI: 7.70-19.51, P < 0.001 and OR = 18.42, 95% CI: 11.36-29.90, P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: Sisal decorative items treated with spatial repellents provide additional household and personal protection against indoor biting malaria and nuisance mosquitoes in the early evening, when conventional indoor vector control tools, such as LLINs, are not in use. We recommend future studies to investigate the epidemiological relevance of combining LLINs and transfluthrin decorated baskets in terms of their effect on reduction in malaria prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2811-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891933PMC
April 2018

Small-scale field evaluation of push-pull system against early- and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania.

Wellcome Open Res 2017 22;2:112. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.

: Despite high coverage of indoor interventions like insecticide-treated nets, mosquito-borne infections persist, partly because of outdoor-biting, early-biting and insecticide-resistant vectors. Push-pull systems, where mosquitoes are repelled from humans and attracted to nearby lethal targets, may constitute effective complementary interventions. : A partially randomized cross-over design was used to test efficacy of push-pull in four experimental huts and four local houses, in an area with high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania. The push-pull system consisted of 1.1% or 2.2% w/v transfluthrin repellent dispensers and an outdoor lure-and-kill device (odour-baited mosquito landing box). Matching controls were set up without push-pull. Adult male volunteers collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them outdoors, but collections were also done indoors using exit traps in experimental huts and by volunteers in the local houses. The collections were done hourly (1830hrs-0730hrs) and mosquito catches compared between push-pull and controls. s.l. and s.l. were assessed by PCR to identify sibling species, and ELISA to detect and blood meal sources. : Push-pull in experimental huts reduced outdoor-biting for and species by 30% and 41.5% respectively. However, the reductions were marginal and insignificant for (12.2%; p>0.05) and (5%; p>0.05). Highest protection against all species occurred before 2200hrs. There was no significant difference in number of mosquitoes inside exit traps in huts with or without push-pull. In local households, push-pull significantly reduced indoor and outdoor-biting of by 48% and 25% respectively, but had no effect on other species. : This push-pull system offered modest protection against outdoor-biting , without increasing indoor mosquito densities. Additional experimentation is required to assess how transfluthrin-based products affect mosquito blood-feeding and mortality in push-pull contexts. This approach, if optimised, could potentially complement existing malaria interventions even in areas with high pyrethroid resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.13006.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840620PMC
November 2017

Efficacy and user acceptability of transfluthrin-treated sisal and hessian decorations for protecting against mosquito bites in outdoor bars.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 20;10(1):197. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, P.O Box 53, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.

Background: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to modify strips into practical, attractive and acceptable transfluthrin treated sisal and hessian emanators that confer protection against potential infectious bites before people use bed nets especially in the early evening and outdoors. This study was conducted in Kilombero Valley, Ulanga District, south-eastern Tanzania.

Results: The protective efficacy of hand-crafted transfluthrin-treated sisal decorative baskets and hessian wall decorations against early evening outdoor biting malaria vectors was measured by human landing catches (HLC) in outdoor bars during peak outdoor mosquito biting activity (19:00 to 23:00 h). Treated baskets and wall decorations reduced bites of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes by 89% (Relative Rate, RR = 0.11, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.09-0.15, P < 0.001) and 86% (RR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.11-0.18, P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, they significantly reduced exposure to outdoor bites of Culex spp. by 66% (RR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.22-0.52, P < 0.001) and 56% (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.66, P < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusion: Locally hand-crafted transfluthrin-treated sisal decorative baskets and hessian wall decorations are readily acceptable and confer protection against outdoor biting malaria vectors in the early evening and outdoors: when people are resting on the verandas, porches or in outdoor social places such as bars and restaurants. Additional research can help support the use of such items as complementary interventions to expand protection to communities currently experiencing outdoor transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2132-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5397833PMC
April 2017

Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(1):e0145653. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Environmental and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes.

Methods: An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB), was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.5m), to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs.

Results: Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (P<0.05). The MLBs were highly efficient against Mansonia species and malaria vector, An. arabiensis. Of all mosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold.

Conclusion: The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria elimination where outdoor transmission is significant.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145653PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720432PMC
July 2016

Effects of a new outdoor mosquito control device, the mosquito landing box, on densities and survival of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, inside controlled semi-field settings.

Malar J 2015 Dec 9;14:494. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, PO Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania.

Background: The significance of malaria transmission occurring outdoors has risen even in areas where indoor interventions such as long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying are common. The actual contamination rates and effectiveness of recently developed outdoor mosquito control device, the mosquito landing box (MLB), on densities and daily survival of host-seeking laboratory Anopheles arabiensis, which readily bites humans outdoors was demonstrated.

Methods: Experiments were conducted in large semi-field systems (SFS) with human volunteers inside, to mimic natural ecosystems, and using MLBs baited with natural or synthetic human odours and carbon dioxide. The MLBs were dusted with 10% pyriproxyfen (PPF) or entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae) spores to mark mosquitoes physically contacting the devices. Each night, 400 laboratory-reared An. arabiensis females were released in one SFS chamber with two MLBs, and another chamber without MLBs (control). Mosquitoes were individually recaptured while attempting to bite volunteers inside SFS or by aspiration from SFS walls. Mosquitoes from chambers with PPF-treated MLBs and respective controls were individually dipped in water-filled cups containing ten conspecific third-instar larvae, whose subsequent development was monitored. Mosquitoes recaptured from chambers with fungi-treated MLBs were observed for fungal hyphal growth on their cadavers. Separately, effects on daily survival were determined by exposing An. arabiensis in chambers having MLBs treated with 5% pirimiphos methyl compared to chambers without MLBs (control), after which the mosquitoes were recaptured and monitored individually until they died.

Results: Up to 63% (152/240) and 43% (92/210) of mosquitoes recaptured inside treatment chambers were contaminated with pyriproxyfen and M. anisopliae, respectively, compared to 8% (19/240) and 0% (0/164) in controls. The mean number of larvae emerging from cups in which adults from chambers with PPF-treated MLBs were dipped was significantly lower [0.75 (0.50-1.01)], than in controls [28.79 (28.32-29.26)], P < 0.001). Daily survival of mosquitoes exposed to 5% pirimiphos methyl was nearly two-fold lower than controls [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.748 (1.551-1.920), P < 0.001].

Conclusion: High contamination rates in exposed mosquitoes even in presence of humans, demonstrates potential of MLBs for controlling outdoor-biting malaria vectors, either by reducing their survival or directly killing host-seeking mosquitoes. The MLBs also have potential for dispensing filial infanticides, such as PPF, which mosquitoes can transmit to their aquatic habitats for mosquito population control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-1013-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4673850PMC
December 2015