Publications by authors named "Alisha M Aagesen"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterizing the Adherence Profiles of Virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates.

Microb Ecol 2018 Jan 17;75(1):152-162. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.

The human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne illness in the USA, and infections with V. parahaemolyticus typically result from eating raw or undercooked oysters. V. parahaemolyticus has been shown to be highly resistant to oyster depuration, suggesting that the bacterium possesses specific mechanisms or factors for colonizing oysters and persisting during depuration. In this study, we characterized eight different V. parahaemolyticus strains for differences in resistance to oyster depuration, biofilm formation, and motility. While each strain exhibited distinct phenotypes in the various assays, we determined that biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, such as glass or plastic, does not directly correlate with bacterial retention in oysters during depuration. However, we did observe that the motility phenotype of a strain appeared to be a better indicator for persistence in the oyster. Further studies examining the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed colonization differences by these and other V. parahaemolyticus strains may provide beneficial insights into what critical factors are required for proficient colonization of the Pacific oyster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-017-1025-8DOI Listing
January 2018

PhoY Proteins Promote Persister Formation by Mediating Pst/SenX3-RegX3 Phosphate Sensing.

mBio 2017 07 11;8(4). Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

The phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system controls gene expression in response to phosphate availability by inhibiting the activation of the SenX3-RegX3 two-component system under phosphate-rich conditions, but the mechanism of communication between these systems is unknown. In , inhibition of the two-component system PhoR-PhoB under phosphate-rich conditions requires both the Pst system and PhoU, a putative adaptor protein. PhoU is also involved in the formation of persisters, a subpopulation of phenotypically antibiotic-tolerant bacteria. encodes two PhoU orthologs, PhoY1 and PhoY2. We generated single- and double-deletion mutants and examined the expression of RegX3-regulated genes by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene expression was increased only in the Δ Δ double mutant and could be restored to the wild-type level by complementation with either or or by deletion of These data suggest that the PhoY proteins function redundantly to inhibit SenX3-RegX3 activation. We analyzed the frequencies of antibiotic-tolerant persister variants in the mutants using several antibiotic combinations. Persister frequency was decreased at least 40-fold in the Δ Δ mutant compared to the frequency in the wild type, and this phenotype was RegX3 dependent. A Δ mutant lacking a Pst system transmembrane component exhibited a similar RegX3-dependent decrease in persister frequency. In aerosol-infected mice, the Δ Δ and Δ mutants were more susceptible to treatment with rifampin but not isoniazid. Our data demonstrate that disrupting phosphate sensing mediated by the PhoY proteins and the Pst system enhances the susceptibility of to antibiotics both and during infection. Persister variants, subpopulations of bacteria that are phenotypically antibiotic tolerant, contribute to the lengthy treatment times required to cure infection, but the molecular mechanisms governing their formation and maintenance are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that a phosphate-sensing signal transduction system, comprising the Pst phosphate transporter, the two-component system SenX3-RegX3, and functionally redundant PhoY proteins that mediate signaling between Pst and SenX3-RegX3, influences persister formation. Activation of RegX3 by deletion of the genes or a Pst system component resulted in decreased persister formation Activated RegX3 also limited persister formation during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions. Importantly, increased susceptibility to the front-line drug rifampin was also observed in a mouse infection model. Thus, the phosphate-sensing signal transduction system contributes to antibiotic tolerance and is a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics that may shorten the duration of tuberculosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00494-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513712PMC
July 2017

Effects of chromosomal deletion of the operon encoding the multiple resistance and pH-related antiporter in Vibrio cholerae.

Microbiology (Reading) 2016 12 24;162(12):2147-2158. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

To examine the possible physiological significance of Mrp, a multi-subunit cation/proton antiporter from Vibrio cholerae, a chromosomal deletion Δmrp of V. cholerae was constructed and characterized. The resulting mutant showed a consistent early growth defect in LB broth that became more evident at elevated pH of the growth medium and increasing Na+ or K+ loads. After 24 h incubation, these differences disappeared likely due to the concerted effort of other cation pumps in the mrp mutant. Phenotype MicroArray analyses revealed an unexpected systematic defect in nitrogen utilization in the Δmrp mutant that was complemented by using the mrpA'-F operon on an arabinose-inducible expression vector. Deletion of the mrp operon also led to hypermotility, observable on LB and M9 semi-solid agar. Surprisingly, Δmrp mutation resulted in wild-type biofilm formation in M9 despite a growth defect but the reverse was true in LB. Furthermore, the Δmrp strain exhibited higher susceptibility to amphiphilic anions. These pleiotropic phenotypes of the Δmrp mutant demonstrate how the chemiosmotic activity of Mrp contributes to the survival potential of V. cholerae despite the presence of an extended battery of cation/proton antiporters of varying ion selectivity and pH profile operating in the same membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.000384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903249PMC
December 2016

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resists Stress by Regulating PE19 Expression.

Infect Immun 2015 Dec 28;84(3):735-46. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Translational Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Global Health Institute, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland

Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires the phosphate-sensing signal transduction system Pst/SenX3-RegX3 to resist host immune responses. A ΔpstA1 mutant lacking a Pst phosphate uptake system component is hypersensitive to diverse stress conditions in vitro and is attenuated in vivo due to constitutive expression of the phosphate starvation-responsive RegX3 regulon. Transcriptional profiling of the ΔpstA1 mutant revealed aberrant expression of certain pe and ppe genes. PE and PPE proteins, defined by conserved N-terminal domains containing Pro-Glu (PE) or Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) motifs, account for a substantial fraction of the M. tuberculosis genome coding capacity, but their functions are largely uncharacterized. Because some PE and PPE proteins localize to the cell wall, we hypothesized that overexpression of these proteins sensitizes M. tuberculosis to stress by altering cell wall integrity. To test this idea, we deleted pe and ppe genes that were overexpressed by ΔpstA1 bacteria. Deletion of a single pe gene, pe19, suppressed hypersensitivity of the ΔpstA1 mutant to both detergent and reactive oxygen species. Ethidium bromide uptake assays revealed increased envelope permeability of the ΔpstA1 mutant that was dependent on PE19. The replication defect of the ΔpstA1 mutant in NOS2(-/-) mice was partially reversed by deletion of pe19, suggesting that increased membrane permeability due to PE19 overexpression sensitizes M. tuberculosis to host immunity. Our data indicate that PE19, which comprises only a 99-amino-acid PE domain, has a unique role in the permeability of the M. tuberculosis envelope that is regulated to resist stresses encountered in the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00942-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4771341PMC
December 2015

Roles of the sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on vibrio cholerae metabolism, motility and osmotic stress resistance.

PLoS One 2014 8;9(5):e97083. Epub 2014 May 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America; Department of Microbiology, College of Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ΔnqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ΔnqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ΔnqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0097083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014592PMC
June 2015

Seasonal effects of heat shock on bacterial populations, including artificial Vibrio parahaemolyticus exposure, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

Food Microbiol 2014 Apr 5;38:93-103. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 105 Magruder Hall, VRL 125, OR 97331, USA.

During the warmer summer months, oysters are conditioned to spawn, resulting in massive physiological efforts for gamete production. Moreover, the higher temperatures during the summer typically result in increased bacteria populations in oysters. We hypothesized that these animals are under multiple stresses that lead to possible immune system impairments during the summer months that can possibly lead to death. Here we show that in the summer and the fall animals exposed to a short heat stress respond similarly, resulting in a general trend of more bacteria being found in heat shocked animals than their non-heat shocked counterparts. We also show that naturally occurring bacterial populations are effected by a heat shock. In addition, oysters artificially contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also affected by a heat shock. Heat shocked animals contained higher concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus in their tissues and hemolymph than control animals and this was consistent for animals examined during summer and fall. Finally, oyster hemocyte interactions with V. parahaemolyticus differed based on the time of the year. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal changes and/or a short heat shock is sufficient to impact bacterial retention, particularly V. parahaemolyticus, in oysters and this line of research might lead to important considerations for animal harvesting procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2013.08.008DOI Listing
April 2014

Persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is a multifactorial process involving pili and flagella but not type III secretion systems or phase variation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2013 May 8;79(10):3303-5. Epub 2013 Mar 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can resist oyster depuration, suggesting that it possesses specific factors for persistence. We show that type I pili, type IV pili, and both flagellar systems contribute to V. parahaemolyticus persistence in Pacific oysters whereas type III secretion systems and phase variation do not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00314-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3685240PMC
May 2013

Sequence analyses of type IV pili from Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus.

Microb Ecol 2012 Aug 2;64(2):509-24. Epub 2012 Mar 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Bacterial surface structures called pili have been studied extensively for their role as possible colonization factors. Most sequenced Vibrio genomes predict a variety of pili genes in these organisms, including several types of type IV pili. In particular, the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) and the PilA pili, also known as the chitin-regulated pilus (ChiRP), are type IVa pili commonly found in Vibrio genomes and have been shown to play a role in the colonization of Vibrio species in the environment and/or host tissue. Here, we report sequence comparisons of two type IVa pilin subunit genes, mshA and pilA, and their corresponding amino acid sequences, for several strains from the three main human pathogenic Vibrio species, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. We identified specific groupings of these two genes in V. cholerae, whereas V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains had no apparent allelic clusters, and these genes were strikingly divergent. These results were compared with other genes from the MSHA and PilA operons as well as another Vibrio pili from the type IVb group, the toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP) from V. cholerae. Our data suggest that a selective pressure exists to cause these strains to vary their MSHA and PilA pilin subunits. Interestingly, V. cholerae strains possessing TCP have the same allele for both mshA and pilA. In contrast, V. cholerae isolates without TCP have polymorphisms in their mshA and pilA sequences similar to what was observed for both V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. This data suggests a possible linkage between host interactions and maintaining a highly conserved type IV pili sequence in V. cholerae. Although the mechanism underlying this intriguing diversity has yet to be elucidated, our analyses are an important first step towards gaining insights into the various aspects of Vibrio ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-012-0021-2DOI Listing
August 2012
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