Publications by authors named "Akiko Tamakoshi"

508 Publications

Relationships between Age at Menarche and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality among Japanese Women: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC) Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between age at menarche and risk of cardiovascular disease mortality.

Methods: In total, 54,937 women aged 40-79 years old between 1988 and 1990 without a history of cardiovascular disease were eligible for analysis and were followed through December 2009. We used the Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between age at menarche and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Results: Compared with women with age at menarche of 15 years, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of stroke were 1.22 (0.85-1.75) for women with age at menarche of 9-12 years, 1.08 (0.85-1.36) for those of 13 years, 1.23 (1.02-1.47) for those of 14 years, 1.27 (1.07-1.50) for those of 16 years, 1.16 (0.95-1.41) for those of 17 years, and 1.39(1.16-1.68) for those of 18-20 years (P for trend=0.045). A similar pattern was observed for hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and total cardiovascular disease. No such association was found for coronary heart disease. When stratified by age, for women aged 40-59 at baseline, the similar U-shaped association was observed. In contrast, for women aged 60-79 years at baseline, a significantly high hazard ratio was noted in the group of late age at menarche, but not in the group of early age at menarche.

Conclusions: Both women with early and late age at menarche were determined to have higher risk of death from stroke and cardiovascular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.63321DOI Listing
May 2022

Circulating free testosterone and risk of aggressive prostate cancer: prospective and Mendelian randomization analyses in international consortia.

Int J Cancer 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Public Health and Health Policy, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Previous studies had limited power to assess the associations of testosterone with aggressive disease as a primary endpoint. Further, the association of genetically predicted testosterone with aggressive disease is not known. We investigated the associations of calculated free and measured total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with aggressive, overall and early-onset prostate cancer. In blood-based analyses, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression from prospective analysis of biomarker concentrations in the Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group (up to 25 studies, 14,944 cases and 36,752 controls, including 1,870 aggressive prostate cancers). In Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses, using instruments identified using UK Biobank (up to 194,453 men) and outcome data from PRACTICAL (up to 79,148 cases and 61,106 controls, including 15,167 aggressive cancers), ORs were estimated using the inverse-variance weighted method. Free testosterone was associated with aggressive disease in MR analyses (OR per 1 SD=1.23, 95% CI=1.08-1.40). In blood-based analyses there was no association with aggressive disease overall, but there was heterogeneity by age at blood collection (OR for men aged <60 years 1.14, CI=1.02-1.28; P =0.0003: inverse association for older ages). Associations for free testosterone were positive for overall prostate cancer (MR:1.20,1.08-1.34; blood-based:1.03,1.01-1.05) and early-onset prostate cancer (MR:1.37,1.09-1.73; blood-based:1.08,0.98-1.19). SHBG and total testosterone were inversely associated with overall prostate cancer in blood-based analyses, with null associations in MR analysis. Our results support free testosterone, rather than total testosterone, in the development of prostate cancer, including aggressive subgroups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.34116DOI Listing
May 2022

Impact of modifiable healthy lifestyle adoption on lifetime gain from middle to older age.

Age Ageing 2022 May;51(5)

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Objective: this study explored whether the modification of selected lifestyles is likely to increase life expectancy from middle age onwards, regardless of the presence of major comorbidities.

Methods: we examined a prospective cohort of 20,373 men and 26,247 women aged 40-80 years. Eight modifiable lifestyle factors were assessed: consumption of fruit, fish and milk, walking and/or sports participation, body-mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption and sleep duration. Modifiable healthy lifestyle factors scored one point each, for a maximum of eight points. The impact of modifiable healthy lifestyle adoption on lifetime gain during the ages of 40-102 years was analysed.

Findings: during the median 21 years of follow-up, 8,966 individuals (3,683 men and 5,283 women) died. Life expectancy at 40 years (95% confidence intervals) for 7-8 health lifestyle points was 46.8 (45.6-48.1) and 51.3 (50.0-52.6) years for men and women, respectively. The potential impact of modifiable healthy lifestyle adoption on lifetime gain persisted over the age of 80 years or more, in individuals with ≥5 factors (P < 0.001), particularly older men. The benefits were more pronounced among patients with major comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, kidney disease and those with multimorbidity throughout all age categories.

Conclusion: adopting modifiable healthy lifestyles was associated with lifetime gain, even in individuals aged 80 years or more, regardless of the presence of any major comorbidities in each life stage since middle age. The findings imply the importance of improving the one's lifestyle for an increased lifespan, even among older patients and/or those with multimorbidity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afac080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9092121PMC
May 2022

Risk Factors of Mortality from Foreign Bodies in the Respiratory Tract: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

Intern Med 2022 1;61(9):1353-1359. Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Objective This study assessed the risk factors of mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract using the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for the Evaluation of Cancer Risk data. Methods Data of 110,585 participants 40-79 years old living in 45 areas in Japan were collected between 1988 and 2009. Mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract was assessed in a multivariable-adjusted analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results Among all participants, 202 deaths occurred from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. In the multivariable-adjusted model, older age [50-59 (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-12.74), 60-69 (hazard ratio, 14.96, 6.01-37.25) and 70-79 (hazard ratio, 53.81; 95% confidence interval, 21.44-135.02) years old compared to 40-49 years old], male sex (hazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.54), a history of apoplexy (hazard ratio, 7.04; 95% confidence interval, 4.24-11.67) and the absence of a spouse (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.32) were associated with an increased risk of mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. Conclusions Older age, male sex, medical history of apoplexy and the absence of a spouse were potential risk factors of mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. Especially in elderly men, social connections, such as cohabitation or relationships, may be important for ensuring the early detection of asphyxia and preventing death due to foreign bodies in the respiratory tract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.8437-21DOI Listing
May 2022

Associations of Dietary Intakes of Vitamins B1 and B3 with Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

Br J Nutr 2022 Apr 25:1-27. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: We aimed to examine the association of dietary vitamin B1 and B3 intakes with risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Japanese men and women aged 40 to 79 years using the Japan Collaborative Cohort study (JACC), a nationwide, community-based prospective study.

Methods: The Cox proportional hazard model estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of CVD mortality across increasing energy-adjusted quintiles of dietary vitamins B1 and B3 intakes among 58,302 JACC study's participants (22,989 men and 35,313 women) who completed a food frequency questionnaire.

Results: During 960,225 person-years of follow-up, we documented a total of 3,371 CVD deaths. After adjustment for age, sex, and other CVD risk factors, HRs of mortality from ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and heart failure in the highest versus lowest vitamin B1 intake quintiles were 0.57 (0.40-0.80; P for trend <0.01), 0.56 (0.37-0.82; P for trend <0.01), and 0.65 (0.45-0.96; P for trend =0.13). The multivariable HR of myocardial infarction mortality in the highest versus lowest vitamin B3 intake quintiles was 0.66 (0.48-0.90; P for trend = 0.02). A tendency towards a reduced risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality was observed with a higher dietary intake of vitamin B3; HR: 0.74 (0.55-1.01) but not vitamin B1.

Conclusions: Higher dietary intakes of vitamins B1 and B3 were inversely associated with mortality from ischemic heart disease and a higher dietary intake of vitamin B1 was inversely associated with a reduced risk of mortality from heart failure among Japanese men and women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522001209DOI Listing
April 2022

Body Mass Index and Mortality from Nonrheumatic Aortic Valve Disease among Japanese Men and Women.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aim: We aimed to examine the impact of overweight and obesity on mortality from nonrheumatic aortic valve disease.

Methods: In the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, we analyzed data of 98,378 participants aged 40-79 years, with no history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline (1988-1990) and who completed a lifestyle questionnaire including height and body weight; they were followed for mortality until the end of 2009. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of nonrheumatic aortic valve disease mortality according to body mass index (BMI) after adjusting for potential confounding factors.

Results: During the median 19.2 years follow-up, 60 deaths from nonrheumatic aortic valve disease were reported. BMI was positively associated with the risk of mortality from nonrheumatic aortic valve disease; the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 0.90 (0.40-2.06) for persons with BMI <21 kg/m , 1.71 (0.81-3.58) for BMI 23-24.9 kg/m , 1.65 (0.69-3.94) for BMI 25-26.9 kg/m , and 2.83 (1.20-6.65) for BMI ≥ 27 kg/m (p for trend=0.006), compared with persons with BMI 21-22.9 kg/m . Similar associations were observed between men and women (p for interaction=0.56). Excluding those who died during the first ten years of follow-up or a competing risk analysis with other causes of death as competing risk events did not change the association materially.

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity may be independent risk factors for nonrheumatic aortic valve disease mortality in Asian populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.63452DOI Listing
April 2022

Dairy intake and the risk of esophageal cancer: the JACC Study.

J Epidemiol 2022 Mar 19. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20220037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086308PMC
March 2022

Association between body mass index and oesophageal cancer mortality: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies with >800 000 individuals in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Int J Epidemiol 2022 Mar 1. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi Prefecture, Miyagi, Japan.

Background: The association between body mass index (BMI) and oesophageal cancer (OC) has been consistently negative among Asians, whereas different associations based on histological OC subtypes have been observed in Europeans and North Americans. We examined the association between BMI and OC mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Methods: We performed a pooled analysis to evaluate the association between BMI and OC mortality among 842 630 Asians from 18 cohort studies. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.

Results: A wide J-shaped association between BMI and overall OC mortality was observed. The OC mortality risk was increased for underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2: HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.80-2.70) and extreme obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2: HR = 4.38, 95% CI 2.25-8.52) relative to the reference BMI (23-25 kg/m2). This association pattern was confirmed by several alternative analyses based on OC incidence and meta-analysis. A similar wide J-shaped association was observed in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and alcohol synergistically increased the OC mortality risk in underweight participants (HR = 6.96, 95% CI 4.54-10.67) relative to that in reference BMI participants not exposed to smoking and alcohol.

Conclusion: Extreme obesity and being underweight were associated with an OC mortality risk among Asians. OC mortality and BMI formed a wide J-shaped association mirrored by OSCC mortality. Although the effect of BMI on OSCC and oesophageal adenocarcinoma mortality can be different in Asians, further research based on a large case-control study is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyac023DOI Listing
March 2022

Variables associated with methamphetamine use within the past year and sex differences among patients with methamphetamine use disorder: A cross-sectional study in Japan.

Am J Addict 2022 03 31;31(2):134-141. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Drug Dependence Research, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Objectives: Methamphetamine use disorder is the most common reason for psychiatrist visits among illicit drug users in Japan. Although variables associated with methamphetamine use and sex differences have been reported in the United States, Australia, and Asian countries, such studies are rare in Japan. We examined methamphetamine use within the past year among patients receiving treatment by sex and proposed important treatment targets.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the Nationwide Mental Hospital Survey on Drug-related Psychiatric Disorders. We divided 1086 men and 376 women into two groups according to methamphetamine use within the past year and conducted log-binomial regression analyses by sex to examine the variables associated with methamphetamine use. For methamphetamine users, the source was identified.

Results: Women were more likely to obtain methamphetamine from their friends, acquaintances, family members, or partners than men. Multivariable regression analysis showed that younger age in both sexes and higher educational attainment (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.57) and employment (PR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.05-1.51) were associated with methamphetamine use in men. Age-adjusted regression analysis showed that the variables associated with methamphetamine use were comorbid alcohol abuse and cannabis abuse in women and benzodiazepine abuse in both sexes.

Conclusion And Scientific Significance: In women, in particular, the surrounding relationships related to methamphetamine might be considered treatment targets. Young and working patients might need more accessible outpatient clinics and treatment programs. Comorbid substance abuse should be assessed and treated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13262DOI Listing
March 2022

Oral frailty and carriage of oral Candida in community-dwelling older adults (Check-up to discover Health with Energy for senior Residents in Iwamizawa; CHEER Iwamizawa).

Gerodontology 2022 Mar 31;39(1):49-58. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Gerodontology, Department of Oral Health Science, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo City, Japan.

Objective: To examine the association between oral frailty and oral Candida carriage as a general indicator of deteriorating oral function in older adults.

Background: Older adults exhibit an elevated risk of oral candidiasis caused by Candida. Although many studies have identified factors associated with oral Candida carriage, none have evaluated its relationship with oral function.

Materials And Methods: This study included 210 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years who participated in wellness checks. Fungal flora expression in saliva samples was evaluated to identify oral C. albicans and C. glabrata. Participants were categorised by detection of neither strain (group 1), either one of the strains (group 2), or both strains (group 3). The relationship between oral Candida carriage and oral frailty was evaluated by multinomial logistic regression analysis.

Results: The participants included 58 men and 152 women with a mean age of 74.2 ± 6.1 years. A total of 88 (41.9%), 94 (44.8%) and 28 (13.3%) participants were assigned to groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, significant associations were observed between group 1 and group 2 for "Have you choked on your tea or soup recently?" and the number of applicable oral frailty items. Between group 1 and group 3, significant associations were observed for the number of remaining teeth, masticatory performance and the number of applicable oral frailty items.

Conclusion: We obtained basic data useful for intervention studies aimed at verifying whether oral function management prevents deterioration of the oral bacterial flora.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ger.12621DOI Listing
March 2022

Soy Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Japanese Men and Women: JACC Study.

Front Nutr 2021 10;8:813742. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Social Medicine, Public Health, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

The evidence on the protective effects of soy foods against type 2 diabetes has been inconsistent. We thought to examine the association between the dietary intakes of soy and the risk of diabetes in a prospective study encompassing 21,925 healthy Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years. A validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire determined the intakes of soy, and their associations with risk of type 2 diabetes were evaluated by the logistic regression analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, we observed 593 new cases of type 2 diabetes (302 in men and 291 in women). There was no association between dietary intakes of soy foods and the risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Whereas among women, higher tofu intake was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes; the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) of type 2 diabetes were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69-1.21) for 3-4 times per week and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49-0.94) for almost daily (-trend = 0.03) in reference to those consuming tofu less than 3 times per week. Intakes of boiled beans and miso soup were not associated with the risk in both genders. The inverse association tended to be more evident among overweight women and postmenopaused women. In conclusion, the frequency of tofu intake was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes among women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.813742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8784605PMC
January 2022

Association between Dietary Manganese Intake and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease in Japanese Population: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2022 Jan 26. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University.

Aim: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element in the human body, and it has a significant impact on cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. However, no research has been conducted on the association between Mn and cardiovascular disease (CVD), to the best of our knowledge. This study thus examined the association between dietary Mn intake and CVD mortality in the general Japanese population.

Methods: The CVD mortality among 58,782 participants from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) aged 40-79 years was determined during a median follow-up period of 16.5 years. The Mn intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire at the baseline (1989-1990), and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were computed according to quintiles of energy-adjusted Mn intake.

Results: During the follow-up period, a total of 3408 CVD deaths were recorded. Participants in the highest quintile of Mn intake had a lower risk of mortality from total stroke (HR:95% CI, 0.76: 0.64-0.90), ischemic stroke (HR: 0.77, 0.61-0.97), ischemic heart disease (HR: 0.76, 0.58-0.98), and total CVD (HR: 0.86, 0.76-0.96) compared with those in the lowest quintile. The reduced risk of mortality from intraparenchymal hemorrhage with high Mn intake was observed among women (HR: 0.60, 0.37-0.96) but not men (HR: 0.93, 0.59-1.47). The observed associations were more robust in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.

Conclusions: Our study is the first to show the prospective association between dietary Mn intake and reduced risk of mortality from CVD in the Japanese population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.63195DOI Listing
January 2022

Walking time, sports activity, job type, and body posture during work in relation to incident colorectal cancer: the JACC prospective cohort study.

Cancer Causes Control 2022 Mar 20;33(3):473-481. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Purpose: An inverse association between physical activity and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been suggested. We aimed to assess the specific and combined effects of leisure-time and occupational physical activities on CRC risk among Japanese adults.

Methods: Using Cox proportional hazard models, we tested whether walking time, sports activity, body posture during work, and job type-or the combination of these variables-were associated with CRC incidence in a prospective cohort of 26,897 Japanese adults aged 40-79 years.

Results: During a median 17-year follow-up (1990-2009) period, we ascertained 423 incident cases of CRC (267 colon and 156 rectum cancer). Time spent walking suggested a dose-response inverse relationship with CRC risk (p-trend = 0.051). Manual labor was associated with lower CRC risk when compared to office work with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.74 (0.56-0.97) for CRC and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for colon cancer. Compared to sitting, moving during work tended to be inversely associated with rectal cancer risk, especially after censoring early incident cases within 3 years after baseline; HR (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.40-0.99). Combining walking and job type suggested mutual and synergistic benefits on the risk of colon cancer (p-interaction = 0.03). Compared to office workers walking < 1 h/day, the HR (95% CI) of colon cancer was 0.48 (0.23-0.98), 0.61 (0.42-0.89), and 0.59 (0.41-0.87) in office workers walking ≥ 1 h/day, non-office workers walking < 1 h/day, and non-office workers walking ≥ 1 h/day, respectively.

Conclusion: The time spent walking, job type, and posture during work were independently associated with the reduced incident CRC risk among Japanese men and women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-021-01542-xDOI Listing
March 2022

Plasma angiopoietin-like protein 2 levels and mortality risk among younger-old Japanese people: a population-based case-cohort study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Aging is important medical and social problem. Excessive angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)-2 signaling causes chronic tissue inflammation, promoting development and progression of aging-related diseases. Moreover, circulating ANGPTL2 levels reportedly predict risk of some aging-related diseases and subsequent death. However, there are as yet no reports of whether circulating ANGPTL2 levels predict vital prognosis in younger-old, community-dwelling populations. This study investigated associations between plasma ANGPTL2 levels and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in this population. The case-cohort study was abstracted from an on-going, age-specific prospective cohort study: the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. This project enrolled 3073 participants aged 64 years at the beginning of the investigation from 1996 through 2005. A sub-cohort of 714 randomly sampled participants plus 387 cases representing deceased participants followed through 2015 underwent survival analysis. Plasma ANGPTL2 concentrations were positively associated with >80% and 100% higher risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, respectively, after adjustment for gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, walking time, sleep duration, caloric intake, medical status, disease history, BMI, and triglyceride, creatinine, uric acid, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. More robust association between ANGPTL2 levels and all-cause and cancer mortality was seen in subjects with either frailties or with lifestyles of heavier drinking or current smoking. Elevated plasma ANGPTL2 levels are associated with high all-cause and cancer mortality in a community-dwelling sample of younger-old adults. These findings expand our knowledge of human aging and associated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glac017DOI Listing
January 2022

Association of accelerometer-measured physical activity with kidney function in a Japanese population: the DOSANCO Health Study.

BMC Nephrol 2022 01 3;23(1). Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Faculty of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

Background: Sedentary behavior and decreased physical activity are associated with reduced kidney function, yet most evidence is based on self-reported physical activity. This study investigated the association between accelerometer-based physical activity level and kidney function in a general Japanese population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 440 community-dwelling Japanese participants, aged 35-79 years. Time (min/d) was assessed for the following types of physical activity: sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Kidney function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A linear regression model was employed to calculate the β coefficient of eGFR for a 60-min/d increase in sedentary behavior and LPA and a 10-min/d increase in MVPA. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio for low eGFR (< 60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73m) for a 60-min/d or 10-min/d increase in each physical activity type.

Results: MVPA time and eGFR were positively associated in both men and women, after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other clinical characteristics (Men: β, 0.91; P = 0.021; Women: β, 0.70; P = 0.034). In women, sedentary behavior and eGFR were inversely associated after adjusting for the same factors (β, - 1.06; P = 0.048). The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for low eGFR associated with a 60-min increase in sedentary behavior was 1.65 (1.07-2.55) after adjusting for the same factors in women.

Conclusion: Longer sedentary behavior and shorter MVPA time were associated with lower kidney function in the Japanese population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02635-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8722077PMC
January 2022

Leisure activities and instrumental activities of daily living: A 3-year cohort study from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022 Feb 22;22(2):152-159. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aim: We prospectively examined the association between leisure activities and changes in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among participants of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES).

Methods: We analyzed data collected from 49 732 JAGES participants (23 359 men and 26 373 women), aged ≥65 years, from 24 municipalities in Japan.

Measurements: Baseline data were obtained for 25 types of leisure activities in which the cohort members participated. Baseline (2010) and follow-up (2013) data on IADL were collected - the outcome indicated changes in IADL scores from 2010 to 2013. We regressed changes in IADL scores from the 2010 to 2013 to the number of leisure activities.

Results: Older adults who engaged in more leisure activities had higher changes in IADL scores than those who engaged in fewer leisure activities: the β values (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the IADL scores were 0.001 [-0.04-0.04], 0.04 [0.01-0.08], 0.09 [0.05-0.13], 0.09 [0.05-0.14], 0.08 [0.02-0.13], and 0.13 [0.07-0.18] for having one, two, three, four, five, and more than six types of leisure activities (P for trend <0.001), respectively. Similar associations were found for different types of leisure activities, including predominantly physical and cultural activities. Statistically significant linear trends were obtained among the group, solitary, and other leisure activity subgroups (P for trend <0.05).

Conclusions: Encouraging engagement in leisure activities may promote maintenance of IADL among older populations. Different types of leisure activities appear to have similar positive impacts on IADL. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022; 22: 152-159.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14334DOI Listing
February 2022

Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Childhood and Cancer Mortality in Adulthood Among Never Smokers: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk.

Am J Epidemiol 2022 Mar;191(5):834-842

We examined whether secondhand smoke exposure during childhood was associated with cancer mortality in adulthood among never smokers. In the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk, we analyzed data from 45,722 Japanese lifetime nonsmokers aged 40-79 years with no history of cancer at baseline (1988-1990) who had completed a lifestyle questionnaire, including information on the number of family members who had smoked at home during their childhood (0, 1, 2, or ≥3 family members). A Cox proportional hazards model and competing-risks regression were used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios and subdistribution hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for overall and site-specific cancer mortality according to the number of family members who smoked during the participant's childhood, after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. During a median follow-up period of 19.2 years, a total of 2,356 cancer deaths were documented. Secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with the risk of mortality from pancreatic cancer in adulthood; the multivariable hazard ratio for having 3 or more family members who smoked (as compared with none) was 2.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.14, 4.72). Associations were not evident for total cancer risk or risk of other types of smoking-related cancer. In this study, secondhand smoke exposure during childhood was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality in adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab284DOI Listing
March 2022

Impact of Body Mass Index on Obesity-Related Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality; The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Dec 8. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University.

Aim: We aimed to examine the association of obesity-related cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with body mass index (BMI) and the estimated population attributable fraction in lean Asians.

Methods: We studied 102,535 participants aged 40-79 years without histories of cancer or CVD at baseline between 1988 and 2009. The cause-specific hazard ratios (csHRs) of BMI categories (<18.5, 18.5-20.9, 21.0-22.9 [reference], 23.0-24.9, 25.0-27.4, and ≥ 27.5 kg/m) were estimated for each endpoint. The events considered were mortalities from obesity-related cancer (esophageal, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, kidney, female breast, and endometrial cancer) and those from CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke). Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for these endpoints.

Results: During a 19.2-year median follow-up, 2906 died from obesity-related cancer and 4532 died from CVD. The multivariable-adjusted csHRs (95% confidence interval) of higher BMI categories (25-27.4 and ≥ 27.5 kg/m) for obesity-related cancer mortality were 0.93 (0.78, 1.10) and 1.18 (0.92, 1.50) in men and 1.25 (1.04, 1.50) and 1.48 (1.19, 1.84) in women, respectively. The corresponding csHRs for CVD mortality were 1.27 (1.10, 1.46) and 1.59 (1.30, 1.95) in men and 1.10 (0.95, 1.28) and 1.44 (1.21, 1.72) in women, respectively. The PAF of a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m for obesity-related cancer was -0.2% in men and 6.7% in women and that for CVD was 5.0% in men and 4.5% in women.

Conclusion: A BMI ≥ 25 kg/m is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related cancer in women and CVD in both sexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.63143DOI Listing
December 2021

Prediction of Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Deaths Stratified by Sex in the Japanese Population.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 12 30;10(23):e021753. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health School of Medicine Keio University Tokyo Japan.

Background Lifetime risk is an informative estimate for driving lifestyle and behavioral changes especially for young adults. The impact of composite risk factors for cardiovascular disease on lifetime risk stratified by sex has not been investigated in the Japanese population, which has a much lower mortality of coronary heart disease compared with the Western population. We aimed to estimate lifetime risk of death from cardiovascular disease attributable to traditional risk factors. Methods and Results We analyzed pooled individual data from the Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in a Japanese cohort study. A modified Kaplan-Meier approach was used to estimate the remaining lifetime risk of cardiovascular death. In total, 41 002 Japanese men and women with 537 126 person-years of follow-up were included. The lifetime risk at the index-age of 45 years for those with optimal risk factors (total cholesterol <4.65 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg, absence of diabetes, and absence of smoking habit) was lower compared with the highest risk profile of ≥2 risk factors (6.8% [95% CI, 0%-11.9%] versus 19.4% [16.7%-21.4%] for men and 6.9% [1.2%-11.5%] versus 15.4% [12.6%-18.1%] for women). Conclusions The magnitude and the number of risk factors were progressively associated with increased lifetime risk even in individuals in early adulthood who tend to have low short-term risk. The degree of established cardiovascular risk factors can be converted into lifetime risk. Our findings may be useful for risk communication in the early detection of future cardiovascular disease risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.021753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9075349PMC
December 2021

Association between pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

J Diabetes Investig 2022 May 22;13(5):889-899. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Center for Environmental and Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Aims/introduction: We investigated the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and perinatal outcomes stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain (GWG).

Materials And Methods: Data from the national birth cohort in the Japan Environment and Children's Study from 2011 to 2014 (n = 85,228) were used. Japan uses the GDM guidelines of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. The odds ratios (ORs) of perinatal outcomes were compared between women with and those without GDM.

Results: The OR (95% confidence interval) of having a small for gestational age infant in the GDM group with a pre-pregnancy BMI of ≥25.0 kg/m and insufficient GWG (<2.75 kg) was 1.78 (1.02-3.12). The OR of having a large for gestational age infant of the same BMI group with excessive GWG (>7.25 kg) was 2.04 (1.56-2.67). The OR of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was higher in women with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m in the GDM group than in the non-GDM group.

Conclusions: Large for gestational age and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG in either normal weight or overweight/obese women, and the relationship was strengthened when GDM was present. Women with GDM and a BMI of ≥25.0 kg/m are at risk of having small for gestational age and large for gestational age infants depending on GWG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9077720PMC
May 2022

Low-intensity cigarette smoking and mortality risks: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies in Japan.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Oct 30. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Increasing proportions of smokers in Japan smoke <10 cigarettes per day (CPD). Yet, the health risks of low-intensity smoking in Asia are poorly understood.

Methods: We performed a pooled analysis of 410 294 adults from nine population-based prospective cohort studies participating in the Japan Cohort Consortium. Cigarette-use data were collected at each study baseline in 1983-1994. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression by CPD among current smokers and by age at cessation among former smokers, with never smokers as the referent group. Pooled HRs and CIs were computed using a random-effect model.

Results: The smoking prevalence was 54.5% in men and 7.4% in women. About 15.5% of male and 50.4% of female current smokers smoked 1-10 CPD (low-intensity). Both male and female low-intensity smokers had higher all-cause mortality risks than never smokers. Risks were further higher with increasing CPD in a dose-response manner. HRs (95% CIs) were 1.27 (0.97-1.66), 1.45 (1.33-1.59) and 1.49 (1.38-1.62) for 1-2, 3-5 and 6-10 CPD, respectively, in men; 1.28 (1.01-1.62), 1.49 (1.34-1.66) and 1.68 (1.55-1.81) for 1-2, 3-5 and 6-10 CPD, respectively, in women. Similar associations were observed for smoking-related causes of death. Among former low-intensity smokers, younger age at cessation was associated with lower mortality risk.

Conclusions: Smoking very low amounts was associated with increased mortality risks in Japan. All smokers should quit, even if they smoke very few CPD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab224DOI Listing
October 2021

Alcohol intake and stomach cancer risk in Japan: A pooled analysis of six cohort studies.

Cancer Sci 2022 Jan 28;113(1):261-276. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

The association between alcohol intake and stomach cancer risk remains controversial. We undertook a pooled analysis of data from six large-scale Japanese cohort studies with 256 478 participants on this topic. Alcohol intake as ethanol was estimated using a validated questionnaire. The participants were followed for incidence of stomach cancer. We calculated study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stomach cancer according to alcohol intake using a Cox regression model. Summary HRs were estimated by pooling the study-specific HRs using a random-effects model. During 4 265 551 person-years of follow-up, 8586 stomach cancer cases were identified. In men, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of stomach cancer were 1.00 (0.87-1.15) for occasional drinkers, and 1.00 (0.91-1.11) for <23 g/d, 1.09 (1.01-1.18) for 23 to <46 g/d, 1.18 (1.09-1.29) for 46 to <69 g/d, 1.21 (1.05-1.39) for 69 to <92 g/d, and 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for ≥92 g/d ethanol in regular drinkers compared with nondrinkers. In women, the multivariate-adjusted HRs were 0.93 (0.80-1.08) for occasional drinkers, and 0.85 (0.74-0.99) for <23 g/d, and 1.22 (0.98-1.53) for ≥23 g/d in regular drinkers compared with nondrinkers. The HRs for proximal and distal cancer in drinkers vs nondrinkers were 1.69 (1.15-2.47) and 1.24 (0.99-1.55) for ≥92 g/d in men, and 1.60 (0.76-3.37) and 1.18 (0.88-1.57) for ≥23 g/d in women, respectively. Alcohol intake increased stomach cancer risk in men, and heavy drinkers showed a greater point estimate of risk for proximal cancer than for distal cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8748227PMC
January 2022

Supper Timing and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 27;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi 565-0871, Japan.

Evidence on the role of supper timing in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is limited. In this study, we examined the associations between supper timing and risks of mortality from stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and total CVD. A total of 28,625 males and 43,213 females, aged 40 to 79 years, free from CVD and cancers at baseline were involved in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: the early supper group (before 8:00 p.m.), the irregular supper group (time irregular), and the late supper group (after 8:00 p.m.). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke, CHD, and total CVD according to the supper time groups. During the 19-year follow-up, we identified 4706 deaths from total CVD. Compared with the early supper group, the multivariable HR of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for the irregular supper group was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.97). There was no significant association between supper timing and the risk of mortality from other types of stroke, CHD, and CVD. We found that adopting an irregular supper timing compared with having dinner before 8:00 p.m. was associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13103389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541292PMC
September 2021

Dairy intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study) and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Br J Nutr 2021 Oct 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Dairy product intake was suggested to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancers. This study investigated the association between dairy product intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PAC) using a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. First, we included 59 774 people aged 40-79 years from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The Cox regression was used to compute the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI of incident PAC for individuals who reported the highest intakes of milk, cheese and yogurt compared with not consuming the corresponding dairy products. Then, we combined our results with those from other four prospective cohort studies that were eligible after searching several databases, in a meta-analysis, using the fixed-effects model before evaluating publication bias and heterogeneity across studies. In the JACC Study, the highest v. no intakes of milk, cheese and yogurt were not associated with the reduced risk of PAC after a median follow-up of 13·4 years: HR (95 % CI) = 0·93 (0·64, 1·33), 0·91 (0·51, 1·62) and 0·68 (0·38, 1·21), respectively. The results did not significantly change in the meta-analysis: 0·95 (0·82, 1·11) for milk, 1·16 (0·87, 1·55) for cheese and 0·91 (0·79, 1·05) for yogurt. The meta-analysis showed no signs of publication bias or heterogeneity across studies. To conclude, consumption of milk, cheese and yogurt was not associated with the risk of PAC either in the JACC Study or the meta-analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521004232DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of dietary protein intake with skeletal muscle mass in older adults: A systematic review.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Dec 13;21(12):1077-1083. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Protein supplementation has been shown to be effective in attenuating the loss of lean body mass and muscle mass in older adults; however, its benefits as dietary protein remain unclear. This systematic review of observational studies aimed to investigate the association of dietary protein intake with skeletal muscle mass (SM). Observational studies that investigated the association of dietary protein intake with SM in older adults were retrieved from MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane-CENTRAL databases. Of the 26 analyses in the 17 studies, 18 showed a significant positive association. In cohort studies, 55.6% (five of nine analyses) showed a significant positive association. Of these, four analyses were adjusted for well-known confounding factors, used energy-adjusted protein intake, and used the amount of change of SM between baseline and follow-up as the outcome, with two of them showing a significant positive association. Although 69.2% (18 of 26 analyses) of the 17 studies showed a significant positive association between dietary protein intake and SM in older adults, most studies were cross-sectional and had at least one important methodological limitation. Therefore, we could not draw any conclusions. Thus, well-designed cohort studies are needed in future to identify the association between dietary protein intake and SM in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 1077-1083.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14291DOI Listing
December 2021

The apparent inverse association between dietary carotene intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality disappeared after adjustment for other cardioprotective dietary intakes: The Japan collaborative cohort study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 10 30;31(11):3064-3075. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita Shi, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan; Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: An effect of dietary carotenes on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether the association between dietary carotenes intake and risk of CVD mortality will persist after controlling for the intakes of potential cardioprotective dietary factors that correlate with dietary alpha- and/or beta-carotenes.

Methods And Results: We followed up a total of 58,646 Japanese between 1988 and 1990 and 2009. We used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to determine the dietary intakes of carotenes, and estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD mortality in relation to carotene intake by the proportional hazard regression developed by David Cox. During 965,970 person-years of follow-up (median 19.3 years), we identified 3388 total CVD deaths. After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, dietary intakes of alpha-carotene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); adjusted HR (95% CI) in the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake was 0.75 (0.58-0.96; P-trend = 0.02) and dietary intakes of beta-carotene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of mortality from CVD, CHD, and other CVD; adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98; P-trend = 0.04), 0.78 (0.61-0.99; P-trend = 0.01), and 0.81 (0.67-0.98; P-trend = 0.04), respectively. However, after further adjusting for the dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, vitamins C, E, or K, these associations disappeared.

Conclusions: -Dietary alpha- and beta-carotene intakes were not associated with risk of CVD mortality after controlling for intakes of other potential cardioprotective nutrients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.07.026DOI Listing
October 2021

Dairy products and the risk of developing prostate cancer: A large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan.

Cancer Med 2021 10 4;10(20):7298-7307. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Dairy products have been indicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer. However, only a few epidemiological studies have reported dairy products as being a risk factor for prostate cancer in Japan, reporting contradictory results. We therefore investigated the association between the intake of dairy products and the occurrence of prostate cancer through a large-scale cohort study. The Japan Collaborative Cohort study analyzed approximately 110,000 residents from various Japanese districts who participated in our questionnaire survey during 1988-1990. The subjects of the present study were 26,464 men (age range: 40-79 years) from 24 districts wherein cancer incidence was reported. Their clinical course was followed up until 2009. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards model, adjusted for age, survey area, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, and total energy intake. For diet, we calculated the HRs associated with intermediate and high consumption of dairy products and compared them with those associated with low consumption. There were 412 cases of prostate cancer in the survey population. As dairy products, milk, yogurt, cheese, and butter were evaluated. Among them, milk consumption was associated with a significant risk (HR = 1.37, p = 0.009) and a dose-dependent response (p for trend = 0.009) adjusted for age and family history of prostate cancer, stratified by area. Milk and yogurt consumption showed a significantly positive risk and a dose-response relationship adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, and total energy intake, stratified by area. In summary, a high intake of dairy products such as milk increased the risk of developing prostate cancer in Japanese men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525158PMC
October 2021

Association of gait with global cognitive function and cognitive domains detected by MoCA-J among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Geriatr 2021 10 2;21(1):523. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: Gait was proved to be strongly associated with global cognitive function and multiple cognitive domains; however, previous research usually concentrated on individual gait parameters. This study used wearable sensors to measure gait parameters in different aspects and comprehensively explored the association of gait with global cognitive function and cognitive domains.

Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from 236 community-dwelling Japanese older adults (125 men and 111 women) aged 70-81 years. Gait was measured by asking participants to walk a 6-m course and back using the Physilog® sensors (GaiUp®, Switzerland). Global cognitive function and cognitive domains were evaluated by face-to-face interviews using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Twenty gait parameters were summarized as independent gait factors using factor analysis. A generalized linear model and linear regression model were used to explore the relationship of gait with global cognitive function and cognitive domains adjusted for several confounding factors.

Results: Factor analysis yielded four gait factors: general cycle, initial contact, propulsion, and mid-swing. Among them, general cycle factor was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = - 0.487, [- 0.890, - 0.085]) and executive function (P = 0.049); initial contact was associated with executive function (P = 0.017).

Conclusion: General cycle of gait might be the better marker of global cognitive function and gait is most strongly associated with executive function. The longitudinal relationships should be examined in future cohort studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02467-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487567PMC
October 2021
-->