Publications by authors named "Arman Zargaran"

89 Publications

Medicinal herbs: Potential polypills in cardiovascular diseases.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14203DOI Listing
February 2021

The Antidepressant Effects of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Feb 4:102679. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1668753961, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Antidepressant drugs are accompanied with high rate of adverse effects. Lavender is one of the most common herbal drugs mentioned in Traditional Persian literature with potential efficacy on mental disorders and less serious side effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of lavender on depression severity by preforming a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of science were searched for relevant articles till December 2020. Quality of studies were evaluated by Jadad scale and the Cochrane collaboration tool. Depression as endpoint measure or as a subscale of any valid assessment tool was subjected to quantitative data analyses. Both fixed and random effects meta-analysis were conducted for data synthesis.

Results: Out of 342 screened studies, 17 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed significant efficacy of lavender in decreasing depression scores compared to the control group (pooled Standardized Mean Difference (SMD)= -0.66, 95% CI: -0.85 to -0.46;P < 0.001, I = 68.2%;). Subgroup analysis proved that the effect of lavender was marginally more pronounced in participants with diagnosed depression (pooled SMD= -0.62, 95% CI: -1.26 to 0.01, P = 0.055; I = 88.1 %) while its effect was statistically significant in patients having other diseases with concomitant depressive symptoms (pooled SMD= -0.65, 95% CI: -1.84 to -0.46, P < 0.001; I = 52.1%), and the oral route (pooled SMD= -0.56, 95% CI: -1.07 to -0.05, P = 0.032; I = 85.2%;) was the most effective route of administration.

Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that lavender has significant antidepressant effects. However, due to some limitations, further large clinical trials are recommended with more homogeneous populations and rigorous designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2021.102679DOI Listing
February 2021

The Early Report of Herpetic Whitlow by Bahal-Dawlah Razi in 15th Century CE.

Infez Med 2020 Sep;28(3):450-452

Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of History of Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A herpetic whitlow is a lesion (whitlow) on a finger or thumb caused by herpes simplex virus. It is a painful infection that typically affects the fingers or thumbs. Occasionally infection occurs on the toes or on the nail cuticle. Symptoms of herpetic whitlow include tenderness, swelling and reddening of the infected finger skin, fever and swollen lymph nodes. Although, it is believed that the first recorded observations were in 1909 CE by H. G. Adamson, in the medieval period, Bah?' al-Dawlah N?rbakhsh? Razi (1501 CE) described herpetic whitlow, under the title of Dakhes in Khulasat al-Tajarib (The Summary of Experience), his book on medicine. Some of Baha al-Dawlah's descriptions and his etiology of Dakhes are based on humoral theories and cannot be concurred with current medical concepts, but more symptoms and clinical manifestations are consistent with current definitions. It seems the earliest description of herpetic whitlow in the medical history.
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September 2020

Lavender and dodder combined herbal syrup versus citalopram in major depressive disorder with anxious distress: A double-blind randomized trial.

J Integr Med 2020 Sep 15;18(5):409-415. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1668753961, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) accompanied by anxious distress is a chronic and disabling disorder. Its conventional drug therapies often have low patient compliance due to drug-related side effects. In Persian medicine, lavender-dodder syrup is one formula often recommended for such disorders.

Objective: This study compares the effects of lavender-dodder syrup to the standard drug, citalopram, for treating MDD with anxious distress.

Design, Setting, Participants And Intervention: This six-week, double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was carried out in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. During the six-week intervention period, patients in citalopram group received citalopram tablets 20 mg/d plus 5 mL placebo syrup every 12 h; patients in group B received placebo tablets once daily plus 5 mL of lavender-dodder herbal syrup every 12 h.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measures, depression and anxiety, were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression/Anxiety Rating Scales, and were scored at the beginning of the study and at weeks three and six. Secondary outcome measures including response to treatment and remission rates were also compared between the two groups.

Results: Fifty-six participants with MDD and anxious distress were randomly assigned to two groups. Mean depression scores significantly decreased in citalopram and herbal groups at weeks three and six (time effect: P < 0.001), although the observed changes were not significantly different between the groups (intervention effect: P = 0.61). Mean anxiety scores were not significantly different between the two groups at week three (P = 0.75). However, at the end of week six, the observed decrease was significantly higher in the herbal syrup group than the citalopram group (intervention effect: P = 0.007).

Conclusion: The herbal syrup is an effective and tolerable supplement for treating MDD with anxious distress.

Trial Registration Number: IRCT2016102430459N1 on Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2020.06.002DOI Listing
September 2020

The effect of a hydrogel made by Nigella sativa L. on acne vulgaris: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2020 Nov 17;34(11):3052-3062. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nigella sativa L. (black seed) is one of the main medicinal plants frequently cited in traditional Persian medicine manuscripts for management of acne vulgaris. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a topical preparation from N. sativa in acne vulgaris. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 60 patients (30 patients in treatment and 30 in placebo group) were randomly received N. sativa hydrogel (standardized based on thymoquinone) or placebo hydrogel, twice daily for 60 days. The Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) grading score was recorded for each patient. Moreover, acne disability index (ADI) was evaluated using a standard questionnaire filled out by the patients at the beginning and end of the study. A 78% mean reduction in the IGA score on the N. sativa-treated group was recorded compared with 3.3% on the vehicle-treated one. Significant reductions in the number of comedones, papules, and pustules were observed in the treatment group compared with placebo after 2 months. Also, ADI was decreased 63.49% in the treatment versus 4.5% in the placebo groups. No adverse event was recorded. N. sativa hydrogel had significant effects on improving the symptoms of acne vulgaris with acceptable tolerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6739DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): A systematic review on clinical trials.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Jun 14;51:102429. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Persian Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of present study was to review and categorize the clinical trials investigating the clinical effects of different botanical parts of dates compared with any controls.

Methods: All clinical trials (randomized, pilot, quasi-experimental, cross-over. and non-randomized clinical trials) evaluating the clinical effects of date palm from 2000 until August 2019 in English and Persian languages were included in this systematic review. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the risk of bias assessment of Cochrane handbook of systematic reviews, and then reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.

Results: Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were performed in 8 categories based on different botanical parts of date palm. These categories were obstetrics, gynecology, oncology, dermatology, hematology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, metabolism, and infertility. A total of 38 % of included studies were randomized controlled trials. Further, 80 % of the included studies had performance and detection bias. Finally, about 50 % of them had selection bias and about 20 % had attrition and reporting bias.

Conclusion: The widespread consumption of date palm as medicinal and botanical plant suggests the importance of this plant in human healthcare. The clinical trials conducted so far have explained a number of clinical effects of date palm. However, there is not enough clinical evidence to support the clinical effects in other review articles and traditional medical systems, and further randomized controlled trials with robust designs and methods are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102429DOI Listing
June 2020

The Heart-Healthy Avicennian Diet for Prevention of Heart Disease.

Eur Heart J 2020 04;41(15):1465-1466

Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa125DOI Listing
April 2020

Twelve vegetables used for prevention and treatment of hemorrhoids in Persian Medicine.

J Tradit Chin Med 2019 08;39(4):466-473

Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To review the role of vegetables to prevent and treat hemorrhoids in Persian Medicine (PM).

Methods: We search main Persian Medicine manuscripts, including the books of Liber Continens, Canon of Medicine, Great Elixir, Akbarie's Medicine, Storehouse of Medicaments and Present for the faithful. Also, it was considered by searching in reference books and published papers with the help of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar databases.

Results: Twelve vegetables, relating to 8 plant families, have been found in PM that their effectiveness involved in laxative, anti- inflammation, antimicrobial, analgesic and wound healing.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 12 Persian Medicine vegetables can be used to prevent and treat hemorrhoids.
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August 2019

Contributions of Avicenna to surgery and anesthesiology.

Acta Chir Belg 2020 Jun 11;120(3):204-211. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of History of Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Avicenna, as the Persian physician has had a great contribution to the field of medical sciences, especially surgery in 10th and 11th centuries AD. In the present paper, a few translated quoted words of Avicenna were shared about his surgical practice. Indexing databases of PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords like Avicenna, surgery, and anesthesiology to find related papers and documents. The first portion comprises of some most commonly used simple and compound herbal preparations to produce general and local anesthetics before the surgery and as dental anesthetic agents. In the second portion, practices regarding surgical management for skull fractures, spinal trauma, bone fracture, cataract, incurable urinary retention, bladder calculi, hemorrhoids, cancer as well as endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy have also been incorporated. Finally, it ends up with practices regarding the use of natural products as postoperative dressing for traumatic and surgical wounds and after cataract surgery. Findings of this review study will provide a brief insight on Avicenna's Canon of Medicine to the sciences of anesthesiology and surgery based on the recent investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00015458.2020.1726096DOI Listing
June 2020

Smallpox Eradication in Shiraz during 1926 to 1941.

Iran J Public Health 2019 May;48(5):991-993

Department of History of Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717414PMC
May 2019

The Story of Amiodarone.

Eur Heart J 2019 09;40(33):2758-2759

Cardiac Primary Prevention Research Center (CPPRC), Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, West Jamali Alley, Vafamanesh St, Heravi Sq., Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz583DOI Listing
September 2019

Promising plant-derived secondary metabolites for treatment of acne vulgaris: a mechanistic review.

Arch Dermatol Res 2020 Jan 26;312(1):5-23. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition associated with inflammation of pilosebaceous unit. Since conventional therapies have not demonstrated desirable effectiveness and possess remarkable side effects, there is a growing interest in the use of herbal medicines for the management of acne vulgaris. In this study, plant-derived molecules investigated in acne vulgaris have been reviewed and their possible underlying mechanisms of action were discussed. For this purpose, different electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and Google Scholar were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo, or human studies evaluating the phytochemicals in the management of acne vulgaris. Data were collected from 1980 to 2018 (up to October). Most of the phytochemicals investigated in acne were from the category of polyphenols including resveratrol, myricitrin, schisandrin, terchebulin, alpha-mangotin, curcumin, ellagic acid and epigallocatechin 3-gallate. Moreover, alkaloids and terpenoids such as berberine, ursolic acid, lupeol were evaluated in acne vulgaris with less abundance. Various molecular mechanisms were involved in effects of phytochemicals including antioxidant (through down-regulation of HO, MDA, ROS and upregulation of SOD), anti-inflammatory (through reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β, TNF-α, NF-κB), immunomodulatory, antibacterial (against Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum), antiandrogenic, reducing sebum production, and lipogenesis inhibitory activities. Therefore, phytochemicals seem to be a precious source for identifying new medicines for treatment of acne vulgaris; however, since most of studies are preclinical, further clinical studies are needed to achieve more conclusive and reliable results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-019-01968-zDOI Listing
January 2020

Pharmacoeconomical Concept in the Book of Rhazes, 10 Century AD.

Int J Prev Med 2019 12;10:109. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of History of Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_203_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592104PMC
June 2019

Avicenna and Rhazes, two Persian scientists.

Acta Chir Belg 2019 Dec 24;119(6):404-405. Epub 2019 May 24.

Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari , Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00015458.2019.1619262DOI Listing
December 2019

The necessity for integrating traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine into medical education curricula in Iran.

J Integr Med 2019 Jul 26;17(4):296-301. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1411413137, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) is increasing in both developed and developing countries. The school of Persian medicine (PM) in Iran is a comprehensive medical school that is rich in history and has its own special principles, elements, philosophy, and diagnostic and treatment options. Many complementary therapy modalities are also popular and in demand among patients and physicians. The aim of this paper is to provide logic for the policymakers in Iranian medical education to make changes in medical education curricula, particularly on integrating T&CM.

Methods: We reviewed the global experience in teaching T&CM to medical students, and highlighting the strengths of PM, described why it is necessary to integrate T&CM into general medicine curricula in Iran.

Results: PM is a traditional system of medicine that dates back about 7000 years. Although there are few studies about the safety and effectiveness of PM, research into it has recently been accelerated. There is a suitable opportunity for integrating T&CM with conventional medicine. Physicians should be familiar with T&CM to avoid any contraindications, interactions, and unwanted effects.

Conclusion: Traditional medicine is part of Iran's heritage and, thus, needs special attention. Familiarization of physicians with T&CM can help them choose the best treatment options for their patients. To integrate T&CM into the medical education curricula of Iran, a two-credit course has been proposed for implementation across the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2019.04.005DOI Listing
July 2019

Periconceptional care and offspring health at birth and long term, from the perspective of Avicenna.

J Integr Med 2019 Mar 11;17(2):80-86. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Noncommunicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.

Periconceptional care such as lifestyle plays an important impact role in offspring health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the perspective of Avicenna on periconceptional care. Avicenna (980-1037 A.D.) was one of the outstanding Persian physicians, who made great contributions to the field of medical sciences, in particular, obstetrics. In advance, Avicenna's book, Canon of Medicine, was considered to find his perspectives on periconceptional care. Then, his ideas and theories were compared to the current findings by searching the keywords in main indexing systems including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science as well as the search engine of Google Scholar. Current investigations show that gamete quality, pregnancy outcome, and offspring health at birth and long term depend on both parents' lifestyle in pre- and periconceptional period, as well as the intrauterine environment. Avicenna believed that seminal fluid, sperm, ovum, and developing conditions in utero were influenced by the stages of food digestion and the function of some organs. On the other hand, food digestion and function of the organs also depend on each parent's lifestyle and environmental factors. He mentioned 6 principles of healthy lifestyle: exercise, nutrition, sleep and awareness, excretion of body wastes and retention of necessary materials, psychic features, as well as air and climate. Thus, a multicomponent healthy lifestyle should be considered by parents of child-bearing age in an appropriate period before and in early pregnancy as well as elimination of any disorders in parents, to give birth to more healthy offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2019.01.003DOI Listing
March 2019

New candidates for treatment and management of carpal tunnel syndrome based on the Persian Canon of Medicine.

Integr Med Res 2018 Jun 20;7(2):126-135. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is defined as a compressing median mononeuropathy. CTS is one of the major costly debilitating diseases of the hand. Although CTS is a relatively recent concept in current medicine, some evidences show that medieval physicians in Persian medicine (PM) such as Avicenna were familiar with it. The PM textbook written by Avicenna, the Canon of Medicine, defines the anatomy of carpal tunnel and median nerve, as well as mononeuropathy; it also offers suggestions for the prevention and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (called as and ) in the chapter of nerve diseases. The book describes not only symptoms including pain, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, tingling, and numbness, but also its etiology such as nerve compression (entrapment neuropathy); nonphysical reasons such as disturbed balance among the four body humors; alteration in the nerve's temperament () that prevents the transmission of nerve impulses; and the others such as nutrition, mental condition, sleep, weather condition, body movements, and proper disposal of body waste. Furthermore, the book suggests a lifestyle modification method based on six factors and 10 prescriptions composed with 85 natural products that are not actively used for CTS treatment in modern times. The medicinal suggestions for CTS in the Canon of Medicine will be good candidates for discovering new treatments besides providing historical significance to the various insights considered 1000 years ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2018.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026351PMC
June 2018

Evaluation of the effect of topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oleogel as pain relief in migraine without aura: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

Neurol Sci 2018 Aug 28;39(8):1345-1353. Epub 2018 May 28.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, and Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Phytotherapy is a source of finding new remedies for migraine. Traditional chamomile oil (chamomile extraction in sesame oil) is a formulation in Persian medicine (PM) for pain relief in migraine. An oleogel preparation of reformulated traditional chamomile oil was prepared and then standardized based on chamazulene (as a marker in essential oil) and apigenin via gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, respectively. A crossover double-blind clinical trial was performed with 100 patients. Each patient took two tubes of drug and two tubes of placebo during the study. Visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires were filled in by the patients and scores were given, ranging from 0 to 10 (based on the severity of pain) during 24 h. Other complications like nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia were also monitored. There was 4.48 ± 0.01 μl/ml of chamazulene and 0.233 mg/g of apigenin in the preparation (by correcting the amount with extraction ratio). Thirty-eight patients in the drug-placebo and 34 patients in the placebo-drug groups (a total number of 72 patients as per protocol) completed the process in the randomized controlled trial (RCT). Adapted results from the questionnaires showed that pain, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by using chamomile oleogel on the patients after 30 min. Results supported the efficacy of chamomile oleogel as a pain relief in migraine without aura.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-018-3415-1DOI Listing
August 2018

A Historical Report of a 9th Century AD Surgical Fat Removal.

Dermatol Surg 2018 Jun;44(6):886

Department of History of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran School of Allied Medical Sciences, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DSS.0000000000001418DOI Listing
June 2018

Editorial: Integrative Approach to Manage Neurological Disorders.

Authors:
Arman Zargaran

Curr Drug Metab 2018;19(5):384

Department of Traditional Pharmacy School of Persian Medicine Tehran University of Medical Sciences P.O.: 1417653761 Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920021905180516151645DOI Listing
October 2018

The medieval Persian manuscript of Afyunieh: the first individual treatise on the opium and addiction in history.

J Integr Med 2018 03 5;16(2):77-83. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran 14179-53836, Iran. Electronic address:

According to historical evidence, the abuse of opium has been reported all over the globe-specifically throughout Eastern nations-since the sixteenth century. Before that, opium had mostly been applied as medication. Reference has been made in traditional Persian medical literature to the method of cultivation, properties, side effects and toxicity. In sixteenth century Iran, during the reign of the Safavids, opium abuse began. It was from then that prominent Persian scholars started to think of solutions to this societal problem. One of the most famous scholars was Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas'ud Shirazi, who composed a book concerning addiction-Afyunieh, a comprehensive book on the topic of opium and all issues of opium. Furthermore, he recommended methods for reducing opium dose as well as substitution with other medications that had a narrower range of side effects, in order to eradicate dependency upon opium and opium-derived materials. This is most likely the first book that comprehensively addressed opium and discussed drug rehabilitation methodology, in traditional Persian medical literature. In this historical review, the authors have introduced the book Afyunieh, which presents methods for treating addiction to and giving up opium; the text comprises a synthesis of the author's opinions, professional experience and references to the work of other famous physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2018.02.004DOI Listing
March 2018

Rhazes, a pioneer in contribution to trials in medical practice.

Acta Med Hist Adriat 2017 12;15(2):261-270

School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Medical history explains that Persian physicians used scientific methods based on clinical experiences and observations for treatment from pre-Islamic time (before 637 AD) and centuries later (in the Islamic era). Rhazes was one of the Persian physicians acknowledged as a pharmacist, chemist and prominent scientific writer on various subjects of medicine and philosophy. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical experiences, as well as the ethical and critical views of Rhazes in medical practice. Rhazes promoted ethics in the medical profession. He expressed critical key points about ancient written texts. He broke ancient physicians' taboos in medical theories and evaluated them based on his own experiences. He designed animal and preclinical evaluations for his theories and also performed the first clinical trials with control groups in the history. His critical views about medical sciences as well as his beliefs in experiments resulted in many medical, chemical and pharmaceutical findings. Therefore, in history, he can be considered as the pioneer in using trials and experiments for approving medical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31952/amha.15.2.4DOI Listing
December 2017

A Historical Report on Preparing Sustained Release Dosage Forms for Addicts in Medieval Persia, 16th Century AD.

Subst Use Misuse 2018 08 2;53(10):1726-1729. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

b Department of Traditional Pharmacy , School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

For several centuries, opium addiction has been a social problem all over the world. It has been prevalent in Iran from the Safavid era (1501-1736 A.D). During this period, Hakim Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn-Mas'ud Shirazi (1515-1592 A.D), also known as Imad was one of the Persian physicians who wrote one of the earliest books in the field of opium and addiction (called Afiounieh) in history. In this book, he introduced two sustained release rectal (suppository) and oral (pill) dosage forms for Muslim addicts who fast in the month of Ramadan. He aimed to formulate them for these people so that they could keep fasting by using the slow release drugs. In these formulations, his innovation has important impacts in the history of both addiction and pharmaceutical sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2018.1432648DOI Listing
August 2018

Abu-Sahl al-Masihi (died circa 1010 AD): The Persian physician in the early medieval era.

J Med Biogr 2020 Aug 26;28(3):132-135. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the early medieval era, in the time which is called the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished through the practice of Persian physicians (9th to 12th century AD). Abu-Sahl al-Masihi (died circa 1010 AD) was one of the physicians in that period who had great influence on the progress of medicine by his own writings as well as his influence on great scholars like Biruni and Avicenna as their teacher. He was a polymath and had many writings in various fields of science, in particular medical sciences. Some of his manuscripts in medicine were (Book of the Hundred), (The General Medicine), (God's Mystery on the Creation of Man), (Treatise of Drugs), (the Principles of Pulse), and (On the determination of the matter of infectious diseases). As a sign of his impact in Persian medicine, many later physicians (until 19th century) referred to and cited his works in their manuscripts several times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0967772017720372DOI Listing
August 2020

The heart in embryology.

Eur Heart J 2018 Jan;39(3):191-192

Cardiology Department School of Medicine Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Isfahan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx771DOI Listing
January 2018

Hakim Mohammad: A Persian Military Surgeon in Safavid Era (1501-1736 CE).

World J Surg 2018 08;42(8):2421-2427

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery.

Methods: This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah.

Results And Discussion: Safavid kings (1501-1736 CE) with unifying all of Persian regions and provinces reconstructed the Persian Empire. Great scholars and physicians were raised in this era. It seems that Persian physicians and surgeons were well trained in Safavid era and many of them were even employed by other countries like Ottoman Empire and India. Hakim Mohammad as a military surgeon was one of such physicians who served in Ottoman Empire for some time. He gathered his surgical experiences and others in the book of Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah. This book was written in Persian. He has mainly written about the management of wounds and practical techniques. Later, he came back to his homeland and dedicated his book to the king of Persia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-017-4410-zDOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of Benth. on allergic rhinitis symptoms: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.

J Res Med Sci 2017 28;22:128. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the health problems in the world. It is necessary to develop new treatment procedure for control of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ( Benth) on AR patients.

Materials And Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, 71 patients (37 patients in treatment and 34 in placebo group) participated. In treatment group, syrup (NBS) was used for 4 weeks as three times a day. The efficacy of the drug regarding AR symptoms (rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itchy nose, and ocular symptoms) were evaluated through a visual analog scale (VAS) by 0-10 before administration and at the end of the whole treatment period. The collected information was entered in the SPSS software (version 18) and was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, independent sample -test, and paired sample test.

Results: The improvement of AR symptoms in the group receiving NBS was significantly higher compared to control group (4.73 ± 1.84 vs. 0.38 ± 2.06; < 0.0001). Furthermore, the mean of total VAS before and after the treatment (in case group) was 7.10 ± 1.92 and 2.37 ± 1.76, respectively ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that has significant effects on improving the symptoms of AR. Hence, it can be a good alternative to AR symptoms relief.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_316_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721487PMC
November 2017

The impact of anatomy in Avicenna's works.

Int J Cardiol 2017 11;247:50

Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.06.112DOI Listing
November 2017

Avicenna or Ibn Nafis; who did mention to the role of coronary arteries in blood supply of the heart?

Authors:
Arman Zargaran

Int J Cardiol 2017 11;247:47

Department of History of Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.06.093DOI Listing
November 2017

Cupping therapy can improve the quality of life of healthy people in Tehran.

J Tradit Chin Med 2017 Aug;37(4):558-562

Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7139748479, Iran.

Objective: To examine the influence of cupping on the quality of life of healthy people who referred to traditional Persian medicine clinics in Tehran.

Methods: All participants were examined by Traditional Persian Medicine specialists and their temperaments were determined. The area between the shoulders was cleaned, and cupping was performed with a disposable cupping glass for a few minutes. The questionnaire used in this project was the Persian version of the SF-36 questionnaire which assesses people's understanding of their health status. Before cupping and then one month after cupping, all participants were called and the questionnaires were completed again. Finally, all given data was analyzed.

Results: From a total of 290 questionnaires completed in the first phase of the project, 112 patients were excluded. Ultimately, the data of 178 participants was analyzed. After one month, the quality of life score of 155 participants (88%) increased, remained unchanged for 21 participants (11.7%), and decreased for 2 participants (1.1%). Asked about possible complications from cupping, 160 participants reported no side effects (89.9%).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that cupping therapy can improve the scores of quality of life in the participants in Tehran.
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August 2017