Publications by authors named "Anne Kari Aarstad"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Importance of personality and coping expectancy on patient-reported hearing disability, quality of life and distress level: a study of patients referred to an audiology service.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Jun 22;19(1):168. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hearing loss (HL) affects up to 15% of the world's adult population. Coping and personality are hypothesized to underlie quality of life (QoL) and distress scores. We aimed to study the importance of personality and coping in persons with HL for self-reported hearing disability, QoL, and distress.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out, including one hundred and fifty-eight adults seeking hearing aids. Pure-tone average hearing thresholds (PTA) were determined for each ear. A revised version of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) served as a measure of self-reported hearing disability. Further, the generic part of the European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC) QoL questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (distress measure) were answered. Levels of neuroticism and the Theoretically Originated Measure of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (TOMCATS) coping expectancy were determined.

Results: Hearing disability was determined by PTA (better ear) and level of neuroticism. Distress and QoL were determined by neuroticism and coping.

Conclusion: More neuroticism was associated with worse outcome for the variables hearing disability, distress, and QoL. Helplessness and hopelessness were associated with worse hearing disability, increased distress, and lowered QoL. Patient reported hearing disability was also associated with PTA (better ear). There is a need to investigate further the associations between hearing disability and QoL to psychosocial parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01802-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220799PMC
June 2021

EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck (H&N)-35 scores from H&N squamous cell carcinoma patients obtained at diagnosis and at 6, 9 and 12 months following diagnosis predict 10-year overall survival.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Dec 16;276(12):3495-3505. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021, Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: To study the 10-year overall survival predictions, and mechanisms behind, of head and neck (HN) quality of life (QoL) scores obtained at diagnosis and 6, 9, and 12 months following diagnosis in a cohort of HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

Methods: Consecutive HNSCC patients (N = 109) subjected to standard workup and treatment self-reported their QoL measured by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ) H&N-35 between November 2002 and June 2005. Each QoL index was calculated and additionally aggregated to one sum score. The included patients were at diagnosis younger than 78 years, judged adequately cognitive functioning, and scheduled for curative treatment. Self-reported smoking, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic information were registered. Twenty-two patients were high-risk (hr)-HPV DNA tumor positive. If the treatment goal was changed to palliative, no new QoL information was collected. All living patients were followed until 10 years after diagnosis.

Results: Median survival was 105 months. Significant overall survival predictions were found from the EORTC H&N-35 QLQ sum scores continuously measured at diagnosis (p = 0.006) and obtained at 6 (p = 0.02), 9 (p = 0.002) and 12 (p = 0.05) months. Lower QoL predicted lower overall survival. These sum score survival predictions were in part independent of TNM stage, hr-HPV status, gender, age, alcohol and smoking status. The indices "pain", "swallowing", "social eating", and "feeling ill" were predictive of survival at 3 out of 4 measuring points (diagnosis, 6, 9 and 12 months) in univariate analyses.

Conclusion: EORTC H&N-35 QLQ scores at diagnosis and throughout the first year thereafter harbor prognostic power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-019-05630-2DOI Listing
December 2019

Quality of life in persons with hearing loss: a study of patients referred to an audiological service.

Int J Audiol 2019 11 14;58(11):696-703. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital , Bergen , Norway.

To investigate the relationship between hearing loss (HL) and general quality of life (QoL) in adults seeking hearing aids (HAs). The patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire's general part and a questionnaire measuring self-assessed communication ability (Abbreviated Profile of hearing Aid Benefit-APHAB). These responses were compared with EORTC scores from a general population and patients with former head and neck cancer. One-hundred and fifty-eight adults with HL were recruited prior to hearing aid (HA) fitting with one half seeking renewal of their HA. General QoL scores among patients with HL were similar to those in the general population, but higher than in many chronic serious diseases. Patients with unilateral HL reported slightly worse social function and more fatigue than patients with bilateral HL. Self-assessed communication ability correlated with general QoL scores. Also, we found that best ear pure tone average (PTA), cognitive and physical QoL function predicted APHAB scores. In the investigated HL group, general QoL scores seem to be relatively close to those seen in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2019.1627010DOI Listing
November 2019

Generic quality of life in persons with hearing loss: a systematic literature review.

BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord 2018 22;18. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

1Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: To the best of our knowledge, no empirically based consensus has been reached as to if, and to what extent, persons with hearing loss (HL) have reduced generic Quality of life (QoL). There seems to be limited knowledge regarding to what extent a hearing aid (HA) would improve QoL. The main aim of the present study was to review studies about the relationship between HL and QoL. A supporting aim was to study the association between distress and HL.

Methods: Literature databases (Cinahl, Pub Med and Web of Science) were searched to identify relevant journal articles published in the period from January 2000 to March 17, 2016. We performed a primary search pertaining to the relationship between HL, HA and QoL (search number one) followed by a supporting search pertaining to the relationship between distress/mood/anxiety and HL (search number two). After checking for duplications and screening the titles of the papers, we read the abstracts of the remaining papers. The most relevant papers were read thoroughly, leaving us with the journal articles that met the inclusion criteria.

Results: Twenty journal articles were included in the present review: 13 were found in the primary search (HL and QoL), and seven in the supporting search (HL and distress). The literature yields equivocal findings regarding the association between generic QoL and HL. A strong association between distress and HL was shown, where distressed persons tend to have a lowered generic QoL. It is suggested that QoL is lowered among HL patients. Some studies suggest an increased generic QoL following the use of HA, especially during the first few months after initiation of treatment. Other studies suggest that HA use is one of several possible factors that contribute to improve generic QoL.

Conclusions: The majority of the studies suggest that HL is associated with reduced generic QoL. Using hearing aids seem to improve general QoL at follow-up within the first year. HL is a risk factor for distress. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between HL and generic QoL, in addition to the importance of influencing variables on this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12901-018-0051-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778781PMC
January 2018

Clinical Application and Psychometric Properties of a Norwegian Questionnaire for the Self-Assessment of Communication in Quiet and Adverse Conditions Using Two Revised APHAB Subscales.

J Am Acad Audiol 2018 01;29(1):25-34

Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Difficulty in following and understanding conversation in different daily life situations is a common complaint among persons with hearing loss. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no published validated Norwegian questionnaire available that allows for a self-assessment of unaided communication ability in a population with hearing loss.

Purpose: The aims of the present study were to investigate a questionnaire for the self-assessment of communication ability, examine the psychometric properties of this questionnaire, and explore how demographic variables such as degree of hearing loss, age, and sex influence response patterns.

Research Design: A questionnaire based on the subscales of the Norwegian translation of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit was applied to a group of hearing aid users and normal-hearing controls.

Study Sample: A total of 108 patients with bilateral hearing loss, and 101 controls with self-reported normal hearing.

Data Collection And Analysis: The psychometric properties were evaluated. Associations and differences between outcome scores and descriptive variables were examined. A regression analysis was performed to investigate whether descriptive variables could predict outcome.

Results: The measures of reliability suggest that the questionnaire has satisfactory psychometric properties, with the outcome of the questionnaire correlating to hearing loss severity, thus indicating that the concurrent validity of the questionnaire is good.

Conclusions: The findings indicate that the proposed questionnaire is a valid measure of self-assessed communication ability in both quiet and adverse listening conditions in participants with and without hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3766/jaaa.16102DOI Listing
January 2018

General health-related quality of life scores from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients obtained throughout the first year following diagnosis predicted up to 10-year overall survival.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jan 20;275(1):207-217. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: To evaluate the 5- and 10-year survival prediction of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores obtained at diagnosis and at 6, 9 and 12 months after diagnosis in a cohort of curable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

Materials And Methods: HNSCC patients (n = 109) reported their HRQoL measured by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ) general (C30) questionnaire. At diagnosis, the included patients were below 78 years of age and at diagnosis planned treated with curative intent. Clinical variables and self-reported smoking, alcohol consumption and socio-demographic information were registered. From diagnostic blocks, we found 22 patients to be human papillomavirus (HPV) positive. New HRQoL scores were not obtained if the patient treatment changed from curative to palliative throughout the HRQoL data acquisition. Survival was determined from the National Population Register of Norway.

Results: Decreased survival with low HRQoL scores from EORTC QLQ scores was demonstrated with HRQoL scores obtained from different time points of the four time points studied. These survival predictions were mostly independent of HPV status, gender, age, TNM stage, tumor site, alcohol consumption, present smoking status and whether comorbidities were present at diagnosis; as well as to some extent with an adjustment of the same HRQoL score/index obtained at diagnosis. The specific indices "physical function", "general pain" and "sleep disturbance" were in particular predictive of survival.

Conclusion: HRQoL scores obtained throughout the first year after diagnosis contained prognostic power to overall survival when measured both at 5 and 10 years of observation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-017-4800-8DOI Listing
January 2018

Health-related Quality of Life as Studied by EORTC QLQ and Voice Handicap Index Among Various Patients With Laryngeal Disease.

J Voice 2017 Mar 9;31(2):251.e17-251.e26. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: Patients with voice-related disorders are often treated by a multidisciplinary team including assessment by patient-reported outcome measures. The present paper aims at documenting the importance of including general health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures to clinical investigations.

Study Design: The participants (N = 80 larynx cancer, N = 32 recurrent palsy, N = 23 dysfunctional, N = 75 degenerative/inflammation, N = 19 various) were included consecutively at the laryngology clinic at Haukeland University Hospital. In addition, HRQoL data were included from one national group with laryngectomies (N = 105), one group with various patients formerly treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (N = 96), and one population-based reference group (N = 1956).

Method: Obtained were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ), the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) neuroticism scores.

Results: By analysis of variance, we have determined significant dependence of groups analyzing the sum global QoL/health index (F = 9.47; P <0.001), the functional HRQoL sum score (F = 7.14, P <0.001), and the symptom sum HRQoL scores (F = 8.13; P <0.001). In particular, patients with recurrent palsy and laryngeal cancer had lowered HRQoL. At the index levels, in particular dyspnea scores, were scored depending on larynx disease group (F = 24.4; P <0.001). The VHI score correlated with the EORTC H&N35 "speech" index with a common variance of 52%. VHI scores correlated with level of neuroticism with 8% common variance (P <0.001) and EORTC scores with 22% (P <0.001).

Conclusion: In particular, among patients with voice-related disease, those with recurrent palsy and laryngeal cancer had lower HRQoL. Furthermore, the HRQoL and VHI scores were inversely tied to neuroticism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.07.009DOI Listing
March 2017

Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors after renal cancer treatment.

Scand J Urol 2014 Feb 24;48(1):52-64. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Departments of Urology.

Objective: The most important outcome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment is survival. However, all cancer treatment should evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome of the treatment. This has not been sufficiently documented in RCC. The aim of this investigation was therefore to document the HRQoL outcome of RCC.

Material And Methods: All 413 RCC patients treated with radical or partial nephrectomy at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, during the period 1997--2010 were included. After exclusions, invitations to participate were mailed to 260 patients; 185 patients (71%) returned the questionnaires. In addition, a cohort of general head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, a cohort of laryngectomized HNSCC patients, and a cohort from the general population of Norway, were used to compare the RCC patients' HRQoL scores.

Results: Performance status as measured by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) classification at diagnosis showed an inverse relation to HRQoL [maximum coefficient of variation (CVmax) = 5.3%, p < 0.05]. Flank and open transabdominal approaches to RCC tumour resection were followed by reduced HRQoL compared with a general cohort of Norwegian citizens. However, the laparoscopically treated RCC patients had HRQoL scores at the level of the population. The indices "general health/QoL", the functional indices, and the symptom indices "fatigue", "pain", "sleep", "nausea and vomiting", "constipation" and "diarrhoea" were particularly affected.

Conclusion: The results show that RCC patients, and in particular those treated by a flank approach but not those treated by minimal invasive surgery, have a multifacetedly reduced HRQoL compared to a general population cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/21681805.2013.813963DOI Listing
February 2014

Prediction of 5 year survival from level of perceived distress in newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Oral Oncol 2013 Sep 4;49(9):964-969. Epub 2013 Jul 4.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway; Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: To evaluate the predictive effect of level of perceived distress on survival in a cohort of newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and one (N=101) consecutive HNSCC patients self-reported their levels of distress, measured with the general health questionnaire 30 (GHQ-30) at the time of diagnosis. All included patients were younger than 78years of age, cognitive adequate functioning, and scheduled for curative treatment. At the time of diagnosis self-reported levels of neuroticism, problem and avoidance focused coping, smoking and alcohol consumption, and sociodemographic information were registered. Clinical characteristics and comorbidities were determined from the patient hospital records.

Results: The 5-year overall survival of the cohort was 68.3%. Thirty-two deaths occurred during the 5-year observation period. The Likert analyzed GHQ sum score, as well as a dichotomized GHQ score were found to predict survival in univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. The hazard ratios were 1.04 (p=.04) and 2.78 (p=.01), respectively. The predictive effect of the GHQ scores remained significant throughout sequential multivariate analyses with adjustments for all the above mentioned covariates. Even a post hoc analysis including all covariates demonstrated an evident survival prediction.

Conclusion: Self-reported distress measured pretreatment in newly diagnosed HNSCC patients predict survival. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and possible interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.06.006DOI Listing
September 2013

Health and the need for health promotion in hospital patients.

Eur J Public Health 2011 Dec 13;21(6):744-9. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Alcohol and Drug Research Western Norway, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.

Background: Integrated health promotion improves clinical outcomes after hospital treatment. The first step towards implementing evidence-based health promotion in hospitals is to estimate the need for health promoting activities directed at hospital patients. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution and association of individual health risk factors in a Norwegian hospital population and to estimate the need for health promotion in this population.

Methods: We used a validated documentation model (HPH-DATA Model) to identify the prevalence of patients with nutritional risk (measurements of waist and weight), self-reported physical inactivity, daily smoking and hazardous drinking. We used logistic regression to describe the associations between health risk factors and demographic characteristics.

Results: Out of 10 included patients, 9 (N = 1522) had one or more health risk factors. In total 68% (N = 1026) were overweight, 44% (N = 660) at risk of under-nutrition, 38% (N = 574) physically inactive, 19% (N = 293) were daily smokers and 4% (N = 54) hazardous drinkers. We identified a new clinical relevant association between under-nutrition and smoking. The association between hazardous drinking and smoking was sustained.

Conclusion: Nearly all patients included in this study had one or more health risk factors that could aggravate clinical outcomes. There is a significant need, and potential, for health-promoting interventions. Multi-factorial interventions may be frequently indicated and should be the subject of interventional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckq148DOI Listing
December 2011

Quality of life, drinking to cope, alcohol consumption and smoking in successfully treated HNSCC patients.

Acta Otolaryngol 2007 Oct;127(10):1091-8

Section of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Conclusion: The level of coping by alcohol consumption is broadly associated with level of general quality of life (QoL) in patients with successfully treated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported level of general coping, drinking to cope (DTC), reported alcohol and tobacco use as well as QoL in successfully treated HNSCC patients.

Patients And Methods: We employed a cross-sectional design. Sample I included all patients <80 years old who had been diagnosed with HNSCC in Western Norway in the period from 1992 to 1997, and who were disease-free in the year 2000. The patients were interviewed at a routine follow-up visit. Sample II included all Norwegian laryngectomized patients. General coping and DTC were assessed by the COPE questionnaire and the QoL was assessed by the EORTC-QLQ (C30/H&N35) questionnaire. Reported level of alcohol consumption was associated with global QoL (r = -0.22) and with DTC (r = 0.31). Reported smoking level was associated with DTC (r = 0.26) and inversely with C30 functional/symptom sum QoL scores (r = -0.31/0.27). Level of DTC was associated with C30 global (r = -0.30) and C30 functional/symptom sum QoL scores (r = -0.31/0.27) and this association was still present after adjustment for gender, age, levels of neuroticism and avoidance coping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016480601158757DOI Listing
October 2007

Mood, anxiety and sense of humor in head and neck cancer patients in relation to disease stage, prognosis and quality of life.

Acta Otolaryngol 2005 May;125(5):557-65

Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Conclusion: At diagnosis, control patients had the lowest depression levels and anxiety scores, followed by those with limited HNSCC disease and these with extended HNSCC disease. Anxiety and depression levels at diagnosis predicted prognosis via an association with extent of disease. Sense of humor, but not anxiety or depression level, predicted lower QoL and depression levels at follow-up.

Objective: To study the association between anxiety score, depression level at sense of humor at diagnosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients versus TNM stage, prognosis and depression level/quality of life (QOL) 6 years following diagnosis. A control group of patients with benign HN disease was also included.

Material And Methods: Male patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC (n =78) or benign HN (n =61) disease completed the following questionnaires: the Beck Depression Inventory, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (state) and the Svebak humor questionnaire. Patients with cachexia or those aged >80 years were excluded. In the HNSCC patients, TNM stage, prognosis and QOL/depression level (n =27) were determined following successful therapy.

Results: HNSCC patients reported high anxiety scores and lower depression levels than control patients, although there was overlap between the groups. N stage was associated with high anxiety scores and depression levels, whereas T stage was only associated with depression levels. Both anxiety scores and depression levels at diagnosis predicted prognosis through an association with TNM stage. Sense of humor, but not depression levels or anxiety scores, at diagnosis predicted QoL and depression levels at follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016480510027547DOI Listing
May 2005

Personality traits in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients in relation to the disease state, disease extent and prognosis.

Acta Otolaryngol 2002 Dec;122(8):892-9

Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: We aimed to study whether personality scores, as measured using the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), are associated with the risk and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Material And Methods: A total of 78 male patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC and 61 male patients with benign HN disease completed the EPI, which assesses the following: neuroticism, extraversion and lie score. The TNM stage, prognosis, diagnostic delay, level of education and smoking and alcohol consumption histories of the patients were also recorded. Patients with cachexia and those aged > 80 years were excluded.

Results: The cancer patients had higher neuroticism scores (10.7 +/- 0.5 vs 8.3 +/- 0.6; p < 0.01) than the control patients. This association was shown to be secondary to the fact that neuroticism is associated with increased alcohol consumption. The personality trait scores were not associated with the length of diagnostic delay. It was also suggested that a low lie score predicted disease-specific death in the HNSCC patients (p = 0.02). Total survival also seemed to be predictable (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Neuroticism is probably associated with a risk of HNSCC as a result of increased alcohol consumption. If the prognostic results can be replicated, a potentially important association between this personality trait and the prognosis of HNSCC is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0036554021000028066DOI Listing
December 2002
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