Publications by authors named "Amin Aalipour"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Allogeneic CAR Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Exert Potent Antitumor Effects through Host CD8 T-Cell Cross-Priming.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Nov 10;27(21):6054-6064. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Purpose: The development of allogeneic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies for off-the-shelf use is a major goal that faces two main immunologic challenges, namely the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) induction by the transferred cells and the rejection by the host immune system limiting their persistence. In this work we assessed the direct and indirect antitumor effect of allogeneic CAR-engineered invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, a cell population without GvHD-induction potential that displays immunomodulatory properties.

Experimental Design: After assessing murine CAR iNKT cells direct antitumor effects and , we employed an immunocompetent mouse model of B-cell lymphoma to assess the interaction between allogeneic CAR iNKT cells and endogenous immune cells.

Results: We demonstrate that allogeneic CAR iNKT cells exerted potent direct and indirect antitumor activity when administered across major MHC barriers by inducing tumor-specific antitumor immunity through host CD8 T-cell cross-priming.

Conclusions: In addition to their known direct cytotoxic effect, allogeneic CAR iNKT cells induce host CD8 T-cell antitumor responses, resulting in a potent antitumor effect lasting longer than the physical persistence of the allogeneic cells. The utilization of off-the-shelf allogeneic CAR iNKT cells could meet significant unmet needs in the clinic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563377PMC
November 2021

Minicircles for a two-step blood biomarker and PET imaging early cancer detection strategy.

J Control Release 2021 07 21;335:281-289. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

Early cancer detection can dramatically increase treatment options and survival rates for patients, yet detection of early-stage tumors remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate a two-step strategy to detect and locate cancerous lesions by delivering tumor-activatable minicircle (MC) plasmids encoding a combination of blood-based and imaging reporter genes to tumor cells. We genetically engineered the MCs, under the control of the pan-tumor-specific Survivin promoter, to encode: 1) Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc), a secreted biomarker that can be easily assayed in blood samples; and 2) Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase mutant (HSV-1 sr39TK), a PET reporter gene that can be used for highly sensitive and quantitative imaging of the tumor location. We evaluated two methods of MC delivery, complexing the MCs with the chemical transfection reagent jetPEI or encapsulating the MCs in extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from a human cervical cancer HeLa cell line. MCs delivered by EVs or jetPEI yielded significant expression of the reporter genes in cell culture versus MCs delivered without a transfection reagent. Secreted GLuc correlated with HSV-1 sr39TK expression with R = 0.9676. MC complexation with jetPEI delivered a larger mass of MC for enhanced transfection, which was crucial for in vivo animal studies, where delivery of MCs via jetPEI resulted in GLuc and HSV-1 sr39TK expression at significantly higher levels than controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the PET reporter gene HSV-1 sr39TK delivered via a tumor-activatable MC to tumor cells for an early cancer detection strategy. This work explores solutions to endogenous blood-based biomarker and molecular imaging limitations of early cancer detection strategies and elucidates the delivery capabilities and limitations of EVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262353PMC
July 2021

PET Reporter Gene Imaging and Ganciclovir-Mediated Ablation of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Solid Tumors.

Cancer Res 2020 11 21;80(21):4731-4740. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Imaging strategies to monitor chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell biodistribution and proliferation harbor the potential to facilitate clinical translation for the treatment of both liquid and solid tumors. In addition, the potential adverse effects of CAR T cells highlight the need for mechanisms to modulate CAR T-cell activity. The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene has previously been translated as a PET reporter gene for imaging of T-cell trafficking in patients with brain tumor. The HSV1-TK enzyme can act as a suicide gene of transduced cells through treatment with the prodrug ganciclovir. Here we report the molecular engineering, imaging, and ganciclovir-mediated destruction of B7H3 CAR T cells incorporating a mutated version of the HSV1-tk gene (sr39tk) with improved enzymatic activity for ganciclovir. The sr39tk gene did not affect B7H3 CAR T-cell functionality and and studies in osteosarcoma models showed no significant effect on B7H3 CAR T-cell antitumor activity. PET/CT imaging with 9-(4-[F]-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ([F]FHBG) of B7H3-sr39tk CAR T cells in an orthotopic model of osteosarcoma revealed tumor homing and systemic immune expansion. Bioluminescence and PET imaging of B7H3-sr39tk CAR T cells confirmed complete tumor ablation with intraperitoneal ganciclovir administration. This imaging and suicide ablation system can provide insight into CAR T-cell migration and proliferation during clinical trials while serving as a suicide switch to limit potential toxicities. SIGNIFICANCE: This study showcases the only genetically engineered system capable of serving the dual role both as an effective PET imaging reporter and as a suicide switch for CAR T cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3579DOI Listing
November 2020

Intravital imaging reveals synergistic effect of CAR T-cells and radiation therapy in a preclinical immunocompetent glioblastoma model.

Oncoimmunology 2020 05 13;9(1):1757360. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Recent advances in novel immune strategies, particularly chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-bearing T-cells, have shown limited efficacy against glioblastoma (GBM) in clinical trials. We currently have an incomplete understanding of how these emerging therapies integrate with the current standard of care, specifically radiation therapy (RT). Additionally, there is an insufficient number of preclinical studies monitoring these therapies with high spatiotemporal resolution. To address these limitations, we report the first longitudinal fluorescence-based intravital microscopy imaging of CAR T-cells within an orthotopic GBM preclinical model to illustrate the necessity of RT for complete therapeutic response. Additionally, we detail the first usage of murine-derived CAR T-cells targeting the disialoganglioside GD2 in an immunocompetent tumor model. Cell culture assays demonstrated substantial GD2 CAR T-cell-mediated killing of murine GBM cell lines SB28 and GL26 induced to overexpress GD2. Complete antitumor response in advanced syngeneic orthotopic models of GBM was achieved only when a single intravenous dose of GD2 CAR T-cells was following either sub-lethal whole-body irradiation or focal RT. Intravital microscopy imaging successfully visualized CAR T-cell homing and T-cell mediated apoptosis of tumor cells in real-time within the tumor stroma. Findings indicate that RT allows for rapid CAR T-cell extravasation from the vasculature and expansion within the tumor microenvironment, leading to a more robust and lasting immunologic response. These exciting results highlight potential opportunities to improve intravenous adoptive T-cell administration in the treatment of GBM through concurrent RT. Additionally, they emphasize the need for advancements in immunotherapeutic homing to and extravasation through the tumor microenvironment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1757360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458609PMC
May 2020

PET Imaging of the Natural Killer Cell Activation Receptor NKp30.

J Nucl Med 2020 09 12;61(9):1348-1354. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Redirecting the immune system in cancer treatment has led to remarkable responses in a subset of patients. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells being explored as they engage tumor cells in different mechanisms compared with T cells, which could be exploited for treatment of nonresponders to current immunotherapies. NK cell therapies are monitored through measuring peripheral NK cell concentrations or changes in tumor volume over time. The former does not detect NK cells at the tumor site, and the latter is inaccurate for immunotherapies because of pseudoprogression. Therefore, new imaging methods are required as companion diagnostics for optimizing immunotherapies. In this study, we developed and completed preclinical in vivo validation of 2 antibody-based PET probes specific for NKp30, an activation natural cytotoxicity receptor expressed by human NK cells. Quantitative, multicolor flow cytometry during a variety of NK cell activation conditions was completed on primary human NK cells and the NK92MI cell line. Human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors were stained for the NK cell receptors CD56, NKp30, and NKp46 to determine expression on tumor-infiltrating NK cells. An NKp30 antibody was radiolabeled with Cu or Zr and evaluated in subcutaneous xenografts and adoptive cell transfer mouse models. Quantitative flow cytometry showed consistent expression of the NKp30 receptor during different activation conditions. NKp30 and NKp46 costained in RCC samples, demonstrating the expression of these receptors on tumor-infiltrating NK cells in human tumors, whereas tumor cells in one RCC sample expressed the peripheral NK marker CD56. Both PET tracers showed high stability and specificity in vitro and in vivo. Notably, Zr-NKp30Ab had higher on-target contrast than Cu-NKp30Ab at their respective terminal time points. Cu-NKp30Ab delineated NK cell trafficking to the liver and spleen in an adoptive cell transfer model. The consistent expression of NKp30 on NK cells makes it an attractive target for quantitative imaging. Immunofluorescence staining on human RCC samples demonstrated the advantages of NKp30 targeting versus CD56 for detection of tumor infiltrating NK cells. This work advances PET imaging of NK cells and supports the translation of imaging agents for immunotherapy monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.119.233163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456168PMC
September 2020

Viral Delivery of CAR Targets to Solid Tumors Enables Effective Cell Therapy.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 7;17:232-240. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has had limited efficacy for solid tumors, largely due to a lack of selectively and highly expressed surface antigens. To avoid reliance on a tumor's endogenous antigens, here we describe a method of tumor-selective delivery of surface antigens using an oncolytic virus to enable a generalizable CAR T cell therapy. Using CD19 as our proof of concept, we engineered a thymidine kinase-disrupted vaccinia virus to selectively deliver CD19 to malignant cells, and thus demonstrated potentiation of CD19 CAR T cell activity against two tumor types . In an immunocompetent model of B16 melanoma, this combination markedly delayed tumor growth and improved median survival compared with antigen-mismatched combinations. We also found that CD19 delivery could improve CAR T cell activity against tumor cells that express low levels of cognate antigen, suggesting a potential application in counteracting antigen-low escape. This approach highlights the potential of engineering tumors for effective adoptive cell therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183102PMC
June 2020

A mountable toilet system for personalized health monitoring via the analysis of excreta.

Nat Biomed Eng 2020 06 6;4(6):624-635. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Technologies for the longitudinal monitoring of a person's health are poorly integrated with clinical workflows, and have rarely produced actionable biometric data for healthcare providers. Here, we describe easily deployable hardware and software for the long-term analysis of a user's excreta through data collection and models of human health. The 'smart' toilet, which is self-contained and operates autonomously by leveraging pressure and motion sensors, analyses the user's urine using a standard-of-care colorimetric assay that traces red-green-blue values from images of urinalysis strips, calculates the flow rate and volume of urine using computer vision as a uroflowmeter, and classifies stool according to the Bristol stool form scale using deep learning, with performance that is comparable to the performance of trained medical personnel. Each user of the toilet is identified through their fingerprint and the distinctive features of their anoderm, and the data are securely stored and analysed in an encrypted cloud server. The toilet may find uses in the screening, diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of specific patient populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-020-0534-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377213PMC
June 2020

Engineered immune cells as highly sensitive cancer diagnostics.

Nat Biotechnol 2019 05 18;37(5):531-539. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Endogenous biomarkers remain at the forefront of early disease detection efforts, but many lack the sensitivities and specificities necessary to influence disease management. Here, we describe a cell-based in vivo sensor for highly sensitive early cancer detection. We engineer macrophages to produce a synthetic reporter on adopting an M2 tumor-associated metabolic profile by coupling luciferase expression to activation of the arginase-1 promoter. After adoptive transfer in colorectal and breast mouse tumor models, the engineered macrophages migrated to the tumors and activated arginase-1 so that they could be detected by bioluminescence imaging and luciferase measured in the blood. The macrophage sensor detected tumors as small as 25-50 mm by blood luciferase measurements, even in the presence of concomitant inflammation, and was more sensitive than clinically used protein and nucleic acid cancer biomarkers. Macrophage sensors also effectively tracked the immunological response in muscle and lung models of inflammation, suggesting the potential utility of this approach in disease states other than cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41587-019-0064-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295609PMC
May 2019

An intravascular magnetic wire for the high-throughput retrieval of circulating tumour cells in vivo.

Nat Biomed Eng 2018 09 16;2(9):696-705. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

The detection and analysis of rare blood biomarkers is necessary for early diagnosis of cancer and to facilitate the development of tailored therapies. However, current methods for the isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or nucleic acids present in a standard clinical sample of only 5-10 ml of blood provide inadequate yields for early cancer detection and comprehensive molecular profiling. Here, we report the development of a flexible magnetic wire that can retrieve rare biomarkers from the subject's blood in vivo at a much higher yield. The wire is inserted and removed through a standard intravenous catheter and captures biomarkers that have been previously labelled with injected magnetic particles. In a proof-of-concept experiment in a live porcine model, we demonstrate the in vivo labelling and single-pass capture of viable model CTCs in less than 10 s. The wire achieves capture efficiencies that correspond to enrichments of 10-80 times the amount of CTCs in a 5-ml blood draw, and 500-5,000 times the enrichments achieved using the commercially available Gilupi CellCollector.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0257-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261517PMC
September 2018

Towards clinically translatable nanodiagnostics.

Nat Rev Mater 2017 May 3;2(5). Epub 2017 May 3.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine.

Nanodiagnostics as a field makes use of fundamental advances in nanobiotechnology to diagnose, characterize and manage disease at the molecular scale. As these strategies move closer to routine clinical use, a proper understanding of different imaging modalities, relevant biological systems and physical properties governing nanoscale interactions is necessary to rationally engineer next-generation bionanomaterials. In this Review, we analyse the background physics of several clinically relevant imaging modalities and their associated sensitivity and specificity, provide an overview of the materials currently used for nanodiagnostics, and assess the progress made towards clinical translation. This work provides a framework for understanding both the impressive progress made thus far in the nanodiagnostics field as well as presenting challenges that must be overcome to obtain widespread clinical adoption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2017.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985817PMC
May 2017

Deactivated CRISPR Associated Protein 9 for Minor-Allele Enrichment in Cell-Free DNA.

Clin Chem 2018 02 16;64(2):307-316. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA;

Background: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) diagnostics are emerging as a new paradigm of disease monitoring and therapy management. The clinical utility of these diagnostics is relatively limited by a low signal-to-noise ratio, such as with low allele frequency (AF) mutations in cancer. While enriching for rare alleles to increase their AF before sample analysis is one strategy that can greatly improve detection capability, current methods are limited in their generalizability, ease of use, and applicability to point mutations.

Methods: Leveraging the robust single-base-pair specificity and generalizability of the CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, we developed a deactivated Cas9 (dCas9)-based method of minor-allele enrichment capable of efficient single-target and multiplexed enrichment. The dCas9 protein was complexed with single guide RNAs targeted to mutations of interest and incubated with cfDNA samples containing mutant strands at low abundance. Mutation-bound dCas9 complexes were isolated, dissociated, and the captured DNA purified for downstream use.

Results: Targeting the 3 most common epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (exon 19 deletion, T790M, L858R) found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we achieved >20-fold increases in AF and detected mutations by use of qPCR at an AF of 0.1%. In a cohort of 18 NSCLC patient-derived cfDNA samples, our method enabled detection of 8 out of 13 mutations that were otherwise undetected by qPCR.

Conclusions: The dCas9 method provides an important application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system outside the realm of genome editing and can provide a step forward for the detection capability of cfDNA diagnostics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2017.278911DOI Listing
February 2018

Molecular profiling of single circulating tumor cells from lung cancer patients.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 12 12;113(52):E8379-E8386. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305;

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are established cancer biomarkers for the "liquid biopsy" of tumors. Molecular analysis of single CTCs, which recapitulate primary and metastatic tumor biology, remains challenging because current platforms have limited throughput, are expensive, and are not easily translatable to the clinic. Here, we report a massively parallel, multigene-profiling nanoplatform to compartmentalize and analyze hundreds of single CTCs. After high-efficiency magnetic collection of CTC from blood, a single-cell nanowell array performs CTC mutation profiling using modular gene panels. Using this approach, we demonstrated multigene expression profiling of individual CTCs from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with remarkable sensitivity. Thus, we report a high-throughput, multiplexed strategy for single-cell mutation profiling of individual lung cancer CTCs toward minimally invasive cancer therapy prediction and disease monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1608461113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5206556PMC
December 2016

Temporally resolved direct delivery of second messengers into cells using nanostraws.

Lab Chip 2016 07 13;16(13):2434-9. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Second messengers are biomolecules with the critical role of conveying information to intracellular targets. They are typically membrane-impermeable and only enter cells through tightly regulated transporters. Current methods for manipulating second messengers in cells require preparation of modified cell lines or significant disruptions in cell function, especially at the cell membrane. Here we demonstrate that 100 nm diameter 'nanostraws' penetrate the cell membrane to directly modulate second messenger concentrations within cells. Nanostraws are hollow vertical nanowires that provide a fluidic conduit into cells to allow time-resolved delivery of the signaling ion Ca(2+) without chemical permeabilization or genetic modification, minimizing cell perturbation. By integrating the nanostraw platform into a microfluidic device, we demonstrate coordinated delivery of Ca(2+) ions into hundreds of cells at the time scale of several seconds with the ability to deliver complex signal patterns, such as oscillations over time. The diffusive nature of nanostraw delivery gives the platform unique versatility, opening the possibility for time-resolved delivery of any freely diffusing molecules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6lc00463fDOI Listing
July 2016

Determining the Time Window for Dynamic Nanowire Cell Penetration Processes.

ACS Nano 2015 Dec 13;9(12):11667-77. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

UCSF School of Pharmacy, Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco , San Francisco, California 94143, United States.

Nanowire (NW) arrays offer opportunities for parallel, nondestructive intracellular access for biomolecule delivery, intracellular recording, and sensing. Spontaneous cell membrane penetration by vertical nanowires is essential for these applications, yet the time- and geometry-dependent penetration process is still poorly understood. In this work, the dynamic NW-cell interface during cell spreading was examined through experimental cell penetration measurements combined with two mechanical models based on substrate adhesion force or cell traction forces. Penetration was determined by comparing the induced tension at a series of given membrane configurations to the critical membrane failure tension. The adhesion model predicts that penetration occurs within a finite window shortly after initial cell contact and adhesion, while the traction model predicts increasing penetration over a longer period. NW penetration rates determined from a cobalt ion delivery assay are compared to the predicted results from the two models. In addition, the effects of NW geometry and cell properties are systematically evaluated to identify the key factors for penetration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b05498DOI Listing
December 2015

Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their clinical potential in the treatment of B-cell malignancies: focus on ibrutinib.

Ther Adv Hematol 2014 Aug;5(4):121-33

Stanford University Medical Center, 875 Blake Wilbur Dr, Suite CC-2338, Stanford, CA 94305-5821, USA.

Aberrant signaling of the B-cell receptor pathway has been linked to the development and maintenance of B-cell malignancies. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein early in this pathway, has emerged as a new therapeutic target in a variety of such malignancies. Ibrutinib, the most clinically advanced small molecule inhibitor of BTK, has demonstrated impressive tolerability and activity in a range of B-cell lymphomas which led to its recent approval for relapsed mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of ibrutinib and discusses its therapeutic potential.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2040620714539906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4212313PMC
August 2014

Plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton as synergistic barriers to nanowire cell penetration.

Langmuir 2014 Oct 6;30(41):12362-7. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University , 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Nanowires are a rapidly emerging platform for manipulation of and material delivery directly into the cell cytosol. These high aspect ratio structures can breach the lipid membrane; however, the yield of penetrant structures is low, and the mechanism is largely unknown. In particular, some nanostructures appear to defeat the membrane transiently, while others can retain long-term access. Here, we examine if local dissolution of the lipid membrane, actin cytoskeleton, or both can enhance nanowire penetration. It is possible that, during cell contact, membrane rupture occurs; however, if the nanostructures do not penetrate the cytoskeleton, the membrane may reclose over a relatively short time frame. We show with quantitative analysis of the number of penetrating nanowires that the lipid bilayer and actin cytoskeleton are synergistic barriers to nanowire cell access, yet chemical poration through both is still insufficient to increase long-term access for adhered cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la502273fDOI Listing
October 2014

Quantification of nanowire penetration into living cells.

Nat Commun 2014 Apr 7;5:3613. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

High-aspect ratio nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes are a powerful new tool for accessing the cell interior for delivery and sensing. Controlling and optimizing cellular access is a critical challenge for this new technology, yet even the most basic aspect of this process, whether these structures directly penetrate the cell membrane, is still unknown. Here we report the first quantification of hollow nanowires-nanostraws-that directly penetrate the membrane by observing dynamic ion delivery from each 100-nm diameter nanostraw. We discover that penetration is a rare event: 7.1±2.7% of the nanostraws penetrate the cell to provide cytosolic access for an extended period for an average of 10.7±5.8 penetrations per cell. Using time-resolved delivery, the kinetics of the first penetration event are shown to be adhesion dependent and coincident with recruitment of focal adhesion-associated proteins. These measurements provide a quantitative basis for understanding nanowire-cell interactions, and a means for rapidly assessing membrane penetration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057472PMC
April 2014

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a promising novel targeted treatment for B cell lymphomas.

Br J Haematol 2013 Nov 24;163(4):436-43. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA.

Constitutive or aberrant signalling of the B cell receptor signalling cascade has been implicated in the propagation and maintenance of a variety of B cell malignancies. Small molecule inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein early in this cascade and specifically expressed in B cells, have emerged as a new class of targeted agents. There are several BTK inhibitors, including ONO-WG-307, LFM-A13, dasatinib, CC-292, and PCI-32765 (ibrutinib), in preclinical and/or clinical development of which ibrutinib is currently in phase III trials. Recent clinical data suggest significant activity of ibrutinib as a first in class oral inhibitor of BTK. This review provides an overview of ongoing clinical studies of BTK inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444436PMC
November 2013
-->