Publications by authors named "Alistair Aaronson"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Perioperative Statin Use May Reduce Postoperative Arrhythmia Rates After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 10 25;36(10):3401-3405. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Redwood City, CA.

Background: Postoperative arrhythmias are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease atrial fibrillation rates after cardiac surgery, but it is unknown if this cardioprotective effect is maintained after joint reconstruction surgery. We aim to determine if perioperative statin use decreases the incidence of 90-day postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing primary TJA.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study in which 231 primary TJA patients (109 hips, 122 knees) received simvastatin 80 mg daily during their hospitalization as part of a single surgeon's standard postoperative protocol. This cohort was matched to 966 primary TJA patients (387 hips and 579 knees) that did not receive simvastatin. New-onset arrhythmias (bradycardia, atrial fibrillation/tachycardia/flutter, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia) and complications (readmissions, thromboembolism, infection, and dislocation) within 90 days of the procedure were documented. Categorical variables were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests. Our study was powered to detect a 3% difference in arrhythmia rates.

Results: Within 90 days postoperatively, arrhythmias occurred in 1 patient (0.4%) who received a perioperative statin, 39 patients (4.0%) who did not receive statins (P = .003), and 24 patients (4.2%) who were on outpatient statins (P = .005). This is 10-fold reduction in the relative risk of developing a postoperative arrhythmia within 90 days of arthroplasty and an absolute risk reduction of 3.6%.

Conclusion: Treating as few as 28 patients with perioperative simvastatin prevents one new cardiac arrhythmia within 90 days in statin-naïve patients undergoing TJA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.05.022DOI Listing
October 2021

Statin use is associated with less postoperative cardiac arrhythmia after total hip arthroplasty.

Hip Int 2019 Nov 10;29(6):618-623. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Redwood City, CA, USA.

Introduction: While statins have been found to reduce postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery, little is known about their use in total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study investigated if statins would similarly reduce postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing THA.

Methods: We queried a large Medicare and private-payer database from 2005 to 2012 and identified 12,075 patients who were on a statin prior to THA. We then age and sex matched 34,446 non-statin users who underwent THA. Baseline comorbidities and postoperative complications were obtained and assessed via standard descriptive statistics.

Results: The statin users had more preoperative comorbidities including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, pulmonary and renal disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and anaemia (all values < 0.001). Postoperatively, the statin users had a statistically higher 90-day incidence of transfusion, acute renal failure, heart failure, pneumonia, and sepsis/shock. All new-onset cardiac arrhythmia was significantly less frequent in the statin group at 2 weeks (3.88% vs. 4.72%, 0.001), 30 days (4.47% vs. 5.29%, 0.001), and 90 days (5.44% vs. 6.31%, = 0.001) postoperative. There was no difference in the frequency of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, postoperative anaemia, or bleeding at 90 days postoperative.

Discussion: Despite being medically sicker at baseline with multiple risk factors for atrial fibrillation compared to the non-statin users, the statin users displayed a consistently lower occurrence of postoperative cardiac arrhythmia in this retrospective cohort study. Statins may therefore be beneficial in the preoperative optimisation of medically complex patients undergoing THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120700018816091DOI Listing
November 2019

Diabetes and Hyperglycemia in Lower-Extremity Total Joint Arthroplasty: Clinical Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Management.

JBJS Rev 2018 May;6(5):e10

Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.17.00146DOI Listing
May 2018

Interprofessional Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Non-Physician Perspectives on Resident Competency.

J Gen Intern Med 2018 04 4;33(4):487-492. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) includes the ability to collaborate in an interprofessional team as a core professional activity that trainees should be able to complete on day 1 of residency (Med Sci Educ. 26:797-800, 2016). The training that medical students require in order to achieve this competency, however, is not well established (Med Sci Educ. 26:457-61, 2016), and few studies have examined non-physician healthcare professionals' perspectives regarding resident physicians' interprofessional skills.

Objective: This study aims to describe non-physicians' views on barriers to collaboration with physicians, as well as factors that contribute to good collaborative relationships.

Participants: Nurses, social workers, case managers, dietitians, rehabilitation therapists, and pharmacists at one academic medical center, largely working in the inpatient setting.

Approach: A qualitative study design was employed. Data were collected from individual interviews and focus groups comprising non-physician healthcare professionals.

Key Results: Knowledge gaps identified as impeding interprofessional collaboration included inadequate understanding of current roles, potential roles, and processes for non-physician healthcare professionals. Specific physician behaviors that were identified as contributing to good collaborative relationships included mutual support such as backing up other team members and prioritizing multidisciplinary rounds, and communication including keeping team members informed, asking for their input, physicians explaining their rationale, and practicing joint problem-solving with non-physicians.

Conclusions: Discussion of how physician trainees can best learn to collaborate as members of an interprofessional team must include non-physician perspectives. Training designed to provide medical students and residents with a better understanding of non-physician roles and to enhance mutual support and communication skills may be critical in achieving the AAMC's goals of making physicians effective members of interprofessional teams, and thus improving patient-centered care. We hope that medical educators will include these areas identified as important by non-physicians in targeted team training for their learners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4238-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880757PMC
April 2018

Creating the medical school of the future through incremental curricular transformation: the Stanford Healthcare Innovations and Experiential Learning Directive (SHIELD).

Educ Prim Care 2017 05 28;28(3):180-184. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

a Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Department of Medicine , Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , CA , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14739879.2016.1259965DOI Listing
May 2017

Integrating Mobile Fitness Trackers Into the Practice of Medicine.

Am J Lifestyle Med 2017 Jan-Feb;11(1):77-79. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (NA, EO, AA).

Mobile fitness trackers are increasingly used by patients as a means to become more involved in their own self-care; however, these devices measure disparate outcomes that may have equivocal relevance to true health status. It is vital for physicians to interpret both the quality and accuracy of the information that these trackers provide, and it is important to delineate which role, if any, these devices may serve in promoting quality patient care in the future. Potential benefits of mobile fitness trackers include the ability to motivate patients toward a healthier lifestyle, to develop a community of like-minded individuals seeking to improve their health, as well as to create an environment of sustainability and accountability for long-term promotion of health maintenance. However, limitations include the fact that mobile fitness trackers are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, that the employed metrics are not necessarily the best surrogates for true health status, and that the accuracy of measured endpoints has not yet been proven. As mobile fitness trackers both continue to rise in popularity and become increasingly sophisticated, physicians must be equipped to interpret and use this technology to better serve patients within an ever-changing, more technology-reliant health care system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559827615583643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124842PMC
July 2016

Myths and truths of growth hormone and testosterone therapy in heart failure.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2011 Jun;9(6):711-20

Advanced Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Suite 6215, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Heart failure is a chronic clinical syndrome with very poor prognosis. Despite being on optimal medical therapy, many patients still experience debilitating symptoms and poor quality of life. In recent years, there has been a great interest in anabolic hormone replacement therapy - namely, growth hormone and testosterone - as an adjunctive therapy in patients with advanced heart failure. It has been observed that low levels of growth hormone and testosterone have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Animal studies and clinical trials have shown promising clinical improvement with hormonal supplementation. Growth hormone has been shown to increase ventricular wall mass, decrease wall stress, increase cardiac contractility, and reduce peripheral vascular resistance, all of which might help to enhance cardiac function, resulting in improvement in clinical symptoms. Likewise, testosterone has been shown to improve hemodynamic parameters via reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and increased coronary blood flow through vasodilation, thereby improving functional and symptomatic status. To date, growth hormone and testosterone therapy have shown some positive benefits, albeit with some concerns over adverse effects. However, large randomized controlled trials are still needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/erc.11.25DOI Listing
June 2011

Update on the safety of testosterone therapy in cardiac disease.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2011 Sep 22;10(5):697-704. Epub 2011 Mar 22.

Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Suite 6215, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Introduction: Testosterone has been used for decades in the treatment of men with hypogonadism and women with low libido. More recently, it has been used in patient populations with cardiac disease and, in particular, in those patients with heart failure. The benefits of testosterone supplementation have been demonstrated in the literature, but there is also concern that testosterone supplementation may not be benign, especially when administered to achieve supraphysiological levels, e.g., to improve athletic performance.

Areas Covered: This review seeks to address the link between testosterone levels and cardiac disease while discussing the safety concerns of testosterone supplementation in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses that were obtained through a literature search of the Medline database are discussed in this paper.

Expert Opinion: Ultimately, the definitive role of testosterone in cardiovascular disease remains contentious, but testosterone may have niche roles in certain conditions, such as advanced heart failure and cardiac cachexia. Testosterone has been used safely, and we believe may continue to be used safely, in men with cardiac disease when achieving physiological levels, with adequate monitoring of prostate specific antigen and hematocrit levels during the course of treatment per established clinical guidelines. Testosterone might exert beneficial effects on physical capacity and functioning as well as overall outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740338.2011.566213DOI Listing
September 2011

How should we classify intersex disorders?

J Pediatr Urol 2010 Oct 21;6(5):443-6. Epub 2010 May 21.

Department of Urology, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

The term disorders of sex development (DSD) has achieved widespread acceptance as replacement for the term intersex, but how to classify these conditions remains problematic. The LWPES-ESPE (Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology) Consensus Group proposed using the karyotype as a basis for classification; however, this is but a crude reflection of the genetic makeup, is diagnostically non-specific, and is not in itself relevant to subsequent clinical developments. The historical classification of intersex disorders based on gonadal histology is currently out of favor, being tainted by association with the terms hermaphroditism and pseudohermaphroditism. We believe this is regrettable, for the histology of the gonad remains fundamental to the understanding of normal and aberrant sexual development by medical students and residents in training, as well as being a major determinant of clinical outcome for the patient. We propose a comprehensive classification of those DSD conditions generally regarded as belonging under the heading of intersex, based on gonadal histology. Biopsy will not be required when the diagnosis is clearly established biochemically or by gene studies as the histology can be confidently predicted. It will only be required when an ovotestis or dysgenetic gonad is suspected in order to determine the definitive diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2010.04.008DOI Listing
October 2010

Technique for breast suspension during reduction mammaplasty.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2009 Jun;123(6):203e-205e

Medical University of South Carolina (Uflacker) Charleston Plastic Surgery (Hagerty) Medical University of South Carolina; Charleston, S.C. (Aaronson).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181a3f57aDOI Listing
June 2009
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