Publications by authors named "Allan Lund"

107 Publications

Use of Molecular Genetic Analyses in Danish Routine Newborn Screening.

Int J Neonatal Screen 2021 Jul 26;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark.

Historically, the analyses used for newborn screening (NBS) were biochemical, but increasingly, molecular genetic analyses are being introduced in the workflow. We describe the application of molecular genetic analyses in the Danish NBS programme and show that second-tier molecular genetic testing is useful to reduce the false positive rate while simultaneously providing information about the precise molecular genetic variant and thus informing therapeutic strategy and easing providing information to parents. When molecular genetic analyses are applied as second-tier testing, valuable functional data from biochemical methods are available and in our view, such targeted NGS technology should be implemented when possible in the NBS workflow. First-tier NGS technology may be a promising future possibility for disorders without a reliable biomarker and as a general approach to increase the adaptability of NBS for a broader range of genetic diseases, which is important in the current landscape of quickly evolving new therapeutic possibilities. However, studies on feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity are needed as well as more insight into what views the general population has towards using genetic analyses in NBS. This may be sensitive to some and could have potentially negative consequences for the NBS programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijns7030050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395600PMC
July 2021

Genetic disease is a common cause of bilateral childhood cataract in Denmark.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Dec 25;42(6):650-658. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Departments of Clinical Genetics and Paediatrics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

: Bilateral childhood cataracts can be caused by a metabolic disease, constitute a part of a syndrome, run in families, be sporadic or iatrogenic. The amount of work-up needed to establish a cause is discussed and the aim of the present study was to evaluate causes of bilateral childhood cataract.: Chart review of 211 Danish children with bilateral cataracts. Information on work-up was retrieved with special focus on general health, metabolic screening, evaluation for congenital infections and genetic testing.: Cataract was seen in combination with systemic disease in 40.8%, 29.4% had hereditary cataracts, 27.0% had isolated cataract, in 1.4% it was associated with ocular malformations and 1.4% had been born prematurely without any other sequelae than the cataract. A genetic cause could be demonstrated in 74 children.: Systemic comorbidities are very common in children with cataract and are not always known prior to the diagnosis of cataract. Genetic evaluation, especially targeted analyses, provided a molecular genetic diagnosis in a large proportion of those tested but it also failed to provide a molecular genetic diagnosis in some patients with a family history suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. Most importantly, in some patients, genetic work-up provided a diagnosis in patients where it had therapeutic consequences and where the systemic disease would have caused irreversible damage, had it not been treated timely. Given the high prevalence of systemic disease, it seems advisable to co-manage children with bilateral cataracts with a pediatrician and to include genetic evaluation as part of the work-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13816810.2021.1941128DOI Listing
December 2021

Long-term safety and outcomes in hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 with nitisinone treatment: a 15-year non-interventional, multicentre study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 07 21;9(7):427-435. Epub 2021 May 21.

Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi), Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Since the EU approval of nitisinone in 2005, prognosis for patients with hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 has changed dramatically, with patients living with the disease now reaching adulthood for the first time in history. This study aimed to assess the long-term safety and outcomes of nitisinone treatment in patients with hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1.

Methods: We did a non-interventional, non-comparative, multicentre study in 77 sites across 17 countries in Europe and collected retrospective and prospective longitudinal data in patients with hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 who were treated with oral nitisinone during the study period (Feb 21, 2005, to Sept 30, 2019). There were no specific exclusion criteria. Patients were followed-up with an investigator at least annually for as long as they were treated, or until the end of the study. The primary endpoints, occurrence of adverse events related to hepatic, renal, ophthalmic, haematological, or cognitive or developmental function, were assessed in the complete set (all patients already receiving treatment at the index date [Feb 21, 2005] or starting treatment thereafter) and the index set (the subset of patients who had their first dose on the index date or later only).

Findings: 315 patients were enrolled during the study period (complete set). Additionally, data from 24 patients who had liver transplantation or died during the post-marketing surveillance programme were retrieved (extended analysis set; 339 patients). Median treatment duration was 11·2 years (range 0·7-28·4); cumulative nitisinone exposure was 3172·7 patient-years. Patients who were diagnosed by neonatal screening started nitisinone treatment at median age 0·8 months versus 8·5 months in those who presented clinically. Incidences of hepatic, renal, ophthalmic, haematological, or cognitive or developmental adverse events were low. Occurrence of liver transplantation or death was more frequent the later that treatment was initiated (none of 70 patients who started treatment at age <28 days vs 35 [13%] of 268 patients who started treatment at age ≥28 days). 279 (89%) of 315 patients were assessed as having either very good or good nitisinone treatment compliance. Treatment and diet compliance declined as patients aged. Suboptimal plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine levels were observed. The majority of patients were reported to have good overall clinical condition throughout treatment; 176 (87%) of 203 during the entire study, 98% following 1 year of treatment.

Interpretation: Long-term nitisinone treatment was well tolerated and no new safety signals were revealed. Life-limiting hepatic disease appears to have been prevented by early treatment start. Neonatal screening was the most effective way of ensuring early treatment. Standardised monitoring of blood tyrosine, phenylalanine, and nitisinone levels has potential to guide individualised therapy.

Funding: Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00092-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Excellent response to asfotase alfa treatment in an adolescent patient with hypophosphatasia.

JIMD Rep 2021 May 3;59(1):10-15. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Clinical Genetics Copenhagen University Hospital Copenhagen Denmark.

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by deficient activity of alkaline phosphatase, causing defective mineralization of bones and teeth. The symptoms vary from no symptoms to stillbirth or skeletal manifestations. Since 2015, asfotase alfa, an enzyme replacement treatment, has been approved for pediatric use in some jurisdictions. We describe the clinical outcome of asfotase alfa therapy in an adolescent patient with childhood HPP. The patient was diagnosed with HPP at 13 months. She had a history of hypertonia and failure to thrive from age 3 months. During childhood the patient experienced chronic skeletal pain, requiring daily use of analgesics and school absences. Her plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate was elevated at >2500 mmol/L, phosphoethanolamine at 11 μM, and ALP decreased at 25 U/L. On the visual analog scale (VAS), a scale used to determine pain intensity, she stated an average of 7 (maximum 10) at age 13. She had no abnormalities on radiography. At age 13 the patient was started on asfotase alfa 1 mg/kg given subcutaneously 6 times weekly. Three months after treatment the patient had a decreased P-pyridoxal-5-phosphate level of 41 mmol/L, used fewer analgesics, and a lower average VAS-score. At every follow-up, she continued to exhibit improved biochemical values, along with lower VAS-scores. In conclusion, asfotase alfa significantly improved the patient's quality of life. This case suggests an association between children with HPP without radiographic abnormalities, but a debilitating pain phenotype, and a significant pain reduction on enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, this therapy should be considered in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100395PMC
May 2021

[Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in adults without liver diseases].

Ugeskr Laeger 2021 03;183(13)

Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy (HAE) in adults in the absence of acute or chronic liver disease is a severe condition caused by inborn errors of metabolism or acquired conditions like bariatric surgery, medications or malignancy as summarised in this review. Metabolic defects are most often caused by partial defects in the urea cycle enzymes demasked by stressors, whereas mechanisms underlying the acquired causes are complex and often multifactorial. Awareness of HAE and knowledge of the causes can help the clinician to deal appropriately with patients presenting with symptoms suggesting HAE and no signs of liver disease.
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March 2021

Succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) deficiency: A rare and potentially fatal metabolic disease.

Biochimie 2021 Apr 14;183:55-62. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Research Group Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Department of Natural Sciences & Institute for Functional Gene Analytics (IFGA), Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Rheinbach, Germany. Electronic address:

Succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase deficiency (SCOTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of ketone body utilization caused by mutations in OXCT1. We performed a systematic literature search and evaluated clinical, biochemical and genetic data on 34 previously published and 10 novel patients with SCOTD. Structural mapping and in silico analysis of protein variants is also presented. All patients presented with severe ketoacidotic episodes. Age at first symptoms ranged from 36 h to 3 years (median 7 months). About 70% of patients manifested in the first year of life, approximately one quarter already within the neonatal period. Two patients died, while the remainder (95%) were alive at the time of the report. Almost all the surviving patients (92%) showed normal psychomotor development and no neurologic abnormalities. A total of 29 missense mutations are reported. Analysis of the published crystal structure of the human SCOT enzyme, paired with both sequence-based and structure-based methods to predict variant pathogenicity, provides insight into the biochemical consequences of the reported variants. Pathogenic variants cluster in SCOT protein regions that affect certain structures of the protein. The described pathogenic variants can be viewed in an interactive map of the SCOT protein at https://michelanglo.sgc.ox.ac.uk/r/oxct. This comprehensive data analysis provides a systematic overview of all cases of SCOTD published to date. Although SCOTD is a rather benign disorder with often favourable outcome, metabolic crises can be life-threatening or even fatal. As the diagnosis can only be made by enzyme studies or mutation analyses, SCOTD may be underdiagnosed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2021.02.003DOI Listing
April 2021

[Treatment of monogenic disorders with viral transduced haematopoietic stem cells].

Ugeskr Laeger 2020 11;182(46)

Infusion of ex vivo transduced haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has emerged as a promising new treatment of certain monogenetic disorders. Since early clinical studies on patients with severe combined immune deficiency were halted due to de novo leukaemia, the technology has matured. Thus, treatment of transfusion-dependent thalassaemia and adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency by using lentiviral vectors for gene correction of autologous HSC can induce expression of the deficient protein and thus potentially cure the patients. The review summarises recent advances allowing for clinical implementation of the treatment in Denmark.
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November 2020

The SPARKLE registry: protocol for an international prospective cohort study in patients with alpha-mannosidosis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 09 29;15(1):271. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

International Center for Lysosomal Disorders (ICLD), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Alpha-mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by reduced enzymatic activity of alpha-mannosidase. SPARKLE is an alpha-mannosidosis registry intended to obtain long-term safety and effectiveness data on the use of velmanase alfa during routine clinical care in patients with alpha-mannosidosis. It is a post-approval commitment to European marketing authorization for Velmanase alfa (Lamzede), the first enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of non-neurologic manifestations in patients with mild to moderate alpha-mannosidosis. In addition, SPARKLE will expand the current understanding of alpha-mannosidosis by collecting data on the clinical manifestations, progression, and natural history of the disease in treated and untreated patients, respectively.

Results: The SPARKLE registry is designed as a multicenter, multinational, noninterventional, prospective cohort study of patients with alpha-mannosidosis, starting patient enrollment in 2020. Patients will be followed for up to 15 years. Safety and effectiveness as post-authorization outcomes under routine clinical care in patients with treatment will be evaluated. The primary safety outcomes are the rate of adverse events (anti-velmanase alfa-immunoglobulin G antibody development, infusion-related reactions, and hypersensitivity). Secondary safety outcomes include the evaluation of medical events, change in vital signs, laboratory tests, physical examination, and electrocardiogram results. The primary effectiveness outcome is a global treatment response rate, evaluated as the individual aggregate of single endpoints from pharmacodynamic, functional, and quality-of-life effectiveness outcomes; secondary effectiveness outcomes are to characterize the population of patients with alpha-mannosidosis with regard to clinical manifestation, progression, and natural history of the disease. Any patient in the European Union with a diagnosis of alpha-mannosidosis who is willing to participate will likely be eligible for inclusion in the registry. Publications to disseminate scientific insights from the registry are planned.

Conclusion: This study will provide real-world data on the long-term safety and effectiveness of velmanase alfa in patients with alpha-mannosidosis during routine clinical care and increase the understanding of the natural course, clinical manifestations, and progression of this ultra-rare disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01549-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525940PMC
September 2020

Late-onset MADD: a rare cause of cirrhosis and acute liver failure?

Acta Myol 2020 Mar 1;39(1):19-23. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a severe inborn error of fat metabolism. In late-onset MADD, hepatopathy in the form of steatosis is commonplace and considered a benign and stable condition that does not progress to more advanced stages of liver disease, however, progression to cirrhosis and acute liver failure (ALF) has been reported in two previous case reports. Here, we report a 22-year-old man, who suffered from late-onset MADD and died from cirrhosis and ALF. In the span of three months repeated clinical examinations, blood tests, and diagnostic imaging as well as liver biopsy revealed rapid progression of hepatopathy from steatosis to decompensated cirrhosis with portal hypertension. Routine studies for recognized etiologies found no evident cause besides MADD. This case report supports the findings of the two previous case reports and adds further evidence to the suggestion that late-onset MADD should be considered a rare cause of cirrhosis and ALF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.36185/2532-1900-003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315895PMC
March 2020

Impaired lipolysis in propionic acidemia: A new metabolic myopathy?

JIMD Rep 2020 May 31;53(1):16-21. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University Hospital Copenhagen Denmark.

The objective of this study was to investigate the fat and carbohydrate metabolism in a patient with propionic acidemia (PA) during exercise by means of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique. A 34-year-old patient with PA performed a 30-minute submaximal cycle ergometer test. Data were compared to results from six gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Main findings are that the patient with PA had impaired lipolysis, blunted fatty acid oxidation, compensatory increase in carbohydrate utilization, and low work capacity. Our findings indicate that PA should be added to the list of metabolic myopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203654PMC
May 2020

Use of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2) to assess efficacy of velmanase alfa as enzyme therapy for alpha-mannosidosis.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Jun 8;23:100586. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Centre for Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Department of Paediatrics and Department of Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficient lysosomal alpha-mannosidase activity. Clinical manifestations include progressive balance disorders, immune deficiency, skeletal abnormalities and cognitive deficits beginning in early childhood. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (velmanase alfa) is scheduled for clinical development in the US beginning in 2020 and has been approved in the EU for treatment of non-neurological manifestations in cases of mild to moderate disease. This study assessed effects of velmanase alfa on fine and gross motor proficiency in children and adults.

Methods: Integrated Bruininks-Oseretsky (BOT-2) test of Motor Proficiency data from velmanase alfa clinical trials was stratified by age for 14 adults and 19 children treated for up to 4 years.

Results: Patients showed global developmental delays at baseline. For the combined adult and pediatric group there was a statistically significant increase (improvement) in BOT-2 total point score of 13% (p = .035, 95% CI 1.0, 25.0) from baseline to last observation. When stratified by pediatric versus adult patients, there was improvement in BOT-2 total point score in patients <18 years (mean percent increase from baseline to last observation 23%) compared to adults (mean decrease of -0.7%). Subtest analysis of individual BOT-2 items captured some improvement following velmanase alfa treatment in pediatric patients.

Conclusions: There was limited ability to assess the BOT-2 change responses in adults. Pediatric patients showed stability or improvement in scaled scores relative to healthy peers, indicating continued skill acquisition, which may increase independence and contribute to improved patient quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149402PMC
June 2020

Danish expanded newborn screening is a successful preventive public health programme.

Dan Med J 2020 Jan;67(1)

Introduction: Newborn screening is a public health programme for early diagnosis of treatable diseases.

Methods: The subjects included were newborns born 2002-2019. Expanded newborn screening (eNBS) for metabolic diseases was introduced as a pilot project from 2002 to 2009, followed by routine screening with informed dissent. A total of 967,780 newborns were screened; 82,930 were unscreened. Furthermore, a historic cohort of clinically diagnosed children born in the 1992-2001 period was included. Children in the unscreened and historic cohorts were evaluated for the same diseases as were the screened children. Dried blood spot samples were collected locally and sent for screening analyses. We recorded newborns with true and false positive results as well as false negative results and their clinical signs at screening and at the last follow-up.

Results: A total of 603 samples were screen positive: 354 false positives and 249 true positives (222 newborns and 27 mothers). The positive predictive value (PPV) was 41% for the entire screening period; 62% for 2018. The false positive rate (FPR) was 0.036% overall; 0.024% for 2018. The overall prevalence of diseases was 1:3,900; in the historic cohort, the prevalence of the same diseases was 1:8,300; 7.3% had symptoms at the time of screening. At follow-up, 93% of the children had no clinically significant sequelae. Among 82,930 unscreened newborns, 27 (1:3,000) had eNBS panel diseases, some with severe manifestations.

Conclusions: This update of eNBS in Denmark confirms that eNBS is a successful preventive public health programme. Early treatment in a latent phase of disease is effective and screening should be extended to other diseases not currently in the programme.

Funding: The work was supported by grants from The Ronald McDonald Børnefond, Danmarks Sundhedsfond, Direktør Ib Henriksens Fond, Ragnhild Ibsens Legat til Medicinsk Forskning, Gerda og Aage Haenschs Fond, Dronning Louises Børnehospitals Forskningsfond, Læge Sofus Carl Emil Friis og Hustru Olga Doris Friis's Legat, Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Fond, Oda og Hans Svenningsens Fond, Fonden af 1870, Vanførefonden, Fonden til Lægevidenskabens Fremme and Danish Medical Research Council.

Trial Registration: not relevant.
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January 2020

Cystic fibrosis newborn screening in Denmark: Experience from the first 2 years.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 02 4;55(2):549-555. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: In Denmark, newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) was introduced on 1 May 2016. The implementation and results from the first 2 years of the national newborn CF screening program are presented.

Methods: The screening included immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT), followed by evaluation for the F508del mutation when a value at or above the 50 ng/mL cutoff was present. In cases with a single F508del mutation or a very high IRT value above 145 ng/mL, next-generation sequencing of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) was performed.

Results: Of 126 522 newborn infants 126 338 were tested (99.85%), and 4730 samples (3.7%) were assessed for CFTR mutations. Twenty-six infants were screen-positive and referred for diagnostic follow-up of whom 22 were confirmed to have a CF diagnosis, four had one known and one CFTR allele with unknown pathogenicity, classified as cystic fibrosis screening positive inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID), PPV 84.6%. One of the four children classified as CFSPID was later found to carry the two identified CFTR variants in cis and was reclassified as a carrier of CF. We found two false negatives; one exhibited an IRT level above the 50 ng/mL cutoff but was below the 145 ng/mL very high cutoff and with no F508del mutation present. The second false-negative fell below the 50 ng/mL IRT cutoff but was diagnosed shortly after birth on the basis of meconium ileus. Screening sensitivity, 91.7%. Two hundred thirty-two children were identified as carriers of CF, which is twofold above the estimated annual number of carriers. All but one carrier were heterozygous for the F508del CFTR mutation. Sixteen percent of the sequenced samples revealed rare CFTR variants, which were classified as nonpathogenic in relation to CF.

Conclusions: During the first 2 years of NBS CF screening in Denmark, we identified close to the expected number of infants with CF using an algorithm based on IRT, presence of F508del mutation and comprehensive genetic analysis. CFSPID accounted for only a small minority, despite comprehensive CFTR sequencing, whereas more carriers than initially expected were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24564DOI Listing
February 2020

Cardiac function and incidence of unexplained myocardial scarring in patients with primary carnitine deficiency - a cardiac magnetic resonance study.

Sci Rep 2019 09 26;9(1):13909. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Medicine, The National Hospital, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands.

Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) not treated with L-Carnitine can lead to sudden cardiac death. To our knowledge, it is unknown if asymptomatic patients treated with L-Carnitine suffer from myocardial scarring and thus be at greater risk of potentially serious arrhythmia. Cardiac evaluation of function and myocardial scarring is non-invasively best supported by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The study included 36 PCD patients, 17 carriers and 17 healthy subjects. A CMR cine stack in the short-axis plane were acquired to evaluate left ventricle (LV) systolic and diastolic function and a similar LGE stack to evaluate myocardial scarring and replacement fibrosis. LV volumes and ejection fraction were not different between PCD patients, carriers and healthy subjects. However, LV mass was higher in PCD patients with the severe homozygous mutation, c.95 A > G (p = 0.037; n = 17). Among homozygous PCD patients there were two cases of unexplained myocardial scarring and this is in contrast to no myocardial scarring in any of the other study participants (p = 0.10). LV mass was increased in PCD patients. L-carnitine supplementation is essential in order to prevent potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia and serious adverse cardiac remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50458-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6763485PMC
September 2019

Increased risk of sudden death in untreated primary carnitine deficiency.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 03 15;43(2):290-296. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) affects fatty acid oxidation and is associated with cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrhythmia, but the risk of sudden death in PCD is unknown. The Faroe Islands have a high prevalence of PCD, 1:300. This study systematically investigated a possible association between untreated PCD and sudden death in young Faroese subjects. We investigated all medico-legal cases of sudden death between 1979 and 2012 among subjects below the age of 45. Stored biomaterial was examined with molecular genetic analysis to reveal PCD. We compared the prevalence of PCD among sudden death cases with that of the background population (0.23%) to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for sudden death with PCD. Biomaterial was available and genetically analyzed from 53 of 65 sudden death cases (82%) in the Faroe Islands. Six (one male and five females) of the 53 cases were homozygous for the PCD related c.95A>G mutation-a prevalence of 11.3% (95% CI 5%-23%) and an OR of 54.3 (95% CI 21-138, P < .0001) for the association between sudden death and untreated PCD. Only 11 of the 53 sudden death cases were women-of whom five were homozygous for the c.95A>G mutation (45.5%) yielding an OR of 348.8 (95% CI 94-1287, P < .0001) for the association between sudden death and untreated PCD in females. This study showed a strong association between sudden death and untreated PCD, especially in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12158DOI Listing
March 2020

Genotype and phenotype classification of 29 patients affected by Krabbe disease.

JIMD Rep 2019 Mar 14;46(1):35-45. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Clinical Genetics Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Copenhagen Denmark.

Krabbe disease is a rare neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the galactocerebrosidase gene, . Krabbe disease usually affects infants, but has also been reported in older children and adults. Different phenotypes are described based on age at onset. The gene encoding the galactocerebrosidase enzyme was cloned and expressed in 1993, and up until today 117 mutations have been described. In a patient population of Northern European origin, a 30-kb deletion and two missense mutations, c.1586C>T; p.T529M and c.1700A>C; p.Y567S, are expected to account for 50%-60% of pathogenic alleles. In this study, we present information on genetic variation, enzyme activity, and phenotypes of 29 patients affected by Krabbe disease. Patient data were collected from patient files at the Department of Clinical Genetics, Rigshospitalet. Ten previously unreported mutations were identified, including four missense mutations; c.1142C>T; p.T381I, c.596G>T; p.R199M, c.443G>A; p.G148E, c.1858G>A; p.G620R, two nonsense mutations; c.863G>A; p.W288*, c.1214c>G; p.S405*, one splice site mutation; c.442+1G>A, one insertion; c.293insT and two deletions; c.1003_1004del, c.887delA. For all of the new mutations, we were able to classify them in phenotype groups. Furthermore, we present a combined allele frequency of the three frequent mutations p.T529M, p.Y567S, and the 30-kb deletion of 62%, and we describe a broadening of the phenotypes associated with the mutations p.T529M and p.Y567S.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498822PMC
March 2019

Real-World Outcomes with Lomitapide Use in Paediatric Patients with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Adv Ther 2019 07 17;36(7):1786-1811. Epub 2019 May 17.

Lipid Clinic, Heart Institute (InCor), University of Sao Paulo and Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare, autosomal disease affecting the clearance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from circulation, and leading to early-onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Treatment consists mainly of statins, lipoprotein apheresis (LA) and, more recently, the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Lomitapide is not licensed for use in children, but has been made available through an expanded access programme or on a named patient basis.

Methods: This case series includes 11 HoFH patients in 10 different centres in eight countries, less than 18 years of age (mean 11.6 ± 1.1 years, 64% male), with signs of ASCVD, and who have received treatment with lomitapide (mean dose 24.5 ± 4.3 mg/day; mean exposure 20.0 ± 2.9 months). Background lipid-lowering therapy was given according to local protocols. Lomitapide was commenced with a stepwise dose escalation from 2.5 mg or 5 mg/day; dietary advice and vitamin supplements were provided as per the product label for adults. Laboratory analysis was conducted as part of regular clinical care.

Results: In the 11 cases, mean baseline LDL-C was 419 ± 74.6 mg/dL and was markedly reduced by lomitapide to a nadir of 176.7 ± 46.3 mg/dL (58.4 ± 6.8% decrease). Six patients achieved recommended target levels for children below 135 mg/dL, five of whom had LA frequency reduced. In one case, LDL-C levels were close to target when lomitapide was started but remained stable despite 75% reduction in LA frequency (from twice weekly to biweekly). Adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal in nature, occurred early in the treatment course and were well managed. Three patients with excursions in liver function tests were managed chiefly without intervention; two patients had decreases in lomitapide dose.

Conclusions: Lomitapide demonstrated promising effectiveness in paediatric HoFH patients. Adverse events were manageable, and the clinical profile of the drug is apparently similar to that in adult patients.

Funding: Amryt Pharma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-019-00985-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824397PMC
July 2019

Including Classical Galactosaemia in the Expanded Newborn Screening Panel Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Galactose-1-Phosphate.

Int J Neonatal Screen 2019 Jun 4;5(2):19. Epub 2019 May 4.

Danish Center for Newborn Screening, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Galactosaemia has been included in various newborn screening programs since 1963. Several methods are used for screening; however, the predominant methods used today are based on the determination of either galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity or the concentration of total galactose. These methods cannot be multiplexed and therefore require one full punch per sample. Since the introduction of mass spectrometry in newborn screening, many diseases have been included in newborn screening programs. Here, we present a method for including classical galactosaemia in an expanded newborn screening panel based on the specific determination of galactose-1-phosphate by tandem mass spectrometry. The existing workflow only needs minor adjustments, and it can be run on the tandem mass spectrometers in routine use. Furthermore, compared to the currently used methods, this novel method has a superior screening performance, producing significantly fewer false positive results. We present data from 5500 routine newborn screening samples from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The cohort was enriched by including 14 confirmed galactosaemia positive samples and 10 samples positive for other metabolic disorders diagnosed through the Danish newborn screening program. All galactosaemia positive samples were identified by the method with no false positives. Furthermore, the screening performance for other metabolic disorders was unaffected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijns5020019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510209PMC
June 2019

Impaired Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Patients and Effect of IV-Glucose.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 09;104(9):3610-3613

Department of Neurology, Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Context: Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) affects oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (FAO) and is associated with risk of metabolic crises and episodic rhabdomyolysis.

Case Description: We present the cases of two patients with LCHADD. Patient 1 (male, 26 years old) was severely affected by muscle weakness and neuropathy. He was diagnosed at age 20 years and was nonadherent to standard dietary management. MRI revealed significant fat replacement of muscle in both calves. Patient 2 (female, 15 years old) was diagnosed at age 1 year. She had no muscle weakness and was compliant with the recommended diet. Compared with healthy persons, both patients had reduced FAO and palmitate oxidation, measured with indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique during a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Patient 2 had some residual capacity to increase FAO and a compensatory higher carbohydrate oxidation, which ensured a near-normal exercise capacity. Patient 1 was unable to increase FAO and could only complete 23 minutes of exercise, vs 60 minutes by patient 2 and healthy persons. In both, 10% IV infusion of glucose (IV-glucose) during exercise increased carbohydrate oxidation slightly, but endurance was not improved, which likely relates to the fixed weakness in patient 1 and because the residual FAO was suppressed by the glucose infusion in both.

Conclusion: The two patients illustrate that FAO is impaired and carbohydrate oxidation is elevated during exercise in patients affected by LCHADD, compared with healthy persons, but IV-glucose has no beneficial effect on exercise tolerance in LCHADD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2019-00453DOI Listing
September 2019

Decreased plasma l-arginine levels in organic acidurias (MMA and PA) and decreased plasma branched-chain amino acid levels in urea cycle disorders as a potential cause of growth retardation: Options for treatment.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 04 25;126(4):397-405. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) and urea cycle disorders (UCD), treated with a protein restricted diet, are prone to growth failure. To obtain optimal growth and thereby efficacious protein incorporation, a diet containing the essential and functional amino acids for growth is necessary. Optimal growth will result in improved protein tolerance and possibly a decrease in the number of decompensations. It thus needs to be determined if amino acid deficiencies are associated with the growth retardation in these patient groups. We studied the correlations between plasma L-arginine levels, plasma branched chain amino acids (BCAA: L-isoleucine, L-leucine and L-valine) levels (amino acids known to influence growth), and height in MMA/PA and UCD patients.

Methods: We analyzed data from longitudinal visits made in stable metabolic periods by patients registered at the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases (E-IMD, Chafea no. 2010 12 01).

Results: In total, 263 MMA/PA and 311 UCD patients were included, all aged below 18 years of age. In patients with MMA and PA, height z-score was positively associated with patients' natural-protein-to-energy prescription ratio and their plasma L-valine and L-arginine levels, while negatively associated with the amount of synthetic protein prescription and their age at visit. In all UCDs combined, height z-score was positively associated with the natural-protein-to-energy prescription ratio. In those with carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1-D), those with male ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC-D), and those in the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome subgroup, height z-score was positively associated with patients' plasma L-leucine levels. In those with argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (ASS-D) and argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASL-D), height was positively associated with patients' plasma L-valine levels.

Conclusion: Plasma L-arginine and L-valine levels in MMA/PA patients and plasma L-leucine and L-valine levels in UCD patients, as well as the protein-to-energy prescription ratio in both groups were positively associated with height. Optimization of these plasma amino acid levels is essential to support normal growth and increase protein tolerance in these disorders. Consequently this could improve the protein-to-energy intake ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.02.003DOI Listing
April 2019

A splice-site variant in the lncRNA gene cosegregates in the large Volkmann cataract family.

Mol Vis 2019 20;25:1-11. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Purpose: To identify the mutation for Volkmann cataract () at 1p36.33.

Methods: The genes in the candidate region 1p36.33 were Sanger and parallel deep sequenced, and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for linkage analysis. Expression analysis with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the candidate gene was performed using RNA from different human tissues. Quantitative transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the gene was performed in affected and healthy individuals. Bioinformatic analysis of the linkage regions including the candidate gene was performed.

Results: Linkage analysis of the 1p36.33 CCV locus applying new marker systems obtained with Sanger and deep sequencing reduced the candidate locus from 2.1 Mb to 0.389 Mb flanked by the markers STS-22AC and rs549772338 and resulted in an logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of Z = 21.67. The identified mutation, rs763295804, affects the donor splice site in the long non-coding RNA gene (ENSG00000231050). The gene including splice-site junctions is conserved in primates but not in other mammalian genomes, and two alternative transcripts were shown with RT-PCR. One of these transcripts represented a lens cell-specific transcript. Meta-analysis of the Cross-Linking-Immuno-Precipitation sequencing (CLIP-Seq) data suggested the RNA binding protein (RBP) eIF4AIII is an active counterpart for , and several miRNA and transcription factors binding sites were predicted in the proximity of the mutation. ENCODE DNase I hypersensitivity and histone methylation and acetylation data suggest the genomic region may have regulatory functions.

Conclusions: The mutation in suggests the long non-coding RNA as the candidate cataract gene associated with the autosomal dominant inherited congenital cataract from CCV. The mutation has the potential to destroy exon/intron splicing of both transcripts of . Sanger and massive deep resequencing of the linkage region failed to identify alternative candidates suggesting the mutation in is causative for the CCV phenotype.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377377PMC
June 2019

Phenotype, treatment practice and outcome in the cobalamin-dependent remethylation disorders and MTHFR deficiency: Data from the E-HOD registry.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 03 17;42(2):333-352. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Hospital Infantil Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain.

Aim: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry.

Results: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities.

Conclusion: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12041DOI Listing
March 2019

Newborn screening for homocystinurias: Recent recommendations versus current practice.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 01;42(1):128-139

Unidad de Metabolismo, Hospital Infantil Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain.

Purpose: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations.

Methods: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres.

Results: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns.

Conclusions: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12034DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluation of dietary treatment and amino acid supplementation in organic acidurias and urea-cycle disorders: On the basis of information from a European multicenter registry.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 11 27;42(6):1162-1175. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Organic acidurias (OAD) and urea-cycle disorders (UCD) are rare inherited disorders affecting amino acid and protein metabolism. As dietary practice varies widely, we assessed their long-term prescribed dietary treatment against published guideline and studied plasma amino acids levels. We analyzed data from the first visit recorded in the European registry and network for intoxication type metabolic diseases (E-IMD, Chafea no. 2010 12 01). In total, 271 methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) and propionic aciduria (PA) and 361 UCD patients were included. Median natural protein prescription was consistent with the recommended daily allowance (RDA), plasma L-valine (57%), and L-isoleucine (55%) levels in MMA and PA lay below reference ranges. Plasma levels were particularly low in patients who received amino acid mixtures (AAMs-OAD) and L-isoleucine:L-leucine:L-valine (BCAA) ratio was 1.0:3.0:3.2. In UCD patients, plasma L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine levels lay below reference ranges in 18%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In symptomatic UCD patients who received AAM-UCD, the median natural protein prescription lay below RDA, while their L-valine and L-isoleucine levels and plasma BCAA ratios were comparable to those in patients who did not receive AAM-UCD. Notably, in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase syndrome (OTC-D), carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 syndrome (CPS1-D) and hyperammonemia-hyperornithinemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome selective L-citrulline supplementation resulted in higher plasma L-arginine levels than selective L-arginine supplementation. In conclusion, while MMA and PA patients who received AAMs-OAD had very low BCAA levels and disturbed plasma BCAA ratios, AAMs-UCD seemed to help UCD patients obtain normal BCAA levels. In patients with OTC-D, CPS1-D, and HHH syndrome, selective L-citrulline seemed preferable to selective L-arginine supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12066DOI Listing
November 2019

Age-related renal function decline in Fabry disease patients on enzyme replacement therapy: a longitudinal cohort study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 09;34(9):1525-1533

Department of Medical Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Nephropathy is common in Fabry disease (FD). Prior studies of renal function during enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) have primarily used estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We studied the attrition of renal function in FD by measured GFR (mGFR) and urine protein excretion, and explored the influence of age.

Methods: This was a long-term observational study of a nationwide, family-screened cohort of FD patients. All Danish genetically verified FD patients on ERT, without end-stage renal disease at baseline and with three or more mGFR values were included.

Results: In all, 52 patients with consecutive mGFR values (n = 841) over median 7 years (range 1-13) were evaluated. Blood pressure remained normal and urine protein excretion was unchanged. Plasma globotriaosylceramide (Gb-3) levels normalized while plasma lyso-Gb-3 remained abnormal in 34% of patients. Baseline mGFR was 90 ± 3 mL/min/1.73 m2 and rate of renal function loss 0.9 ± 0.2 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. Baseline eGFR was 97 ± 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 and rate of renal function loss 0.8 ± 0.3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. mGFR was age- adjusted to renal healthy non-FD subjects, giving a standard deviation score of -0.8 ± 0.2 with an annual slope of -0.03 ± 0.01 (P = 0.099), without differences between genders. Age grouping of age-adjusted data showed exaggerated renal function loss with age. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) >300 mg/g was associated with faster renal function loss, independent of baseline mGFR, age and gender.

Conclusions: ERT-treated FD patients did not have a faster attrition of renal function than renal healthy non-FD subjects (background population). The rate of renal function loss with age was independent of gender and predicted by high UACR. We suggest cautious interpretation of non-age-adjusted FD renal data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy357DOI Listing
September 2019

The impact of consanguinity on the frequency of inborn errors of metabolism.

Dan Med J 2018 Oct;65(10)

Introduction: We investigated the frequency of con-sanguinity among the parents to newborns with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) diagnosed by neonatal screening.

Methods: Data were obtained from 15 years of national newborn screening for selected IEM with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Among the 838,675 newborns from Denmark, The Faroe Islands and Greenland, a total of 196 newborns had an IEM of whom 155 from Denmark were included in this study. These results were crosschecked against medical records. Information on consanguinity was extracted from medical records and obtained through telephone contact with the families.

Results: Among ethnic Danes, two cases of consanguinity were identified among 93 families (2.15%). Among ethnic minorities, there were 20 cases of consanguinity among a total of 33 families (60.6%). Consequently, consanguinity was 28.2 times more frequent among descendants of other geographic places of origin than Denmark. The frequency of consanguinity was high among children of Pakistani, Afghan, Turkish and Arab origin (71.4%). The overall frequency of IEM was 25.5 times higher among children of these ethnic groups than among ethnic Danish children (5.35:10,000 versus 0.21:10,000). The frequency of IEM was 30-fold and 50-fold higher among Pakistanis (6.5:10,000) and Afghans (10.6:10,000), respectively, compared with ethnic Danish children.

Conclusions: The data indicate a strong association between consanguinity and IEM. These figures may be useful to health professionals providing antenatal, paediatric and clinical genetic services.

Funding: none.

Trial Registration: not relevant.
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October 2018

International working group identifies need for newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I but states that existing hurdles must be overcome.

Acta Paediatr 2018 12 23;107(12):2059-2065. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General Faculty Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Aim: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is a lysosomal storage disorder that can result in significant disease burden, disability and premature death, if left untreated. The aim of this review was to elaborate on the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type I and the pros and cons of newborn screening.

Methods: An international working group was established to discuss ways to improve the early diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. It consisted of 13 experts in paediatrics, rare diseases and inherited metabolic diseases from Europe and the Middle East.

Results: It is becoming increasingly clearer that the delay between symptom onset and clinical diagnosis is considerable for mucopolysaccharidosis type I and other rare lysosomal storage disorders, despite numerous awareness campaigns since therapies became available. Diagnosis currently depends on recognising the signs and symptoms of the disease. The practice of newborn screening, which is being explored by pilot programmes around the world, enables early diagnosis and consequently early treatment. However, these studies have highlighted numerous new problems and pitfalls that must be faced before newborn screening becomes generally available.

Conclusion: Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I offers the potential for early diagnosis and early pre-symptomatic treatment, but existing hurdles need to be overcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282980PMC
December 2018

L-Carnitine Improves Skeletal Muscle Fat Oxidation in Primary Carnitine Deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 12;103(12):4580-4588

Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Context: Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an inborn error of fatty acid metabolism. Patients with PCD are risk for sudden heart failure upon fasting or illness if they are not treated with daily l-carnitine.

Objective: To investigate energy metabolism during exercise in patients with PCD with and without l-carnitine treatment.

Design: Interventional study.

Setting: Hospital exercise laboratories and department of cardiology.

Participants: Eight adults with PCD who were homozygous for the c.95A>G (p.N32S) mutation and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls.

Intervention: Four-day pause in l-carnitine treatment.

Main Outcome Measures: Total fatty acid and palmitate oxidation rates during 1-hour submaximal cycle ergometer exercise assessed with stable isotope method (U13C-palmitate and 2H2-d-glucose) and indirect calorimetry with and without l-carnitine.

Results: Total fatty acid oxidation rate was higher in patients with l-carnitine treatment during exercise than without treatment [12.3 (SD, 3.7) vs 8.5 (SD, 4.6) µmol × kg-1 × min-1; P = 0.008]. However, the fatty acid oxidation rate was still lower in patients treated with l-carnitine than in the healthy controls [29.5 (SD, 10.1) µmol × kg-1 × min-1; P < 0.001] and in the l-carnitine group without treatment it was less than one third of that in the healthy controls (P < 0.001). In line with this, the palmitate oxidation rates during exercise were lower in the no-treatment period [144 (SD, 66) µmol × kg-1 × min-1] than during treatment [204 (SD, 84) µmol × kg-1 × min-1; P = 0.004) .

Conclusions: The results indicate that patients with PCD have limited fat oxidation during exercise. l-Carnitine treatment in asymptomatic patients with PCD may not only prevent cardiac complications but also boost skeletal muscle fat metabolism during exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00953DOI Listing
December 2018

Extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, acute bilirubin encephalopathy, and kernicterus spectrum disorder in children with galactosemia.

Pediatr Res 2018 08 31;84(2):228-232. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Background: Galactosemia has not been recognized as a cause of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, although growing evidence supports this association.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we identified children with galactosemia due to GALT deficiency using the Danish Metabolic Laboratory Database. Among these, we identified children with extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or symptoms of ABE. Extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was defined as maximum total serum bilirubin (TSB) level ≥450 µmol/L and a ratio of conjugated serum bilirubin/TSB <0.30.

Results: We identified 21 children with galactosemia (incidence:1:48,000). Seven children developed extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (median [range] TSB level: 491 [456-756] µmol/L), accounting for 1.7% of all extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia cases. During the first 10 days of life, hyperbilirubinemia was predominantly of unconjugated type. Four children developed symptoms of intermediate/advanced ABE. One additional child had symptoms of intermediate/advanced ABE without having extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. On follow-up, one child had KSD.

Conclusions: Galactosemia is a potential cause of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, ABE, and KSD. It is crucial that putative galactosemic children are treated aggressively with phototherapy to prevent ABE and KSD. Thus it is important that galactosemia is part of the work up for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-018-0066-0DOI Listing
August 2018

Efficacy and safety of Velmanase alfa in the treatment of patients with alpha-mannosidosis: results from the core and extension phase analysis of a phase III multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2018 11 30;41(6):1215-1223. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Centre for Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: This phase III, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (and extension phase) was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of velmanase alfa (VA) in alpha-mannosidosis (AM) patients.

Methods: Twenty-five patients were randomised to weekly 1 mg/kg VA or placebo for 52 weeks. At study conclusion, placebo patients switched to VA; 23 patients continued receiving VA in compassionate-use/follow-on studies and were evaluated in the extension phase [last observation (LO)]. Co-primary endpoints were changes in serum oligosaccharide (S-oligo) and in the 3-min stair-climb test (3MSCT).

Results: Mean relative change in S-oligo in the VA arm was -77.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) -81.6 to -72.8] at week 52 and -62.9% (95% CI -85.8 to -40.0) at LO; mean relative change in the placebo arm was -24.1% (95% CI -40.3 to -3.6) at week 52 and -55.7% (95% CI -76.4 to -34.9) at LO after switch to active treatment. Mean relative change in 3MSCT at week 52 was -1.1% (95% CI -9.0 to 7.6) and - % (95% CI -13.4 to 6.5) for VA and placebo, respectively. At LO, the mean relative change was 3.9% (95% CI -5.5 to 13.2) in the VA arm and 9.0% (95% CI -10.3 to 28.3) in placebo patients after switch to active treatment. Similar improvement pattern was observed in secondary parameters. A post hoc analysis investigated whether some factors at baseline could account for treatment outcome; none of those factors were predictive of the response to VA, besides age.

Conclusions: These findings support the utility of VA for the treatment of AM, with more evident benefit over time and when treatment is started in the paediatric age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-018-0185-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326984PMC
November 2018
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