Publications by authors named "Andrew T Hnat"

8 Publications

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Assessment of Key Health and Wellness Indicators Among North Carolina Emergency Medical Service Providers.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2019 Mar-Apr;23(2):179-186. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize key health indicators in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and identify areas for intervention in order to ensure a strong and capable emergency health workforce.

Methods: Participants were EMS personnel delivering patients to 4 regional tertiary care emergency departments within North Carolina (NC). After transferring patient care and agreeing to participate, height, weight, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and each participant completed a questionnaire regarding demographics, activity levels, alcohol consumption, smoking, and medical history. Data were analyzed descriptively.

Results: A sample of 452 EMS personnel from across NC was enrolled. The cohort was predominantly male (74.1%) and employed full-time (85.5%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity (80.3%) among EMS personnel was higher than the NC population (65.6%) and the general United States (US) population (70.8%). A previous diagnosis of high BP was reported by only 18.3% of participants, but 65.1% had elevated BP at the time of measurement. Alcohol consumption in the past 30 days among participants (55.4%) was slightly higher than state estimates (48.0%) and similar to national estimates (57.1%). However, heavy drinking (22.2%) and binge drinking (28.8%) were reported at much higher rates than state (5.6% and 15.2%, respectively) and national (6.6% and 18.3%, respectively) estimates. The prevalence of current smoking (21.5%) and quit attempts (48.8%) in the cohort was similar to state (21.8% and 55.0%, respectively) and national (21.2% and 55.7%, respectively) estimates. Likewise, the proportion of EMS providers meeting the Center for Disease Control's activity guidelines (49.6%) was similar to that found in the NC (46.8%) and the general US (48.0%) populations.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, heavy drinking, binge drinking, and high BP among NC EMS personnel. Similar to fire service personnel, these rates are higher than the general US population. As such, they suggest areas where intervention would have the greatest positive impact on the health and performance of the EMS workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10903127.2018.1489017DOI Listing
July 2019

Comparison of brief health literacy screens in the emergency department.

J Health Commun 2015 25;20(5):539-45. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

a University of North Carolina School of Medicine , Chapel Hill , North Carolina , USA.

Measuring health literacy efficiently yet accurately is of interest both clinically and in research. The authors examined 6 brief health literacy measures and compared their categorization of patient health literacy levels and their comparative associations with patients' health status. The authors assessed 400 emergency department patients with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the Newest Vital Sign, Single Item Literacy Screen, brief screening questions, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, and the Medical Term Recognition Test. The authors analyzed data using Spearman's correlation coefficients and ran separate logistic regressions for each instrument for patient self-reported health status. Tests differed in the proportion of patients' skills classified as adequate, but all instruments were significantly correlated; instruments targeting similar skills were more strongly correlated. Scoring poorly on any instrument was significantly associated with worse health status after adjusting for age, sex and race, with a score in the combined inadequate/marginal category on the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults carrying the largest risk (OR = 2.94, 95% CI [1.23, 7.05]). Future research will need to further elaborate instrument differences in predicting different outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2014.999893DOI Listing
July 2015

Androgen receptor exon 1 mutation causes androgen insensitivity by creating phosphorylation site and inhibiting melanoma antigen-A11 activation of NH2- and carboxyl-terminal interaction-dependent transactivation.

J Biol Chem 2012 Mar 13;287(14):10905-15. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7500, USA.

Naturally occurring germ line mutations in the X-linked human androgen receptor (AR) gene cause incomplete masculinization of the external genitalia by disrupting AR function in males with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Almost all AR missense mutations that cause androgen insensitivity syndrome are located in the highly structured DNA and ligand binding domains. In this report we investigate the functional defect associated with an AR exon 1 missense mutation, R405S, that caused partial androgen insensitivity. The 46,XX heterozygous maternal carrier had a wild-type Arg-405 CGC allele but transmitted an AGC mutant allele coding for Ser-405. At birth, the 46,XY proband had a bifid scrotum, hypospadias, and micropenis consistent with clinical stage 3 partial androgen insensitivity. Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity of AR-R405S expressed in CV1 cells was less than wild-type AR and refractory in androgen-dependent AR NH(2)- and carboxyl interaction transcription assays that depend on the coregulator effects of melanoma antigen-A11. This mutation created a Ser-405 phosphorylation site evident by the gel migration of an AR-R405S NH(2)-terminal fragment as a double band that converted to the wild-type single band after treatment with λ-phosphatase. Detrimental effects of the R405S mutation were related to the proximity of the AR WXXLF motif (433)WHTLF(437) required for melanoma antigen-A11 and p300 to stimulate transcriptional activity associated with the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction. We conclude that the coregulator effects of melanoma antigen-A11 on the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction amplify the androgen-dependent transcriptional response to p300 required for normal human male sex development in utero.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.336081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322816PMC
March 2012

Structural features discriminate androgen receptor N/C terminal and coactivator interactions.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2012 Jan 1;348(2):403-10. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Laboratories for Reproductive Biology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7500, USA.

Human androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity involves interdomain and coactivator interactions with the agonist-bound AR ligand binding domain (LBD). Structural determinants of the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction between the AR NH(2)-terminal FXXLF motif and activation function 2 (AF2) in the LBD were shown previously by crystallography. In this report, we provide evidence for a region in AR LBD helix 12 outside the AF2 binding cleft that facilitates interactions with the FXXLF and LXXLL motifs. Mutagenesis of glutamine 902 to alanine in AR LBD helix 12 (Q902A) disrupted AR FXXLF motif binding to AF2, but enhanced coactivator LXXLL motif binding. Functional compensation for defective FXXLF motif binding by AR-Q902A was suggested by the slower dissociation rate of bound androgen. Functional importance of glutamine 902 was indicated by the charged residue germline mutation Q902R that caused partial androgen insensitivity, and a similar somatic mutation Q902K reported in prostate cancer, both of which increased the androgen dissociation rate and decreased AR transcriptional activity. High affinity equilibrium androgen binding was retained by alanine substitution mutations at Tyr-739 in AR LBD helix 5 or Lys-905 in helix 12 structurally adjacent to AF2, whereas transcriptional activity decreased and the androgen dissociation increased. Deleterious effects of these loss of function mutations were rescued by the helix stabilizing AR prostate cancer somatic mutation H874Y. Sequence NH(2)-terminal to the AR FXXLF motif contributed to the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction based on greater AR-2-30 FXXLF motif peptide binding to the agonist-bound AR LBD than a shorter AR-20-30 FXXLF motif peptide. We conclude that helix 12 residues outside the AF2 binding cleft modulate AR transcriptional activity by providing flexibility to accommodate FXXLF or LXXLL motif binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.03.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199032PMC
January 2012

Melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) F-box links the androgen receptor NH2-terminal transactivation domain to p160 coactivators.

J Biol Chem 2009 Dec 14;284(50):34793-808. Epub 2009 Oct 14.

Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7500, USA.

Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor (AR) and its coregulators is required for male reproductive development and function. In humans and other primates, melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) is an AR selective coregulator that increases AR transcriptional activity. Here we show that the interaction between AR and MAGE-11 is mediated by AR NH(2)-terminal FXXLF motif binding to a highly conserved MAGE-11 F-box in the MAGE homology domain, and is modulated by serum stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of MAGE-11 Ser-174. The MAGE-11-dependent increase in AR transcriptional activity is mediated by a direct interaction between MAGE-11 and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) through the NH(2)-terminal region of TIF2, and by a MAGE-11 FXXIF motif interaction with an F-box-like region in activation domain 1 of TIF2. The results suggest that MAGE-11 functions as a bridging factor to recruit AR coactivators through a novel FXX(L/I)F motif-F-box interaction paradigm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.065979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2787342PMC
December 2009

Probing the functional link between androgen receptor coactivator and ligand-binding sites in prostate cancer and androgen insensitivity.

J Biol Chem 2006 Mar 19;281(10):6648-63. Epub 2005 Dec 19.

Laboratory for Reproductive Biology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor required for male sex development and virilization and contributes to prostate cancer initiation and progression. High affinity androgen binding triggers conformational changes required for AR transactivation. Here we characterized naturally occurring AR gene mutations in the region of activation function 2 (AF2) that decrease or increase AR transcriptional activity by altering the region bounded by AF2 and the ligand binding pocket without affecting equilibrium androgen binding affinity. In the androgen insensitivity syndrome, germ line AR mutations increase the androgen dissociation rate and reduce AR FXXLF motif binding and the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)/p160 coactivator LXXLL motifs. In prostate cancer, somatic AR mutations in AF2 or near the bound ligand slow androgen dissociation and increase AR stabilization and coactivator recruitment. Crystal structures of the AR ligand binding domain bound to R1881 and FXXLF or LXXLL motif peptide indicate the mutations are proximal to the AF2 bound peptide, adjacent to the ligand pocket, or in a putative ligand gateway. The results suggest a bidirectional structural relay between bound ligand and coactivator that establishes AR functional potency in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M511738200DOI Listing
March 2006

Structural basis for androgen receptor interdomain and coactivator interactions suggests a transition in nuclear receptor activation function dominance.

Mol Cell 2004 Nov;16(3):425-38

Laboratories for Reproductive Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The androgen receptor (AR) is required for male sex development and contributes to prostate cancer cell survival. In contrast to other nuclear receptors that bind the LXXLL motifs of coactivators, the AR ligand binding domain is preferentially engaged in an interdomain interaction with the AR FXXLF motif. Reported here are crystal structures of the ligand-activated AR ligand binding domain with and without bound FXXLF and LXXLL peptides. Key residues that establish motif binding specificity are identified through comparative structure-function and mutagenesis studies. A mechanism in prostate cancer is suggested by a functional AR mutation at a specificity-determining residue that recovers coactivator LXXLL motif binding. An activation function transition hypothesis is proposed in which an evolutionary decline in LXXLL motif binding parallels expansion and functional dominance of the NH(2)-terminal transactivation domain in the steroid receptor subfamily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2004.09.036DOI Listing
November 2004

An androgen receptor NH2-terminal conserved motif interacts with the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP).

J Biol Chem 2004 Jul 23;279(29):30643-53. Epub 2004 Apr 23.

Laboratories for Reproductive Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

The NH2-terminal sequence of steroid receptors is highly variable between different receptors and in the same receptor from different species. In this study, a primary sequence homology comparison identified a 14-amino acid NH2-terminal motif of the human androgen receptor (AR) that is common to AR from all species reported, including the lower vertebrates. The evolutionarily conserved motif is unique to AR, with the exception of a partial sequence in the glucocorticoid receptor of higher species. The presence of the conserved motif in AR and the glucocorticoid receptor and its absence in other steroid receptors suggests convergent evolution. The function of the AR NH2-terminal conserved motif was suggested from a yeast two-hybrid screen that identified the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) as a binding partner. We found that CHIP functions as a negative regulator of AR transcriptional activity by promoting AR degradation. In support of this, two mutations in the AR NH2-terminal conserved motif previously identified in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model reduced the interaction between CHIP and AR. Our results suggest that the AR NH2-terminal domain contains an evolutionarily conserved motif that functions to limit AR transcriptional activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the combination of comparative sequence alignment and yeast two-hybrid screening using short conserved peptides as bait provides an effective strategy to probe the structure-function relationships of steroid receptor NH2-terminal domains and other intrinsically unstructured transcriptional regulatory proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M403117200DOI Listing
July 2004