Publications by authors named "Andrew Epstein"

392 Publications

NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Palliative Care, Version 2.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jul 28;19(7):780-788. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

30National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Palliative care has evolved to be an integral part of comprehensive cancer care with the goal of early intervention to improve quality of life and patient outcomes. The NCCN Guidelines for Palliative Care provide recommendations to help the primary oncology team promote the best quality of life possible throughout the illness trajectory for each patient with cancer. The NCCN Palliative Care Panel meets annually to evaluate and update recommendations based on panel members' clinical expertise and emerging scientific data. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's recent discussions and highlights updates on the importance of fostering adaptive coping strategies for patients and families, and on the role of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to optimize symptom management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0033DOI Listing
July 2021

Implantable loop recorder for augmenting detection of new-onset atrial fibrillation after typical atrial flutter ablation.

Heart Rhythm O2 2021 Jun 28;2(3):255-261. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Electrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Patients with typical atrial flutter (AFL) undergoing successful cavotricuspid isthmus ablation remain at risk for future development of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). Conventional monitoring (CM) techniques have shown AF incidence rates of 18%-50% in these patients.

Objectives: To evaluate whether continuous monitoring using implantable loop recorders (ILRs) would enhance AF detection in this patient population.

Methods: Veteran patients undergoing AFL ablation between 2002 and 2019 who completed at least 6 months of follow-up after the ablation procedure were included. We compared new-onset AF detection between those who underwent CM and those who received ILRs immediately following AFL ablation.

Results: A total of 217 patients (age: 66 ± 9 years; all male) participated. CM was used in 172 (79%) and ILR in 45 (21%) patients. Median follow-up duration after ablation was 4.1 years. Seventy-nine patients (36%) developed new-onset AF, which was detected by CM in 51 and ILR in 28 (30% vs 62%, respectively, < .001). AF detection occurred at 7.7 months (IQR: 4.7-17.5) after AFL ablation in the ILR group vs 41 months (IQR: 23-72) in the CM group ( < .001). Eleven patients (5%) experienced cerebrovascular events (all in the CM group) and only 4 of these patients (36%) were on long-term anticoagulation.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing AFL ablation remain at an increased risk of developing new-onset AF, which is detected sooner and more frequently by ILR than by CM. Improving AF detection may allow optimization of rhythm management strategies and anticoagulation in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hroo.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322804PMC
June 2021

Comparative economic outcomes in patients with focal seizures initiating Eslicarbazepine Acetate versus Brivaracetam as their first adjunctive ASD.

J Med Econ 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA.

Aims: To study the association between initiation of first adjunctive therapy with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) vs. brivaracetam (BRV) on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and charges among patients with treated focal seizures (FS).

Materials And Methods: Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse (IDV®) claims data (4/1/2015 - 6/30/2018) were used to identify two cohorts as first adjunctive therapy with ESL or BRV following a generic antiseizure drug (ASD). Index date was earliest claim for a new ESL or BRV prescription. Key Inclusion criteria were only 1 generic ASD in the 12 months before index date; ≥1 medical claim with a FS diagnosis. Unit of analysis was the 90-day person-time-block. Changes in HCRU and charges were assessed using a difference-in-differences framework. Both unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed. Adjusted model utilized person-specific fixed effects and propensity score-based weighting to control for differences in baseline covariates. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for charge outcomes.

Results: 208 and 137 patients initiated first adjunctive therapy with ESL (43.7 years, 51.9% female) or BRV (39.3 years, 51.8% female). Patients in the ESL cohort had numerically larger reductions in all-cause and FS-related inpatient hospitalizations and outpatient visits and FS-related emergency department visits. Compared to patients initiating BRV, patients treated with ESL had significantly larger reductions in total charges (-$3,446, CI: -$13,716, -$425), all-cause (-$3,166, CI: -$13,991, -$323) and FS-related (-$2,969, CI: -$21,547, -$842) medical charges, all-cause (-$3,397, CI: -$15,676, -$818) and FS-related (-$2,863, CI: -$19,707, -$787) outpatient charges, and non-ASD-related prescription charges (-$420, CI: -$1,058, -$78).

Limitations: Claims may be missing, or miscoded; outcomes may be influenced by variables not accounted for in the analysis; only information on submitted charges was included.

Conclusions: Among patients with FS, initiation of first adjunctive therapy with ESL was associated with significantly larger reductions in medical and non-ASD-related prescriptions charges compared to BRV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2021.1960682DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative Economic Outcomes in Patients with Focal Seizure Initiating First-Line Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy versus Generic Antiseizure Drugs.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 19;13:251-261. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA.

Objective: To examine the association between initiating first-line (1L) monotherapy with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) vs a generic antiseizure drug (ASD) and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and charges in adults with treated focal seizures (FS).

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse open-source claims data. Two cohorts were identified as having initiated 1L monotherapy with ESL or literature-defined generic ASDs. Linear regression models with person fixed effects and inverse probability treatment weights assessed the relative additional changes in HCRU and charges among patients who received ESL compared to generic ASD.

Results: A total of 250 and 43,220 patients initiated ESL (48.3 years; 57.2% female) or a generic ASD (54.5 years; 58.1% female), respectively. Compared to patients initiating a generic ASD, patients treated with ESL had additional reductions of 11.8 percentage points in the likelihood of any all-cause outpatient visits (<0.001), 7.4 percentage points in the likelihood of any emergency department (ED) visits (=0.013), and 22.7 percentage points in the likelihood of any FS-related outpatient visits (<0.001). Patients initiating ESL had greater reductions in mean charges for all-cause medical ($2620; =0.002), outpatient ($1995; =0.005), and non-FS-related medical ($2708; <0.001) services. Patients initiating ESL had greater relative increases in mean total prescription ($1368; <0.001) and ASD-related prescription ($1636; <0.001) charges, but greater relative reductions in non-ASD prescription ($269; =0.032) charges. The increases in prescription charges were of a lower magnitude than the decreases in medical charges.

Conclusion: Initiation of ESL as 1L monotherapy was associated with statistically significantly greater reductions in any use of several all-cause and FS-related services, number of visits, and charges compared to initiation of a generic ASD as 1L monotherapy in patients with FS. Initiation of a generic ASD as 1L monotherapy was associated with significantly smaller increases in total prescription charges and ASD-related prescription charges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S303079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064618PMC
April 2021

Bearing Witness to the "Existential Slap".

J Palliat Med 2021 04;24(4):625-627

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987353PMC
April 2021

The inaugural United States World Hospice and Palliative Care Day Celebration: A virtual coming together.

Palliat Support Care 2021 04;19(2):182-186

Supportive Care Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

Objective: On October 10, 2020, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Supportive Care Service hosted their first-ever United States (US) World Hospice and Palliative Care Day (WHPCD) Celebration. The purpose of this article is to describe the US inaugural event in alignment with the broader goals of WHPCD and provide lessons learned in anticipation of the second annual conference to be held on October 5-6, 2021.

Methods: Description of the inaugural event in the context of COVID-19 and WHPCD, co-planning conference team reflection, and attendee survey responses.

Results: The Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance initially launched WHPCD in 2005 as an annual unified day of action to celebrate and support hospice and palliative care around the world. The US-based innovative virtual conference featured 23 interprofessional hospice and palliative care specialists and patient and family caregiver speakers across nine diverse sessions addressing priorities at the intersection of COVID-19, social injustice, and the global burden of serious health-related suffering. Two primary aims guided the event: community building and wisdom sharing. Nearly 270 registrants from at least 16 countries and one dozen states across the US joined the free program focused on both personal and professional development.

Significance Of Results: Unlike many other academic conferences and professional gatherings that were relegated to online forums due to pandemic-related restrictions, the US WHPCD Celebration was intentionally established to create a virtual coming together for collective reflection on the barriers and facilitators of palliative care delivery amid vast societal change. The goal to ensure a globally relevant and culturally inclusive agenda will continue to draw increased participation at an international level during future annual events. Finally, the transparent and respectful sharing of palliative care team experiences in the year preceding the conference established a safe environment for both individual expression and scholarly discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1478951521000237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084983PMC
April 2021

Alert-Based ICD Follow-Up: A Model of Digitally Driven Remote Patient Monitoring.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Cardiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to test whether continuous automatic remote patient monitoring (RPM) linked to centralized analytics reduces nonactionable in-person patient evaluation (IPE) but maintains detection of at-risk patients and provides actionable notifications.

Background: Conventional ambulatory care requires frequent IPEs. Many encounters are nonactionable, and additional unscheduled IPEs occur.

Methods: Patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for Class I/IIa indications were randomized (2:1) to RPM or conventional follow-up, and they were followed up for 15 months. IPEs were conducted every 3 months in the conventional care group but at 3 and 15 months with RPM. Groups were compared for patient retention, nonactionable IPEs, and discovery of at-risk patients during 1 year of exclusive RPM. Frequency and value of RPM alerts were assessed.

Results: Patients enrolled (mean age 63.5 ± 12.8 years; male 71.9%; left ventricular ejection fraction 29.0 ± 10.7%; primary prevention 72.3%; n = 1450) were similar between groups (977 RPM vs. 473 conventional care). Mean follow-up durations were 407 ± 103 days for the RPM group versus 399 ± 111 days for the conventional care group (p = 0.165). Patient attrition to follow-up was 42% greater with conventional care (20.1% [87 of 431]) versus RPM (14.2% [129 of 908]; p = 0.007). Nonactionable IPEs were reduced 81% by RPM (0.7 per patient year) compared with conventional care (3.6 per patient year; p < 0.001) but event discoveries remained similar (2.9 per patient year). In RPM, alert rate was median 1 per patient (interquartile range 0 to 3) with >50% actionability, indicating low volume but high clinical value. Unscheduled IPE was the basis for discovery of 100% of intercurrent problems in RPM and also 75% in conventional care, indicating limited value of appointment-based follow-up for problem discovery. The number of IPEs needed to discover an actionable event was 8.2 in Conventional, 4.9 in RPM, and 2.1 when alert driven (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: RPM transformed ambulatory care to IPE directed to those patients with clinically actionable events when required. Filtering patient information by digitally driven remote monitoring expends fewer clinic resources while providing a greater yield of actionable interventions. (Lumos-T Safely Reduces Routine Office Device Follow-up [TRUST]; NCT00336284).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2021.01.008DOI Listing
February 2021

Periprocedural Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Structural Heart Disease Undergoing Catheter Ablation of VT.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 02 28;7(2):174-186. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to examine the impact of periprocedural acute kidney injury (AKI) in scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) on short- and long-term outcomes.

Background: The clinical significance of periprocedural AKI in patients with scar-related VT undergoing RFCA has not been previously investigated.

Methods: This study included 317 consecutive patients with scar-related VT undergoing RFCA (age: 64 ± 13 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 33 ± 13%, 55% ischemic cardiomyopathy). Periprocedural AKI was defined as an absolute increase in creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl over 48 h or an increase of >1.5× the baseline values within 1 week post-procedure.

Results: Periprocedural AKI occurred in 31 patients (10%). Independent predictors of AKI included chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR]: 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48 to 7.96; p = 0.004), atrial fibrillation (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.01 to 5.78; p = 0.047), and peri-procedural acute hemodynamic decompensation (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.17 to 13.52; p = 0.003). After a median follow-up of 39 months (interquartile range: 6 to 65 months), 95 patients (30%) died. Periprocedural AKI was associated with increased risk of early mortality (within 30 days; hazard ratio [HR]: 9.91; 95% CI: 2.87 to 34.22; p < 0.001) and late mortality (within 1 year) (HR: 4.57; 95% CI: 2.08 to 10.05; p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, AKI remained independently associated with increased risk of early and late mortality (HR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.1 to 18.36; p = 0.04, and HR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.43 to 7.49; p = 0.005, respectively).

Conclusions: Periprocedural AKI occurs in 10% of patients undergoing RFCA of scar-related VT and is strongly associated with increased risk of early and late post-procedural mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.08.018DOI Listing
February 2021

A Novel Patient Values Tab for the Electronic Health Record: A User-Centered Design Approach.

J Med Internet Res 2021 02 17;23(2):e21615. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has shined a harsh light on a critical deficiency in our health care system: our inability to access important information about patients' values, goals, and preferences in the electronic health record (EHR). At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), we have integrated and systematized health-related values discussions led by oncology nurses for newly diagnosed cancer patients as part of routine comprehensive cancer care. Such conversations include not only the patient's wishes for care at the end of life but also more holistic personal values, including sources of strength, concerns, hopes, and their definition of an acceptable quality of life. In addition, health care providers use a structured template to document their discussions of patient goals of care.

Objective: To provide ready access to key information about the patient as a person with individual values, goals, and preferences, we undertook the creation of the Patient Values Tab in our center's EHR to display this information in a single, central location. Here, we describe the interprofessional, interdisciplinary, iterative process and user-centered design methodology that we applied to build this novel functionality as well as our initial implementation experience and plans for evaluation.

Methods: We first convened a working group of experts from multiple departments, including medical oncology, health informatics, information systems, nursing informatics, nursing education, and supportive care, and a user experience designer. We conducted in-depth, semistructured, audiorecorded interviews of over 100 key stakeholders. The working group sought consensus on the tab's main content, homing in on high-priority areas identified by the stakeholders. The core content was mapped to various EHR data sources. We established a set of high-level design principles to guide our process. Our user experience designer then created wireframes of the tab design. The designer conducted usability testing with physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. Data validation testing was conducted.

Results: We have already deployed the Patient Values Tab to a pilot sample of users in the MSK Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Service, including physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, and administrative staff. We have early evidence of the positive impact of this EHR innovation. Audit logs show increasing use. Many of the initial user comments have been enthusiastically positive, while others have provided constructive suggestions for additional tab refinements with respect to format and content.

Conclusions: It is our challenge and obligation to enrich the EHR with information about the patient as a person. Realization of this capability is a pressing public health need requiring the collaboration of technological experts with a broad range of clinical leaders, users, patients, and families to achieve solutions that are both principled and practical. Our new Patient Values Tab represents a step forward in this important direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/21615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929751PMC
February 2021

Needs and Perspectives of Cancer Center Stakeholders for Access to Patient Values in the Electronic Health Record.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Feb 8:OP2000644. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Question Asked: What is the most important information that diverse institutional stakeholders at a comprehensive cancer center need to know about patients to provide patient-centered care, and what is the best way to display this information in a new single-location feature in the electronic health record (EHR)?

Summary Answer: Thematic content analysis of semistructured interviews with a large and diverse group of institutional stakeholders at our comprehensive cancer center revealed themes informing design and development of the Patient Values Tab EHR feature, generated enthusiasm and buy-in for this digital innovation, created a sense of awareness among future users, and paved the way for implementation.

What We Did: Qualitative data were collected through in-person, guide-based, audio-recorded, individual interviews with a total of 110 stakeholders representing a wide range of disciplines and professions, as well as others involved in administration of the hospital or clinics within our cancer center.

What We Found: Respondents felt that to facilitate the delivery of patient-centered care, information in the following categories should be displayed: the patient's personhood, support system and resources, social history, communication preferences, future planning, end of life, and illness and treatment understanding. Other important themes that arose in the interviews included implementation considerations, improved communication and relationship building, and privacy implications.

Bias, Confounding Factors, Drawbacks, Real-life Implications: Since this study was conducted at a single dedicated cancer center, generalizability of findings across other healthcare settings merits further investigation. It is possible that non-English-speaking clinicians and patients, who were not interviewed, might have different needs or perspectives. We designed our Patient Values Tab for our institution's EHR (Allscripts); however, this display feature can be configured in other EHR software. By interviewing a large and varying sample of stakeholders and rigorously analyzing their responses, we obtained robust results to inform the development and implementation of this innovative EHR feature centralizing key information needed to enhance patient-centered cancer care. The introduction of the new Patient Values Tab at this well-known cancer center signals the importance of patient personhood and values throughout the institution and advances the use of the EHR as a driver of the delivery of patient-centered care throughout the illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00644DOI Listing
February 2021

Stroke, Timing of Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosis, and Risk of Death.

Neurology 2021 03 3;96(12):e1655-e1662. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

From the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (A.B., Y.B., M.C.H., J.A., D.J.C., N.C., S.D., A.E.E., D.S.F., F.C.G., R.K., J.J.L., D.L., S.N., M.P.R., P.S., R.D.S., G.E.S., F.M., R.D.), and Department of Neurology (S.R.M., S.E.K.), Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia; Department of Biostatistics (R.K.), University of Washington, Seattle; and Division of Cardiology (P.J.P.), St. Vincent Medical Group, Indianapolis, IN.

Objective: To evaluate the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke according to the timing of an atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis, we created an inception cohort of incident stroke events and compared the risk of death between patients with stroke with (1) sinus rhythm, (2) known AF (KAF), and (3) AF diagnosed after stroke (AFDAS).

Methods: We used the Penn AF Free study to create an inception cohort of patients with incident stroke. Mortality events were identified after linkage with the National Death Index through June 30, 2017. We also evaluated initiation of anticoagulants and antiplatelets across the study duration. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between stroke subtypes and death.

Results: We identified 1,489 individuals who developed an incident ischemic stroke event: 985 did not develop AF at any point during the study period, 215 had KAF before stroke, 160 had AF detected ≤6 months after stroke, and 129 had AF detected >6 months after stroke. After a median follow-up of 4.9 years (interquartile range 1.9-6.8), 686 deaths occurred. The annualized mortality rate was 8.8% in the stroke, no AF group; 12.2% in the KAF group; 15.8% in the AFDAS ≤6 months group; and 12.7% in the AFDAS >6 months group. Patients in the AFDAS ≤6 months group had the highest independent risk of all-cause mortality even after multivariable adjustment for demographics, clinical risk factors, and the use of antithrombotic therapies (hazard ratio 1.62 [1.22-2.14]). Compared to the stroke, no AF group, those with KAF had a higher mortality risk that was rendered nonsignificant after adjustment.

Conclusions: The AFDAS group had the highest risk of death, which was not explained by comorbidities or use of antithrombotic therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011633DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic value of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Score in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Cancer 2021 May 20;127(10):1568-1575. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York.

Background: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Score (MPS), a composite of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin, is an objective prognostic tool created as a more readily available alternative to the Glasgow Prognostic Score. A prior analysis of patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) suggested that the MPS may predict survival, although it did not control for clinically relevant factors.

Methods: MPS scores were calculated for patients with mPDAC treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014. An MPS scale of 0 to 2 was used: 0 for an albumin level ≥ 4 g/dL and an NLR ≤ 4 g/dL, 1 for either an albumin level < 4 g/dL or an NLR > 4 g/dL, and 2 for an albumin level < 4 g/dL and an NLR > 4 g/dL. Performance status, antineoplastic therapy, presence of thromboembolism (TE), radiation therapy, and metastatic sites were also analyzed. The associations with overall survival were examined with time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.

Results: A multivariate model revealed that higher MPS scores at diagnosis (hazard ratio for MPS of 2 vs MPS of 0, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.76), liver metastases, radiation therapy, hospital admissions, TE, and performance status were associated with worse overall survival. The median overall survival for patients with MPS scores of 0, 1, and 2 were 12.9, 9.0, and 5.4 months, respectively.

Conclusions: The MPS, an easily calculated composite of the NLR and albumin, is an objective tool that may predict survival in mPDAC independently of performance status, disease characteristics, and cancer therapy.

Lay Summary: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Score (MPS) is a new scoring system that incorporates markers of inflammation found in individuals' blood at the diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Data suggest that the MPS may help to determine prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084949PMC
May 2021

Chronic Swelling Over Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Sites: A Multicenter Case Series.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 12 15;13(12):e009253. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (N.V.K.P., A.E.E., G.E.S., R.D.S.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.009253DOI Listing
December 2020

Development of the Oncolo-GIST ("Giving Information Strategically & Transparently") Intervention Manual for Oncologist Skills Training in Advanced Cancer Prognostic Information Communication.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Jul 27;62(1):10-19.e4. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Context: Patient prognostic understanding is improved by oncologists' discussions of life expectancy. Most patients deem it important to discuss prognosis with their oncologists, but a minority of cancer patients within months of death report that they had such a discussion with their oncologist.

Objectives: To query stakeholders about their perspectives on the clinical approach and utility of an Oncolo-GIST manualized communication intervention, designed to enhance oncologists' ability to convey the gist of prognostic information simply, clearly, and effectively in the setting of progressing solid tumors and limited life expectancy.

Methods: We obtained and analyzed feedback on the intervention from solid tumor oncology clinicians and bereaved family caregivers, soliciting opinions on the clinical approach taken in the videos, acceptability and likely impact of the instructions, and specific phrases recommended in the manual.

Results: Twenty stakeholders (9 clinicians, 11 caregivers) participated. All agreed that oncologists should broach prognosis with patients, balancing honesty and sensitivity. Participants also advocated for oncologists to involve interprofessional team members (e.g., nurses, social workers) when serious mental health concerns arose. After the research team's discussion of the stakeholder feedback, the manual was modified to include or exclude preferred language and approaches.

Conclusion: The Oncolo-GIST intervention was characterized as simple and potentially effective at conveying prognoses to advanced cancer patients. Future research should determine if this approach to medical communication, which distills the essence of prognostic messages clearly and simply, is associated with improvements in patients' prognostic understanding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.11.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155099PMC
July 2021

Catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias following lung transplant: Electrophysiological findings and outcomes.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 01 25;32(1):49-57. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: Data on the mechanisms of atrial arrhythmias (AAs) and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) in lung transplantation (LT) patients are insufficient. We evaluated the electrophysiologic features and outcomes of CA of AAs in LT patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective study of all the LT patients who underwent CA for AAs at our institution between 2004 and 2019. A total of 15 patients (43% males, age: 61 ± 10 years) with a history of LT (60% bilateral and 40% unilateral) were identified. All patients had documented organized AA on surface electrocardiogram and seven patients also had atrial fibrillation (AF; 47% with >1 clinical arrhythmia). At electrophysiological study, 19 organized AAs were documented (48% focal and 52% macro-re-entrant). Focal atrial tachycardias/flutters were targeted along the pulmonary vein (PV) anastomotic site at the left inferior PV (n = 2), ridge and carina of the left superior PV (n = 2), left atrium (LA) posterior wall (n = 3), LA roof (n = 1), and tricuspid annulus (n = 1). Macro-re-entrant AAs included cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter (n = 2), incisional LA flutter (n = 4), LA roof-dependent flutter (n = 1), and mitral annular flutter (n = 3). In patients with LA mapping (n = 13), PV reconnection on the side of the LT was found in six patients (40%, all with clinically documented AF), with a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 PVs reconnected per patient. Patients with AF underwent successful PV isolation. After a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 6-86 months), 75% of patients remained free from recurrent AAs. No procedural major complications occurred.

Conclusion: In patients with prior LT, recurrent AAs are typically associated with substrate surrounding the surgical anastomotic lines and/or chronically reconnected PVs. CA of AAs in this population is safe and effective to achieve long-term arrhythmia control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14816DOI Listing
January 2021

2020 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on Management of Conduction Disturbances in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Solution Set Oversight Committee.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 11 21;76(20):2391-2411. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Consensus regarding a reasonable strategy to manage cardiac conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been elusive. This is due to the absence of adequately powered, randomized controlled trials; the often transient nature of the conduction disturbances; evolving technologies; and the interplay of cardiology subspecialties involved. In the absence of high-quality trials, numerous practice styles have been developed, and prolonged observation, electrophysiological testing, and pre-emptive pacemaker implantation have been described. Although the 2013 European Society of Cardiology guidelines address pacing post-TAVR, they do not provide in-depth discussion of this topic. Furthermore, a summary and proposed strategy for this problem have not been published by cardiovascular societies in the United States, despite an interest in establishing best practices in TAVR, valvular heart disease, and cardiovascular implantable electrical devices. This document reviews existing data and experience regarding the management of conduction disturbances after TAVR and proposes an evidence-based expert consensus decision pathway for their management. Where evidence is lacking or insufficient, the recommendations herein are based on expert opinion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.08.050DOI Listing
November 2020

Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias From the Left Ventricular Apex in Patients Without Ischemic Heart Disease.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 09 27;6(9):1089-1102. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Section, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the incidence, clinical characteristics, and electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of LVA VA in the absence of CAD and to describe the experience with catheter ablation (CA) in this group.

Background: The left ventricular apex (LVA) is a well-described source of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and history of apical infarction but is a rare source of VA in the absence of CAD.

Methods: Patients referred for CA of VA at our institution were retrospectively reviewed, and those with LVA VA in the absence of CAD were identified.

Results: Of 3,710 consecutive patients undergoing VA ablation, CA of LVA VA was performed in 24 patients (20 with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, 4 with premature ventricular contractions or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; 18 men; mean age: 54 ± 15 years). These cases comprised 10 of 35 (29%) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 of 789 (1.2%) nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 5 of 1,432 (0.4%) idiopathic VA ablation procedures. VA QRS morphology was predominantly right bundle with slurred upstroke and right superior frontal plane axis with precordial transition ≤V3. Epicardial ablation was performed in 14 of 24 (58%). After a median of 1 procedure (range 1 to 4) at this institution and median follow-up of 47 months (range 0-176), VA recurred in 1 patient (4%).

Conclusions: LVA VA in the absence of CAD is unusual and may occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic cardiomyopathy or, rarely, in the absence of structural heart disease. It can be recognized by characteristic ECG features. CA of LVA VA is challenging; multiple procedures, including epicardial approaches, may be required to achieve VA control over long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.04.021DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of Early Initiation of Eslicarbazepine Acetate on Economic Outcomes Among Patients with Focal Seizure: Results from Retrospective Database Analyses.

Neurol Ther 2020 Dec 19;9(2):585-598. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., 84 Waterford Drive, Marlborough, MA, 01752, USA.

Introduction: This study assessed the association between early initiation of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as first-line therapy (1L cohort) or as first adjunctive regimen to either levetiracetam (LEV) or lamotrigine (LTG) (add-on cohort), and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and charges among adults with treated focal seizures (FS).

Methods: This retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis used Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse (IDV®) claims data to identify patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of FS who had a new prescription for ESL between April 2015 and June 2018. Baseline was the 90-day period immediately prior to the date of the first-dispensed claim for ESL (index date) with a follow-up of 1-4 consecutive 90-day periods. Linear regression models were estimated to assess changes in HCRU and charge outcomes.

Results: There were 274 and 153 patients who received ESL in the 1L cohort and add-on cohort, respectively. The 1L cohort experienced significant reductions from baseline during follow-up in all-cause inpatient (IP; P < 0.0001), emergency room (ER; P < 0.0001), and outpatient (OP; P < 0.0001) visits; FS-related IP (P = 0.006) and OP (P < 0.0001) visits; total, medical, all-cause ER and OP, and FS-related medical charges (P < 0.05); and significant increases in total prescription and anti-seizure drug (ASD)-related prescription (P < 0.001) charges. The add-on cohort experienced significant reductions in all-cause IP (P = 0.009) and all-cause and FS-related OP visits (P < 0.0001 for both) and significant increases in total prescription and ASD-related prescription (P < 0.001) charges during the follow-up period. In both cohorts, the increases in prescription charges were smaller than the reduction in total medical charges.

Conclusion: Early initiation of ESL as 1L or add-on therapy was associated with statistically significant reductions in all-cause IP and all-cause and FS-related OP visits during follow-up compared to baseline. The 1L cohort also had statistically significant reductions in all-cause ER visits, FS-related IP visits, and total, medical, all-cause ER and OP, and FS-related medical charges. Knowledge of healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs of care in patients taking anti-seizure drugs (ASDs) is required to inform prescribing and formulary decision-making. Levetiracetam (LEV) and lamotrigine (LTG) are the most widely used first-line (1L) ASDs in the USA. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a third-generation ASD with sodium channel-modulating activity, is typically used in later lines of therapy. Sodium channel-blocking anti-seizure drugs may represent an effective treatment option for patients with epilepsy in the 1L setting. This study assessed the association between early initiation of ESL as 1L therapy (1L cohort) or as first adjunctive therapy to either LEV or LTG (add-on cohort), and HCRU and charges among adults with treated focal seizures (FS). The results showed that following ESL initiation the 1L cohort experienced significant reductions in all-cause inpatient (IP), emergency room (ER), and outpatient (OP) visits; FS-related IP and OP visits; and total, medical, all-cause ER and OP, and FS-related medical charges, and significant increases in total prescription and ASD-related prescription charges. The add-on cohort showed significant reductions in all-cause IP and all-cause and FS-related OP visits and significant increases in total prescription and ASD-related prescription charges. In both cohorts, the increases in prescription charges were smaller than the reduction in total medical charges. These data imply that use of ESL as 1L therapy in adult patients with FS could help conserve scarce healthcare resources and reduce the burden on healthcare budgets. These findings may inform selection of ASD therapy in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-020-00211-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606418PMC
December 2020

Healthcare Resource Utilization Pre- and Post-Initiation of Eslicarbazepine Acetate Among Pediatric Patients with Focal Seizure: Evidence from Routine Clinical Practice.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2020 23;12:379-387. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA.

Objective: To examine the impact of initiating treatment with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) among pediatric patients with focal seizures (FS).

Methods: This retrospective study used Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse claims data. Patients aged 4 to 17 years with a diagnosis of FS and a new prescription for ESL between April 2015 and June 2018 were included and defined as the overall patient population. Index date was the first dispensed claim for ESL. Baseline period was the 90-day block immediately prior to the index date. The follow-up period comprised up to 4 consecutive 90-day blocks immediately following the index date. Subgroups were defined based on the presence (DP+) or absence (DP-) of developmental and/or psychiatric disorders at baseline. All-cause and FS-related inpatient (IP), emergency room (ER), outpatient (OP) hospital, and office (OF) visits were measured during the follow-up period. Reduction in HCRU per block in the post-ESL period was assessed using fixed-effects linear regression models.

Results: A total of 234 patients were included in the overall study population, of whom 86 (36.8%) were DP+ and 148 (63.2%) were DP-. Relative to the baseline period, significant reductions were observed in the overall population for all-cause ER (=0.001), OP (<0.001), and OF <0.001) visits and FS-related IP (=0.037) and OF (<0.001) visits in the follow-up period. Among DP+ and DP- patients, significant reductions were observed for all-cause ER (DP+: =0.024; DP-: =0.017), OP (DP+: <0.001; DP-: =0.035), and OF (DP+: =0.004; DP-: =0.001) visits during the follow-up period. No significant differences were observed between DP+ and DP- patients in the change in all-cause or FS-related HCRU from baseline to the follow-up period.

Conclusion: Pediatric patients with FS (DP+ and DP-) who initiated ESL had significant reductions in all-cause ER, OP, and OF visits and FS-related IP and OF visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S261960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384864PMC
July 2020

Illness Understanding, Prognostic Awareness, and End-of-Life Care in Patients With GI Cancer and Malignant Bowel Obstruction With Drainage Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 02 6;17(2):e186-e193. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is common in advanced GI cancer, and MBO management, including drainage percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (dPEG), is palliative. How patients understand the goals of dPEG and its impact on disease is inadequately understood in the literature. Therefore, we analyzed these issues in patients with GI cancer.

Methods: Demographics, clinical variables, and patient outcomes were abstracted from the medical record. Illness understanding and future expectations were retrieved from palliative care notes. We described additional treatment and outcomes after dPEG and estimated overall survival (OS).

Results: From January 2015 to June 2017, 125 admitted patients with metastatic GI cancer underwent dPEG for MBO. Cancers were most commonly colorectal (34%) and pancreatic/ampullary (25%). During the dPEG admission, 32% (40 of 125) of patients had a palliative care consultation, and 22% (28 of 125) were asked about illness understanding and future expectations. All (28 of 28) reported good understanding of the advanced nature of their disease, but few were accurate about prognosis given their stage IV disease (10 of 28). Of the 117 (94%) discharged, 13% (15 of 117) received additional chemotherapy, which rarely prevented progression; half (63 of 117) had a do-not-resuscitate order; and most (101 of 117) were enrolled in hospice at death. Median time to death was 37 days (95% CI, 29 to 45 days); 6-month OS was 3.7% (95% CI, 1.2% to 8.4%).

Conclusion: dPEGs are placed close to end of life in patients with advanced GI cancer. A minority of patients receive additional chemotherapy post-dPEG. Many have adequate disease understanding, but chemotherapy benefit is low, and future expectations vary. This may be an opportunity for improved communication regarding palliative procedures in advanced cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189623PMC
February 2021

Interdisciplinary or Interprofessional: Why Terminology in Teamwork Matters to Hospice and Palliative Care.

J Palliat Med 2020 09 7;23(9):1157-1158. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0299DOI Listing
September 2020

Rates of Adoption and Outcomes After Firmware Updates for Food and Drug Administration Cybersecurity Safety Advisories.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 08 6;13(8):e008364. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (A.E.E.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008364DOI Listing
August 2020

COVID-19 and cardiac arrhythmias.

Heart Rhythm 2020 Sep 22;17(9):1439-1444. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Early studies suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may cause injury to cardiac myocytes and increase arrhythmia risk.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiac arrest and arrhythmias including incident atrial fibrillation (AF), bradyarrhythmias, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in a large urban population hospitalized for COVID-19. We also evaluated correlations between the presence of these arrhythmias and mortality.

Methods: We reviewed the characteristics of all patients with COVID-19 admitted to our center over a 9-week period. Throughout hospitalization, we evaluated the incidence of cardiac arrests, arrhythmias, and inpatient mortality. We also used logistic regression to evaluate age, sex, race, body mass index, prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and intensive care unit (ICU) status as potential risk factors for each arrhythmia.

Results: Among 700 patients (mean age 50 ± 18 years; 45% men; 71% African American; 11% received ICU care), there were 9 cardiac arrests, 25 incident AF events, 9 clinically significant bradyarrhythmias, and 10 NSVTs. All cardiac arrests occurred in patients admitted to the ICU. In addition, admission to the ICU was associated with incident AF (odds ratio [OR] 4.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-13.18) and NSVT (OR 8.92; 95% CI 1.73-46.06) after multivariable adjustment. Also, age and incident AF (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02-1.09) and prevalent heart failure and bradyarrhythmias (OR 9.75; 95% CI 1.95-48.65) were independently associated. Only cardiac arrests were associated with acute in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: Cardiac arrests and arrhythmias are likely the consequence of systemic illness and not solely the direct effects of COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.06.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307518PMC
September 2020

Evaluation of Radiofrequency Ablation Irrigation Type: In Vivo Comparison of Normal Versus Half-Normal Saline Lesion Characteristics.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 06 27;6(6):684-692. Epub 2020 May 27.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Section, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: This study investigated the impact of the type of catheter irrigant used during delivery of radiofrequency ablation.

Background: The use of half-normal saline (HNS) as an irrigant has been suggested as a method for increasing ablation lesion size but has not been rigorously studied in the beating heart or the use of a low-flow irrigation catheter.

Methods: Sixteen swine underwent left ventricular mapping and ablation using either normal saline (NS) (group 1: n = 9) or half-normal saline (HNS) (group 2: n = 7). All lesions were delivered using identical parameters (40 W with 10-second ramp, 30-second duration, 15 ml/min flow, and 8- to14-g target contact force). An occurrence of steam pop, catheter char, or thrombus was assessed using intracardiac echocardiography and catheter inspection following each application. Lesion depth, width, and area were measured using electronic calibers.

Results: A total of 109 lesions were delivered in group 1 and 77 in group 2. There were significantly more steam pops in group 2 (32 of 77 [42%] vs. 24 of 109 [22%], respectively). The frequencies of catheter tip char were similar (group 1: 9 of 109 [8%] vs. group 2: 10 of 77 [13%]; p = 0.29). Lesion depths, widths, and areas also were similar in both groups.

Conclusions: The use of an HNS irrigant using a low-flow open irrigated ablation catheter platform results in more tissue heating due to higher radiofrequency current delivery directed to tissue, but this can lead to higher rate of steam pops. In this in vivo porcine beating-heart model, the use of HNS does not appear to significantly increase lesion size in normal myocardium despite evidence of increased radiofrequency heating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.02.013DOI Listing
June 2020

Debulking Infection: Do What's Right, Save What's Left.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 06;6(6):681-683

Electrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.02.016DOI Listing
June 2020

Impact of Formulary Restrictions on Antiepileptic Drug Dispensation Outcomes.

Neurol Ther 2020 Dec 30;9(2):505-519. Epub 2020 May 30.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA.

Introduction: The aim of this analysis was to assess the relationship between formulary restrictions and antiepileptic drug (AED) dispensation in patients with focal seizure (FS).

Study Design: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using data from Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse® (1 April 2015-30 June 2018).

Methods: This study included two patient populations: the overall patient population (N = 54,097) and a pediatric population (< 18 years) (N = 12,610). Cohorts were defined based on approval or rejection of the index AED claim. Study outcomes were prescription life cycle analysis, proportion of patients with dispensation, time to dispensation, and likelihood of successful dispensation. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was estimated to study the association between formulary restriction and likelihood of successful AED dispensation.

Results: Among patients in the overall population with a rejected claim (n = 9133), 8.0% did not receive any AED and 77.6% received approval for the index AED following an appeal. Among the pediatric patients with a rejected claim (n = 3081), 6.0% did not receive any AED and 81.7% received approval for the index AED after an appeal. In both populations, formulary restrictions were associated with significant delays in index AED dispensation (6.9 and 5.3 days, respectively; P  < 0.0001 for each population), compared to approved AED claims. In the overall and pediatric populations, formulary-related rejections of AEDs were associated with a 35% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.66; P  < 0.0001) and 27% (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.69-0.76; P  < 0.0001) lower likelihood of successful dispensation of the index AED, respectively.

Conclusions: Formulary restrictions of AEDs were associated with significant delays in treatment and significantly lower likelihood of successful AED dispensation in patients with FS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-020-00195-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606428PMC
December 2020

QRS morphology in lead V for the rapid localization of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias originating from the left ventricular papillary muscles: A novel electrocardiographic criterion.

Heart Rhythm 2020 10 23;17(10):1711-1718. Epub 2020 May 23.

Electrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria have been developed to identify idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) from the left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles (PAPs), but accurate localization remains a challenge.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop ECG criteria for accurate localization of LV PAP VAs using lead V exclusively.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing mapping and ablation of VAs from the LV PAPs guided by intracardiac echocardiography from 2007 to 2018 were reviewed (study group). The QRS morphology in lead V was compared to patients with VAs with a "right bundle branch block" morphology from other LV locations (reference group). Patients with structural heart disease were excluded.

Results: One hundred eleven patients with LV PAP VAs (mean age 54 ± 16 years; 65% men) were identified, including 64 (55%) from the posteromedial PAP and 47 (42%) from the anterolateral PAP. The reference group included patients with VAs from the following LV locations: fascicles (n = 21), outflow tract (n = 36), ostium (n = 37), inferobasal segment (n = 12), and apex (5). PAP VAs showed 3 distinct QRS morphologies in lead V 93% of the time: Rr (53%), R with a slurred downslope (29%), and RR (11%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the 3 morphologies combined are 93%, 98%, 98%, and 93%, respectively. The intrinsicoid deflection of PAP VAs in lead V was shorter than that of the reference group (63 ± 13 ms vs 79 ± 24 ms; P < .001). An intrinsicoid deflection time of <74 ms best differentiated the 2 groups (sensitivity 79%; specificity 87%).

Conclusion: VAs originating from the LV PAPs manifest unique QRS morphologies in lead V, which can aid in rapid and accurate localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.05.021DOI Listing
October 2020
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