Publications by authors named "Alireza Merrikhi"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Importance of Mean Platelet Volume in Predicting Cardiac Mechanics Parameters and Carotid-Intima Media Thickness in Children With End-Stage Renal Disease and Comparison With Healthy Children.

Ther Apher Dial 2019 Oct 3;23(5):451-459. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death in children with ESRD. Echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound are useful devices for diagnosing cardiovascular abnormalities in such patients. However, they are expensive, difficult to perform as a routine, and not available in many centers. Therefore, finding a more accessible and inexpensive method for CVD evaluation biomarkers is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume (MPV) as a routine hematological parameter with cardiac mechanics characteristics in children with ESRD. Forty-two children under dialysis and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as control group were enrolled in the study. Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT) and echocardiographic parameters were measured in both groups. In addition, hematological and biochemical variables were evaluated in blood samples of participants. MPV was significantly higher in patients than in controls. CIMT, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), end diastolic diameter, strain rate, and global longitudinal strain were significantly different between the two groups. MPV was positively correlated with LVMI and inversely with ejection fraction. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for MPV in predicting left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and abnormal CIMT were 0.65 (P = 0.07) and 0.53 (P = 0.74), respectively. MPV was correlated with some cardiac abnormalities in children with ESRD. However, it could not show appropriate predictive values in diagnosing LVH and subclinical atherosclerosis. Further studies with prospective design could shed more light in this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12794DOI Listing
October 2019

Is Vitamin D Supplementation Effective in Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in the Pediatrics? A Randomized Triple-Masked Controlled Trial.

Adv Biomed Res 2018 30;7:150. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Statistics, Payam Noor University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the pediatrics.

Materials And Methods: This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2014 among 68 children and adolescents with recurrent UTI. They were randomly assigned to two groups, receiving either Vitamin D (1000 IU/daily) or placebo for 6 months. The serum concentration of Vitamin D before and after the study and the frequency of UTI during the study were recorded.

Results: Overall 33 patients in the group of receiving Vitamin D and 32 in the placebo group completed the trial. The mean serum level of Vitamin D had a significant increase in the intervention group (15.80 ± 8.7 vs. 20.56 ± 8.30 ng/mL, < 0.001) and significant decrease in the placebo group (20.43 ± 13.28 vs. 17.43 ± 9.99 ng/mL, = 0.041). During the trial, the frequency of UTI was not significantly different between the two groups studied ( = 0.72). Both before and after the trial, the frequency of Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and adequacy was not significantly different within and between groups ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of this trial revealed that Vitamin D supplementation with the mentioned dose have not significant impact on preventing recurrent UTI. Future studies with higher doses of Vitamin D and longer follow-up are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_149_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289001PMC
November 2018

Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 With Endothelial Dysfunction, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and thrombotic events in Children With End-stage Renal Disease.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2018 05;12(3):169-177

Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are members of endopeptidases which contribute to CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of MMP-2 and MMP-9 with markers of endothelial dysfunction, soluble E-selectin and brachial flow-mediated dilatation; several biochemical risk factors of CVD; and thrombotic incidents in children with ESRD.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-one children with ESRD and 18 healthy age- and sex-adjusted controls underwent measurement of serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, soluble E-selectin, phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, lipid profile, thrombotic factors, and albumin. Flow-mediated dilatation was measured in both groups by Doppler ultrasonography. Thrombotic events were assessed in patients with ESRD.

Results: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, soluble E-selectin, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone and negatively correlated with body mass index, hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and flow-mediated dilatation, while MMP-9 correlated with soluble E-selectin, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and albumin and negatively correlated with body mass index and hemoglobin. Six patients (19.3%) had thrombotic incidents. There was no significant difference between the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the children with and without thrombotic events.

Conclusions: This study determined the associations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 with markers of endothelial dysfunction and several traditional and uremia related CVD risk factors in children with ESRD. No associations were found between these two MMPs and thrombotic events.
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May 2018

The First Report on the Frequency of Asymptomatic Proteinuria in Iranian School-aged Children.

Adv Biomed Res 2018 21;7:35. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Medical Students Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Proteinuria is a well-known indicator of renal dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of proteinuria in a sample of healthy Iranian elementary school students using both dipsticks and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) methods.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 478 school students aged 7-9 years who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from Isfahan city, Iran. A clean midstream first-morning urine sample was obtained from each subject. Urine samples were examined by dipstick method, and accordingly, they were reported as negative; trace; 1+; 2+; 3+; and 4+. UACR was determined in samples with positive dipstick proteinuria (defined as trace or greater).

Results: This study included 478 students (42.8% boys), with mean age of 7.0 ± 0.4 years. Positive dipstick was detected in 124 (25.9%) cases. The frequency of positive dipstick proteinuria was significantly higher in the girls than boys (29.6% vs. 20.9%, respectively; = 0.04). In cases with a positive dipstick, 10 (2.1%) cases had UACR 30-300 mg/g. The frequency of UACR of 30-300 mg/g was 1.4% and 2.5% in boys and girls, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequency of UACR 30-300 mg/g in terms of gender ( = 0.4). None of the subjects had UACR above 300 mg/g.

Conclusion: While the frequency of asymptomatic proteinuria varies widely across different studies, we found a higher rate of proteinuria in Iranian children. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to justify large screening program for detecting asymptomatic proteinuria, as a cardinal manifestation of kidney disease, in Iranian children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.225923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840999PMC
February 2018

Acute oxalate nephropathy following kidney transplantation: Report of three cases.

J Res Med Sci 2015 Aug;20(8):818-23

Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is a common finding immediately after kidney transplantation. However, small depositions of CaOx could be benign while extensive depositions lead to poor graft outcome. Here we report three cases with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), bilateral nephrolithiasis, and unknown diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) who underwent a renal transplant and experienced an early-onset graft failure. Although an acute rejection was suspected, renal allograft biopsies and subsequent allograft nephrectomies showed extensive CaOx deposition, which raised a suspicion of PH. Even though increased urinary excretion of CaOx was found in all patients, this diagnosis could be confirmed with further tests including genetic study and metabolic assay. In conclusion, massive CaOx deposition in kidney allograft is an important cause of poor allograft survival and needs special management. Furthermore, our cases suggest patients with ESRD and a history of nephrolithiasis should be screened for elevated urinary oxalate excretion and rule out of PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-1995.168408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652317PMC
August 2015

Gene mutation analysis in Iranian children with nephronophthisis: a two-center study.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2015 Mar;9(2):119-25

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Nephronophthisis is of the most commonly inherited ciliopathies that leads to end-stage renal disease in children. The NPHP1 gene is the first identified gene responsible for nephronophthisis and related diseases. This study assessed mutations of the NPHP1 gene in 16 Iranian families with at least one member presenting features of nephronophthisis.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease were referred to Imam Hossein Children Hospital, in Isfahan, Iran. The gene analysis study was carried on 16 patients and their first-degree relatives (40 DNA samples) suspicious of having nephronophthisis. The NPHP1 deletion analysis was performed for exons 5, 7, and 20 of the NPHP1 gene.

Results: The patients' median age was 15 years. The mean and median age of the first presentation was 10.06 ± 2.59 years and 10.5 years, respectively. A homozygous deletion was identified in the NPHP1 gene spanning at least from exon 5 to exon 20 in two families. High-throughput mutation analysis identified a homozygous truncating mutation (c.1504C>T, p.R502*) in the NPHP5 in 5 families.

Conclusions: By combining NPHP1 deletion analysis with multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-based high-throughput mutation analysis we could identify the molecular disease-cause in 7 of 15 families from Iran. In 8 families, the molecular disease cause remained unknown.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852675PMC
March 2015

Association between neutrophil geletinase-associated lipocalin and iron deficiency anemia in children on chronic dialysis.

J Res Med Sci 2014 Jul;19(7):624-8

Department of Urology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and associated with higher risk of death. Neutrophil geletinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a small 25 kDa glycoprotein, a member of lipocalin superfamily that released at the response of cellular stress from different cells. In addition, NGAL was studied as an iron regulatory glycoprotein and regulator of iron related gene. The aim of the current study was to determine any association between serum NGAL and body iron status markers in children on chronic dialysis.

Materials And Methods: This correlation study was carried out between May 2012 and May 2013 and evaluated all dialysis patients less than 19 years in pediatric dialysis centers in Isfahan that didn't have exclusion criteria. They were 40 children, including 23 persons on hemodialysis (HD) and 17 persons dialyzed by peritoneal dialysis (PD). Furthermore, we selected 40 children as healthy controls. We examined the relationship between plasma NGAL levels and indices of anemia such as ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT) and serum iron (SI) in dialysis children.

Results: Serum NGAL level in children on chronic dialysis (group including both PD and HD patients) was significantly higher than healthy controls (P = 0.008). Furthermore, in this group Serum NGAL level had inverse correlation with TSAT (P = 0.04, r = -0.22), SI (P = 0.04, r = -0.2), white blood cells (P = 0.045, r = -0.26) and serum ferritin (P = 0.006, r = -0.3). In addition, HD patients had higher serum NGAL level than PD patients (P = 0.048).

Conclusion: High serum NGAL level in low TSAT group demonstrated that NGAL probably has an important role in IDA in children on chronic dialysis; therefore, it can be a new marker for diagnosis of IDA in CKD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4214020PMC
July 2014

Comparison of percutaneous versus open surgical techniques for placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter in children: A randomized clinical trial.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014 1;28:38. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

6. PhD Student in Educational Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Unlabelled: Background This research compares the outcomes of percutaneous technique and open surgical peritoneal dialysis catheter placement in children.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, between 2010 and 2011,a total of 35 pediatric uremic patients were enrolled and randomized into two study groups. Follow up data included duration of operation (minute), duration of hospitalization (days) and onset time of peritoneal dialysis. Complications were considered as mechanical and infectious.

Results: The percutaneous procedure was significantly faster than the open surgical technique (9.5 ± 1.81 versus 27.00 ± 2.61 minutes, p= 0.0001). The onset of dialysis was earlier in percutaneous insertion. There were no cases of hollow viscous perforation, early peritonitis and exit site infection at the 3rd, 7th, and 14th day in both groups. Complications in open surgical group were include wrapped omentum in 4 (23.5%), catheter malposition in 3 (17.6%),delayed exit site infection in 2 (11.7%), Incisional hernia in 1 (5.8%)and hemoperitoneum in 2 (11.7%)cases. Complications in percutaneous insertion group were include catheter malposition and wrapped omentum each in one case.

Conclusion: Percutaneous method with secure insertion of the catheter reduced the rate of some complications. Although they were not statistically significant, this technique reduces the time of hospitalization and operation without need to general anesthesia. The onset of dialysis was earlier significantly. Trial registry code: IRCT2013091514670N1.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154274PMC
September 2014

Frequency assessment of β-lactamase enzymes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates in patients with urinary tract infection.

J Res Med Sci 2014 Mar;19(Suppl 1):S41-5

Isfahan Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Production of β-lactamase enzymes is the most common and important mechanism of resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess frequency of three main β-lactamase enzymes, including extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from nosocomial and community urinary tract infections (UTI).

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study from March to December 2012, midstream urine samples were obtained from patients suspicious of UTI who were hospitalized or referred to Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were isolated. Prevalence of ESBLs, KPC, and MBLs producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were studied by double-disk (combined-disk), the modified Hodge test and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid combined disc methods respectively. In addition, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns determined and resistant to carbapenem drugs confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentrations based on E-test method.

Results: A total of 1080 E. coli and 484 Klebsiella strains were isolated during study period. Among 720 E. coli and 384 Klebsiella isolates from hospitalized patients, 300 (41.7%) and 198 (51.5%) were ESBLs producers, respectively. In out-patients samples, the rate of ESBLs production was 25% (90/360) and 40% (40/100) in E. coli and Klebsiella isolates, respectively. Prevalence of MBLs producing in hospital E. coli and Klebsiella isolates were 0.3% (2/720) and 2.6% (10/384), and for KPC data were 1.4% (10/720) and 48.4% (186/384), respectively. No MBLs and KPC producing isolate was seen in non-hospital E. coli and Klebsiella isolates except for one non-hospital KPC producing Klebsiella isolate.

Conclusion: The result of our study showed high prevalence of ESBLs and KPC, but low prevalence of MBLs in cultured bacteria from urine samples of patients with acute UTI. In addition, KPC was the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in Klebsiella and E. coli isolates.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078376PMC
March 2014

Association of urinary transforming growth factor-β1 with the ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 28;3:123. Epub 2014 May 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: We aimed to compare the level of urinary transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with the normal peers.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, we enrolled children with UPJO and matched normal peers. Sterile urine was collected from the subjects and urinary TGF-β1 was measured by ELISA method. Also, degree of the UPJO and the magnitude of the renal injury were assessed by ultrasonography and measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. Study variables were then compared between the study groups regarding the level of urinary TGF-β1.

Results: A total of 25 children with UPJO (age = 7.4 ± 4.5 years; male = 16) were compared with 25 healthy peers (age = 6.8 ± 5.6 years; male = 16). Mean GFR in the UPJO and the control group were 112.4 ± 10.1 and 123.29 ± 4.4, respectively. Mean urinary TGF-β1 in the UPJO group was 87.1 ± 12.6 pg/ml vs 30.5 ± 14.5 pg/ml in the control group. The level of urinary TGF-β1 was significantly associated with the degree of TGF-β1 and patients with grade IV hydronephrosis had the highest level of urinary TGF-β (P = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Based on our findings, biomarkers such as TGF-β1 can successfully be used for confirming UPJO. However, further studies are needed to determine the proper cut point for diagnosis confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.133196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4063104PMC
June 2014

Urine and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin cut-off point for the prediction of acute kidney injury.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 27;3:66. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the optimum cut-off point of urine and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for the predictive diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Materials And Methods: This study was a prospective observational study which was performed at Alzahra hospital and Emam Hussein Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. During a period of 4 months, from February 2012 to May 2012, consecutive patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) aged between 1 month and 15 years with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) more than 90 ml/min were enrolled in the study. In all the patients who were enrolled in the study, blood and urine samples were attained on the first, third, and fifth day of admission. Serum and urine NGAL were assessed and compared between patients who developed AKI and who didn't.

Results: Of 25 patients who enrolled in the study, 13 developed AKI. For the serum NGAL, the most accurate cut-off point was the fifth day cut-off point which was 163 375 pg/ml (sensitivity: 61.5%, specificity: 94.6%, AUC: 0.76) and urine NGAL cut-off point was 86 040 pg/ml (sensitivity: 50%, specificity: 92.5%, AUC: 0.73).

Conclusions: In conclusion, we deduced that serum NGAL level significantly elevates in critically ill patients admitted in PICU who develop AKI. Serum and urine NGAL on the fifth day are the best predictors for the AKI with cut-off points 163 375 and 86 040.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.125847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3950801PMC
March 2014

Glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality in unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

Adv Biomed Res 2013 30;2:78. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Department of Physiology, Water and Electrolytes Research Center, Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Renal maldevelopment, interstitial fibrosis, ischemic atrophy, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal blood flow (RBF) are inevitable consequences of chronic kidney obstruction that only partially improve after early intervention. There are only few studies that evaluated urine osmolality in affected kidney and its correlation with short-term outcome.

Materials And Methods: Thirty patients (age<1 year) with unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UUPJO) were enrolled in this study. UUPJO was confirmed using Technetium 99 isotope scans and the patients were indicated to be operated afterward. Urine and blood samples were obtained before, 24, 48, and 72 h after the surgery. The serum level of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and glucose were measured. GFR, urine osmolality (measured and calculated), and urine specific gravity were determined too.

Results: Cortical thickness of hydronephrotic kidney was significantly increased 6 months after the surgery. GFR was significantly increased 72-h postsurgery compared to before operation. Neither means of calculated nor of measured urine osmolalities were significantly different in various stages. The last calculated urine osmolality (72 h) had significant correlation with the last measured osmolality (72 h); r=0.962, P=0.0001. The last GFR (72 h) had positive significant correlation with GFR before the surgery and GFRs at 24 and 48 h postsurgery. Using regression tests, only the before surgery GFR was the predictor of the last GFR(72 h).

Conclusion: In UUPJO the measured and calculated urine osmolality of the affected kidney did not differ. In addition, GFR before surgery should be considered as the predictor of the GFR shortly after repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.120866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3908498PMC
February 2014

Association of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin and cystatin-C with kidney function in children with nephrotic syndrome.

Int J Prev Med 2013 Aug;4(8):956-63

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a major clinical concern in human health, especially in children. Despite of the etiology, the prediction of remission in different treatment regimens based on suitable biomarkers is under development. The goal of this evaluation was the demonstration of correlation between serum level of Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin-C with kidney function in patients with NS.

Methods: During the period between September 2008 and December 2011, 52 patients admitted to St. Al Zahra University Hospital were selected for evaluation. The measured parameters consisted of NGAL, cystatin-C, creatinine, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, urine protein, glomerular filtration rate. Demographic data were collected and considered in comparisons. Comparison between variables and their correlations were examined.

Results: Means of serum NGAL and cystatin-C were significantly higher in case than the control group, P < 0.05. The mean of serum NGAL in patients without remission and who achieved remission were 23.09 (standard deviation [SD] ±10.11) and 36.26 (SD ± 20.10) ng/ml respectively; P < 0.05. Serum NGAL levels had a correlation with the following factors: Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cystatin-C, remission. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between cystatin-C and systolic and DBP.

Conclusions: Based on the results, serum NGAL can be used as a prognostic marker for remission. In addition, NGAL and cystatin-C are biomarkers of kidney injury in NS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775174PMC
August 2013

Association of proteinuria with various clinical findings and morphologic variables of oxford classification in immunoglobulin a nephropathy patients.

Int J Prev Med 2013 May;4(5):546-51

Department of Nephrology, Division of Nephropathology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) with nephrotic syndrome is an uncommon form of IgAN. Clinical and morphological characteristics of proteinuria in IgAN, especially when is in nephrotic range have not yet been fully examined. This study was aimed to correlate morphologic variables of the Oxford classification, and various clinical data with proteinuria in IgAN patients. We also aimed to demonstrate the significance of prevention of proteinuria as one of the important factors in progression of this disease.

Methods: In an observational study conducted on IgAN patients, total of 114 biopsies were entered in the study. IgAN was diagnosed by light and immunofluorescence study.

Results: Of 114 patients 70.2% were male. Mean age of patients was 37.7 ± 13.6 years. The mean of proteinuria was 1742 ± 1324 mg/day. Also mean of serum creatinine (Cr) was 1.6 ± 1.5 mg/dL. Of 114 patients, 11(9.6%) had nephrotic range proteinuria. In this study, there was a positive correlation between proteinuria and serum Cr, peri-glomerular fibrosis or interstitial fibrosis. There was a positive association between proteinuria and totally sclerotic glomeruli too. There was also a positive association between the amount of fibrous crescents and the level of proteinuria. Nephrotic proteinuria could just be seen in male patients. Also, nephrotic syndrome had a positive association with the number of crescents.

Conclusions: Our findings firstly support the prognostic value of crescent due to its association with proteinuria and secondly imply the importance of treatment of proteinuria to prevent progression of IgAN.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3733185PMC
May 2013

BK virus excretion in acquired immunocompromised children: A comparison between kidney transplant recipients and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome.

J Res Med Sci 2013 Jan;18(1):61-4

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: BK virus (BKV) is ubiquitous in human beings. Virus reactivation may occur in immunocompromised settings. The aim of this study was to compare BKV excretion in acquired immunocompromised children (kidney transplant recipients and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome) with normal population.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and thirty one participants less than 20 years were recruited in the case-control study from June 2009 to December 2010. The participants consisted of 40 patients with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (subgroup 1), 39 kidney transplant recipients (subgroup 2) and 52 normal populations as control group. The first morning urine samples were analyzed in duplicate by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for BKV.

Results: Nine participants out of 131 had positive results for BKV. Three patients in subgroup 1 (7.5%), two patients in subgroup 2 (5.1%) and six people (11.5%) in the control group had positive PCR results for urinary BKV. No significant difference was noted among groups, P = 0.53. The mean of glomerolar filtration rates in participants with positive and negative results for BKV were 125.5 ± 30.8 ml/min/m(2) and 132.2 ± 42.5 ml/min/m(2) respectively, P = 0.8.

Conclusion: Acquired immunocompromised conditions did not increase the chance of urine BKV excretion in our study.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719230PMC
January 2013

Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance voiding cystourethrography for detecting vesico-ureteral reflux in children and adolescents.

J Res Med Sci 2013 Jan;18(1):31-6

Departments of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The purpose of the present study is to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance voiding cystourethrography (MRVCUG) for diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children and adolescents with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI).

Materials And Methods: During the cross-sectional study from May 2009 to June 2011, 30 patients' (60 kidney-ureter units) MRVCUG findings by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) findings in patients with urinary tract infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for MRVCUG were calculated.

Findings: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy for MRVCUG for detecting VUR were respectively 92.68% (95% CI: 80.57-97.48%), 68.42% (95% CI: 46.01-84.64%), 86.36% (95% CI: 71.95-94.33%), 81.25% (95% CI: 53.69-95.02%), and 85% (95% CI: 80.40-89.60%. The level of agreement between MRVCUG and VCUG findings for diagnosis VUR was very good (P < 0.001, according to Cohen's kappa value = 0.638). Studying correlation of low grade VUR (grade I and II) and high grade VUR (grade III-V) showed a very good agreement between MRVCUG and VCUG findings (P < 0.001, Cohen's kappa value = 0.754).

Conclusion: MRVCUG could accurately reveal the presence and severity of VUR, especially in cases with high-grade (grade III-V) VUR in both children and adolescents.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719223PMC
January 2013

Efficacy of Co-administration of Garlic Extract and Metformin for Prevention of Gentamicin-Renal Toxicity in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical Study.

Int J Prev Med 2013 Mar;4(3):258-64

Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity has been related to oxidative stress. Garlic and metformin (MF) have anti-oxadant activity and therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative effects of garlic, MF and their combination on GM indeced tubular toxicity in Wistar rats.

Methods: In a pre-clinical study, 70 male Wistar rats were randomly designated into 7 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group 1: Received saline for 20 days. Group 2: Were injected 100 mg/kg/d of GM intraperitoneally (ip), for 10 days and saline for 10 more days. Group 3: Received GM for 10 days then 20 mg/kg garlic ip for the next 10 days. Group 4: Received GM for 10 days and MF (100 mg/kg) orally for the next 10 days. Group 5: Received GM for 10 days and a combination of MF and garlic for the next 10 days (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Group 6: The same as group 5but with half-doses of MF and Garlic. Group 7: Received GM for 10 days together with a combination ofMF and garlic. On 20(th) day of the experiment the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured and compared in different groups.

Results: GM injection significantly increased the serum BUN and Cr (P < 0.05). Administration of MF, garlic or their combination with or after injection of GM (high doses) could atenuate BUN and Cr.

Conclusions: The results indicate that MF and garlic or their combination have curative and protective activity against GM nephrotoxicity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634163PMC
March 2013

Possible correlation among echocardiographic measures, serum brain natriuretic peptide, and angiotensin II levels in hypertensive kidney transplanted children.

Exp Clin Transplant 2013 Apr 11;11(2):128-33. Epub 2013 Mar 11.

Pediatric Nephrology Department, St Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is the standard for determining patients at risk of hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy is common in kidney transplant recipients. We evaluated the correlation between blood pressure measures achieved by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and conventional (office) methods.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from December 2009 to October 2010 at Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Sixty five participants, 35 kidney transplant recipients under 20 years old, and 30 control subjects of the same age were recruited. Five kidney recipients did not complete the study and were excluded. Blood pressure was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and conventional methods. Echocardiographic study was done for kidney transplant recipients. Serum brain natriuretic peptide and angiotensin II levels were determined in case and control groups.

Results: Office-recorded systolic and/or diastolic hypertension was observed in 43.4% and 55.3% of patients. According to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 86% of kidney transplant recipients had systolic BP load. Left ventricular hypertrophy (defined according to the left ventricular mass index [left ventricular mass index/height]) was seen in 53.3% of the patients. The existence of left ventricular hypertrophy revealed a positive correlation with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring systolic and diastolic night blood pressure and systolic nondipper. Left ventricular mass index showed a positive correlation with brain natriuretic peptide level. Furthermore, the existence of left ventricular hypertrophy was positively correlated with angiotensin II level.

Conclusions: Only ambulatory blood pressure monitoring systolic and diastolic blood pressures (nondippers) were positively correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy and higher left ventricular mass index. Serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide and angiotensin II had a positive relation with left ventricular hypertrophy. Measuring brain natriuretic peptide and angiotensin II in the clinical setting screens patients at risk of left ventricular hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2012.0140DOI Listing
April 2013

Evaluating the effectiveness of adding magnesium chloride to conventional protocol of citrate alkali therapy in children with urolithiasis.

Int J Prev Med 2012 Nov;3(11):791-7

Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran ; Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran ; Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Potassium citrate (K-Cit) is one of the medications widely used in patients with urolithiasis. However, in some cases with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, the significant response to alkaline therapy with K-Cit alone does not occur. There is scarce published data on the effect of magnesium chloride (Mg-Cl(2)) on urolithiasis in pediatric patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a combination of K-Cit - MgCl(2) as oral supplements on urinary parameters in children with CaOx urolithiasis.

Methods: This study was conducted on 24 children with CaOx urolithiasis supplements included potassium citrate (K-Cit) and magnesium chloride (Mg-Cl(2)). The serum and urinary electrolytes were measured before (phase 0) and after prescribing K-Cit alone (phase 1) and a combination of K-Cit and Mg-Cl(2) (phase 2). Each phase of therapy lasted for 4 weeks.

Results: The mean age of patients was 6.46 ± 2.7 years. Hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria were seen in 66% and 41% of patients, respectively. Serum magnesium increased significantly during phase 2 comparing with phase 0. Urinary citrate level was significantly higher in phase 1 and 2 in comparison with phase 0, P < 0.05. In addition, urinary oxalate excretion was significantly diminished in phase 2 comparing with phase 0 and 1, P < 0.05. Soft stool was reported by 4 patients, but not severe enough to discontinue medications.

Conclusions: These results suggested that a combination of K-Cit and Mg-Cl(2) chloride is more effective on decreasing urinary oxalate excretion than K-Cit alone. The Iranian Clinical Trial registration number IRCT138707091282N1.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506091PMC
November 2012

Chronic kidney disease in children: A report from a tertiary care center over 11 years.

J Nephropathol 2012 Oct 1;1(3):177-82. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center and Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. ; Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an overwhelming illness in children. Considering the importance of CKD in pediatric age group, in addition to the racial and ethnic differences in prevalence and etiology of CKD, epidemiologic studies are recommended. The majority of the results regarding the incidence of CKD have been achieved from studies on hospitalized children.

Objectives: This study evaluates the incidence and etiology of chronic renal failure (CRF) in children in a tertiary care center in Isfahan, the second large province of Iran.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical record data of children less than 19 years old, hospitalized for CKD at St Alzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran, during the period of November 2001 until December 2011 was made. A total of 268 eligible cases were recruited. Patients were categorized into 5 groups according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and KDOQI guideline.

Results: Out of 268 patients, 144 patients were male (54%). The mean and median of age was 11.01± 0.39(SD) years and 12.5 years, respectively. Approximately 55% of patients had either systolic and/or diastolic hypertension. The most frequent etiology of CKD was glomerular diseases (34%) followed by reflux nephropathy (16.7%). Most patients (74.8%) had GFR less than 15 ml/min/m², when diagnosed. Anemia was the most prevalent laboratory abnormality (85%). Small-size kidneys were seen in 65.8% of patients. Kidney replacement therapy (either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis) was applied for 72.3% of the patients. The transplantation rate average was 7.2 per million children population. The annual incidences of CKD (mostly advanced stages) were 5.52 per million population (PMP) and 16.8 per million children population, respectively. The all cause of mortality rate was 18.4%. Younger age was the only independent predictor of mortality (p=0.005).

Conclusions: We concluded that glomerular diseases are the leading cause of CKD in our patients. In addition, the annual incidence of CKD is considerably high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/nephropathol.8119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886143PMC
October 2012

Postnatal kidney function in children born very low birth weight.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2012 Jul;6(4):256-61

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: There are scarce data on estimating the time of completing kidney maturation in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine whether different aspects of kidney function differ between VLBW infants and normal babies at 18 to 30 months postconceptional age.

Materials And Methods: This study was carried on 23 VLBW infants and 21 normal-birth-weight infants at 18 to 30 months corrected postconceptional age, who were born between June 2007 and June 2008 at Alzahra Hospital and Shahid Beheshti Hospital, in Isfahan, Iran. Very low birth weight was defined as a birth weight between 1000 g and 1500 g, while gestational age is less than 32 weeks. In both groups, children with a history of sepsis, asphyxia, intubation, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and pyelonephritis were excluded.

Results: The mean of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were not significantly different between the two groups. Urine calcium-creatinine ratio, fraction excretion of magnesium, and renal threshold for phosphate were significantly higher in the VLBW children compared with the control group. Glomerular filtration rate was higher in the control group than in the VLBW group.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that in VLBW children at the corrected age of 24 ± 6 months, some aspects of tubular and glomerular functions are still impaired. Longer longitudinal cohort studies on VLBW are required to determine the time of completing kidney function maturation in these children.
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July 2012

Acute kidney injury: A pediatric experience over 10 years at a tertiary care center.

J Nephropathol 2012 Jul 1;1(2):101-8. Epub 2012 Jul 1.

Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center and Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) varies in different countries. In addition, the etiology of AKI in hospitalized children is multifactorial. The importance of diagnosing AKI is not only because of short-term high morbidity and mortality rate, but also for its effect on developing chronic kidney disease.

Objectives: we studied retrospectively AKIs of children who were hospitalized over 10 years in a University hospital.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical recorded data of 180 children less than 18 years treated for AKI in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were performed during the period of March 2001 to February 2011. For each patient, demographic and anthropometric data, laboratory data, electrocardiographic findings, ultrasound results, etiology of AKI and short-term outcomes were recorded.

Results: The male to female ratio was 1.57 to 1. Mean age was 5.28 ± 6.3 (SD) years and the median was 1.8 years. The more frequent age group was children less than 2 years. The mortality rate was 22.2% (40 patients). The mortality was not correlated with age (p= 0.74). Renal replacement therapy was recommended for 62 patients (34.4%). Mean of the first and last glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were 18.33± 1.12 ml/min/1.73 m² and 52.53 ± 2.98 ml/min/1.73 m², respectively. The most common urinary sediment finding in approximately 70% of the patients was either renal epithelial cell or renal cell cast. Increased kidney echogenicity was the most common ultrasound finding (48%). Using ANOVA regression analysis, the etiology of disease was the only predictor of mortality (p=0.0001).

Conclusions: We concluded that the mortality is still high in AKI. Furthermore, the poor outcome (defined as low GFR) are higher among patients with low levels of first GFR and higher RIFLE score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/nephropathol.7534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886134PMC
July 2012

Steroid dependent and independent ocular findings in Iranian children with nephrotic syndrome.

Int J Prev Med 2011 Oct;2(4):264-8

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Child Health Promotion Research Center, IUMS, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine steroid dependent and independent ocular abnormalities in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS). Due to the relapsing nature of NS prolonged usage of corticosteroid puts the patients at the risk of ocular side effects of prednisolone. Since published data evaluating both steroid dependent and independent ophthalmic findings in children with NS is scarce, we evaluated ophthalmic findings in this group of patients according to the response to steroid.

Methods: The study population consisted of 35 patients with steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) and 40 patients with steroid-resistant NS (SRNS). The patients who aged 2-18 years underwent ophthalmologic examination for steroid dependent and independent ocular abnormalities.

Results: The median age of patients was 7.2 years (ranged 1.2-19 years). Forty-seven subjects were men and 28 were women. Patients with SRNS had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than patients with SSNS (p < 0.05). Forty-five out of 75 patients (60%) had either steroid dependent or independent ophthalmic symptoms. Twenty percent of the patients had steroid dependent and 29% had steroid independent ocular abnormalities. Posterior subcapsular cataract and myopic astigmatism were the most common steroid dependent and independent ophthalmologic symptoms, respectively

Conclusions: Steroid independent eye involvements are not uncommon in NS children and should be considered especially in SRNS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237270PMC
October 2011

Fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg), a marker for tubular dysfunction in children with clinically recovered ischemic acute tubular necrosis.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2011 May;22(3):476-81

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, St. Al Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.

Among the different etiologies of acute renal failure (ARF), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is one of the most common causes. There is no consensus on the duration of follow-up needed among these patients and also on choosing a reliable screening test to recognize early signs of chronic kidney injury that may ensue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and biochemical findings in children with a history of clinically recovered ischemic ATN, to detect the patients who may be at risk of ensuing chronic kidney disease. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 children between six months and 10 years of age, admitted at St. Al Zahra Hospital and Amin Children's Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, with a past history of ischemic ATN. Eighteen patients were evaluated between 12 and 24 months, and two patients were evaluated at 30 months. The second sample of urine while still fasting was used for assessing urinary sodium, creatinine and magnesium. The mean ages for study and control groups were 3.4 ± 1.3 years and 4.5 ± 1.1 years, respectively. Glomerular filtration rate, urinary magnesium, fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg), urinary sodium and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) were significantly higher in the study group compared to those in the control group. No significant differences were demonstrated in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the two groups. Since FEMg can reflect tubular function for both the ability of tubules for reabsorption of the filtered magnesium and for retaining the intracellular magnesium, FEMg can be used as a marker to detect early stages of chronic renal injury. However, further studies with larger number of cases are needed to evaluate the sensitivity of this test.
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May 2011
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