Publications by authors named "Ahmed Ibrahim"

592 Publications

Opioid-sparing Strategies in Alloplastic Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Nov 16;9(11):e3932. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

Introduction: Pain and discomfort are frequently experienced following mastectomy with concomitant breast implant- or tissue expander-based alloplastic breast reconstruction (AlBR). Unfortunately, postoperative opioids have decreased efficacy in AlBR, short-term complication profiles, and are fraught by long-term dependence. This systematic review aims to identify opioid-sparing pain management strategies in AlBR.

Methods: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register was performed in September 2018. PRISMA guidelines were followed, and the review was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018107911). The search identified 1184 articles. Inclusion criteria were defined as patients 18 years or older undergoing AlBR.

Results: Fourteen articles were identified assessing opioid-sparing strategies in AlBR. This literature included articles evaluating enhanced recovery protocols (two), intercostal blocks (two), paravertebral blocks (four), liposomal bupivacaine (three), diclofenac (one), and local anesthesia infusion pumps (two). The literature included five randomized trials and nine cohort studies. Study characteristics, bias (low to high risk), and reporting outcomes were extensively heterogeneous between articles. Qualitative analysis suggests reduced opioid utilization in enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways, paravertebral blocks, and use of liposomal bupivacaine.

Conclusions: A variety of opioid-sparing strategies are described for pain management in AlBR. Multimodal analgesia should be provided via ERAS pathways as they appear to reduce pain and spare opioid use. Targeted paravertebral blocks and liposomal bupivacaine field blocks appear to be beneficial in sparing opioids and should be considered as essential components of ERAS protocols. Additional prospective, randomized trials are necessary to delineate the efficacy of other studied modalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000003932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8594660PMC
November 2021

Mortality incidence and its determinants after fragility hip fractures: a prospective cohort study from an Egyptian level one trauma center.

Afr Health Sci 2021 Jun;21(2):806-816

Orthopedic Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: Fragility hip fracture is a common condition with serious consequences. Most outcomes data come from Western and Asian populations. There are few data from African and Middle Eastern countries.

Objective: The primary objective was to describe mortality rates after fragility hip fracture in a Level-1 trauma centre in Egypt. The secondary objective was to study the causes of re-admissions, complications, and mortality.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of 301 patients, aged > 65 years, with fragility hip fractures. Data collected included sociodemographic, co-morbidities, timing of admission, and intraoperative,ostoperative, and post-discharge data as mortality, complications, hospital stay, reoperation, and re-admission. Cox regression analysis was conducted to investigate factors associated with 1-year mortality.

Results: In-hospital mortality was 8.3% (25 patients) which increased to 52.8% (159 patients) after one year; 58.5% of the deaths occurred in the first 3-months. One-year mortality was independently associated with increasing age, ASA 3-4, cardiac or hepatic co-morbidities, trochanteric fractures, total hospital stay, and postoperative ifection and metal failure.

Conclusion: Our in-hospital mortality rate resembles developed countries reports, reflecting good initial geriatric healthcare. However, our 3- and 12-months mortality rates are unexpectedly high. The implementation of orthogeriatric care after discharge is mandatory to decrease mortality rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v21i2.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8568210PMC
June 2021

Acaricidal and pathogenic effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on engorged females of the fowl tick, Argas persicus (Argasidae).

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Dec 9;85(2-4):331-354. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

This study examined the acaricidal, histopathological and genotoxic effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on engorged females of the fowl tick, Argas persicus. The acaricidal effect of B. bassiana (at 10-10 conidia/mL) was concentration- and time-dependent. At 10 conidia/mL, the accumulated mortality of treated females ranged from 3.33 ± 3.3 to 13.33 ± 3.3% over 21 days. However, the mortality was remarkably increased after the application of 10conidia/mL, ranging from 6.67 ± 3.3 to 80 ± 5.8%. Females treated with various conidial concentrations exhibited complete inhibition of oviposition. Light and electron microscopic examination of the ovary of engorged female ticks at 3, 6 and 9 days after treatment with 10 conidia/mL revealed that the oocytes exhibited drastic changes that affected their growth and development. The overall damage observed in the ovary included loss of grape-like appearance, distortion of oocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, degeneration of organelles and myelin figure formation. Previtellogenic oocyte progression was completely inhibited as the vitellogenic phase was not observed. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) methods were used to assess the genotoxic effects of B. bassiana at 10 conidia/mL on engorged female A. persicus over 3 weeks. The lowest percentage of genomic template stability was recorded in paralyzed ticks after 3 weeks. The study demonstrated the efficacy of B. bassiana as a biocontrol agent against A. persicus as it interfered with its reproduction, movement and viability and disrupted its normal tissue and DNA integrity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-021-00671-xDOI Listing
December 2021

Extracellular Vesicles Secreted by TDO2-Augmented Fibroblasts Regulate Pro-inflammatory Response in Macrophages.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:733354. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted lipid bilayer vesicles that mediate cell to cell communication and are effectors of cell therapy. Previous work has shown that canonical Wnt signaling is necessary for cell and EV therapeutic potency. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) is a target gene of canonical Wnt signaling. Augmenting TDO2 in therapeutically inert fibroblasts endows their EVs with immunomodulatory capacity including attenuating inflammatory signaling in macrophages. Transcriptomic analysis showed that macrophages treated with EVs from fibroblasts overexpressing TDO2 had blunted inflammatory response compared to control fibroblast EVs. , EVs from TDO2-overexpressing fibroblasts preserved cardiac function. Taken together, these results describe the role of a major canonical Wnt-target gene (TDO2) in driving the therapeutic potency of cells and their EVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.733354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571098PMC
October 2021

Clinical and microbiological effects of ultrasonically activated irrigation versus syringe irrigation during endodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Odontology 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, 11 ElSaraya Street, ElManyal, Cairo, 11553, Egypt.

This study aimed to systematically review clinical and microbiology-related effects of ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI) compared to syringe irrigation (SI) during endodontic treatment. Electronic databases searching and manual searching were conducted. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included comparing UAI to SI. The RoB 2.0 Cochrane tool was used for risk-of-bias (RoB) assessment. The main outcomes were postoperative pain, treatment failure, and microbiology-related outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses, wherever applicable, were performed. Risk ratios (RR) and [standardized] mean differences {[S]MD} were calculated for dichotomous and continuous outcomes, respectively. Certainty of evidence (CoE) was assessed using GRADE tool. Ten RCTs were included. UAI reduced pain incidence within the first 24 h (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.71, 308 teeth) and microbial counts (SMD - 0.40, 95% CI [- 0.78, - 0.02], I = 0%, 126 teeth) than SI in non-vital teeth with apical periodontitis (AP). Both groups, however, had similar effects regarding pain intensity, lipopolysaccharide amounts, and the incidence of rescue-analgesic intake, treatment failure, and microbial presence (p > 0.05). CoE ranged from low to very low. Very limited evidence suggests that UAI could reduce postoperative-pain risk within the first 24 h and microbial counts for non-vital teeth with AP compared to SI. Most meta-analyses, however, are based on very few studies, mostly low-powered, with an overall very-low-to-low CoE. Further well-designed, larger RCTs are, thus, required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10266-021-00671-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Sonographic Evaluation of the Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-control Study.

J Med Ultrasound 2021 Jul-Sep;29(3):167-170. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Radiological Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Pancreas is a vital insulin-producing gland, and it is subjected to various disorders which produce alteration in the morphology and function. Ultrasound (US) of the pancreas is sensitive for evaluating the gland and provides the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. The aim of this study is to determine whether there were alterations in pancreatic size and echogenicity in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: A total of 100 patients with Type-1 DM (insulin dependent) were examined using the ultrasonography. They were compared to 22 healthy controls. Measurements of the pancreas were performed on type 1 diabetic patients and controls.

Results: Pancreatic diameters of the head, body, and tail of the pancreas were reduced in Type 1 DM versus controls (1.78 vs. 1.80 cm, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.147 -0.099, = 0.699 for the head of the pancreas; and 1.093 vs. 1.13 cm: 95% CI: -2.97-1.196, = 0.484 for the body of the pancreas; 1.12 vs. 1.46 cm, 95% CI: -0.491-0.194, < 0.001 for the tail of the pancreas). The echogenicity of the pancreas in patients with Type 1 DM increased significantly as the duration of the disease increased ( = 0.015).

Conclusion: Individuals with Type 1 DM have reduced pancreatic size in comparison with controls. Patients with Type 1 DM have increased echogenicity of the pancreas as the duration of the disease increased.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JMU.JMU_89_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515619PMC
January 2021

Teledermatology in the time of COVID-19.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Oct 29:e15000. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Aims: The enormous spread of the novel Corona virus disease (COVID-19) represents a challenge to dermatological practice. Accumulating evidence has suggested a possible role of teledermatology in facing this challenge. In this article, we aimed to give a general overview of teledermatology in terms of models of practice, modes of delivery, advantages, limitations, ethical considerations and legislative challenges as well as discussing, using examples from literature, how dermatological practice can benefit from teledermatology during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discussion And Conclusion: Teledermatology could be an accessible, accurate and cost-effective substitute for conventional face-to-face dermatological consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, teledermatology practice needs updated legislation and guidelines. More efforts should be done to encourage dermatologists, especially in underserved communities, to provide teledermatology services. Ethical issues and data security related to teledermatology have to be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.15000DOI Listing
October 2021

Engineered Fibroblast Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 23;9:733158. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease for which no curative treatment exists. We have previously engineered dermal fibroblasts to produce extracellular vesicles with tissue reparative properties dubbed activated specialized tissue effector extracellular vesicles (ASTEX). Here, we investigate the therapeutic utility of ASTEX and in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. RNA sequencing demonstrates that ASTEX are enriched in micro-RNAs (miRs) cargo compared with EVs from untransduced dermal fibroblast EVs (DF-EVs). Treating primary macrophages with ASTEX reduced interleukin (IL)6 expression and increased IL10 expression compared with DF-EV-exposed macrophages. Furthermore, exposure of human lung fibroblasts or vascular endothelial cells to ASTEX reduced expression of smooth muscle actin, a hallmark of myofibroblast differentiation (respectively). , intratracheal administration of ASTEX in naïve healthy mice demonstrated a favorable safety profile with no changes in body weight, lung weight to body weight, fibrotic burden, or histological score 3 weeks postexposure. In an acute phase (short-term) bleomycin model of lung injury, ASTEX reduced lung weight to body weight, IL6 expression, and circulating monocytes. In a long-term setting, ASTEX improved survival and reduced fibrotic content in lung tissue. These results suggest potential immunomodulatory and antifibrotic properties of ASTEX in lung injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.733158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512699PMC
September 2021

Nature inspired computation and ensemble neural network to build a robust model for spectral data.

Authors:
Ahmed M Ibrahim

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 9;267(Pt 1):120480. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

National Organization for Drug Control and Research, P.O. Box 29, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

UV spectrophotometry was introduced for simultaneous determination of Itraconazole (ITZ) and Secnidazole (SEZ) in their mixture without any prior separation. In this study, fourteen nature-inspired algorithms combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression were used as baseline algorithms. Then, an ensemble neural networks model was introduced. The performance of the models was evaluated using parameters like the root average squared error (RASE), coefficient of determination (R), and The average absolute error (AAE). RASE, R and AAE values of (0.1131, 0.9995, and 0.0819) and (0.1798, 0.9954, and 0.1365) were obtained for calibration and test sets of ITZ, respectively. RASE, R and AAE values of (0.5812, 0.9962, and 0.4360) and (0.4903, 0.9957 and 0.3917) were obtained for calibration and test sets of SEZ, respectively. The models in this study can be useful for the researchers who are interested to work on the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in pharmaceutical dosage forms using UV spectroscopy. The proposed method was applied to the pharmaceutical dosage form.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120480DOI Listing
October 2021

Novel mutation causing propionic acidemia associated with unexplained autoimmune thyrotoxicosis.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Dec 4;29:100806. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Division of Metabolic and Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Propionic acidemia (PA) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism (IEM) with relatively higher prevalence in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Absence of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme classically leads to acute decompensation in the early neonatal period. We report a novel homozygous frameshift variant Glu720Valfs*14 (NM_000282.3) in the last exon of the PCCA gene which led to a severe presentation of PA in a newborn Emirati female. Uniquely the diagnosis remained unclear since newborn screening revealed an isolated elevation in plasma proprionylcarnitine (C3) while urinary organic acids remained persistently negative for the classic biochemical abnormalities even during the period of critical illness. Additionally, the patient had an unexplained diagnosis of neonatal thyrotoxicosis. This case explores possible underlying causes through an extensive literature search. To date, there have been no similar reported cases in existing literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2021.100806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498454PMC
December 2021

Dose dependent effect of cilostazol in induced testicular ischemia reperfusion via modulation of HIF/VEGF and cAMP/SIRT1 pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 6;101(Pt A):108197. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, 61511 El-Minia, Egypt.

Twisting of the spermatic cord is a common dangerous health problem that may be accompanied with testicular necrosis and infertility. Cilostazol (CLZ) is a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A inhibitor used for treatment of intermittent claudication. It has a great role in myocardial, spinal cord and hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion. However, till now, there are no researches evaluating its role in testicular ischaemia/reperfusion (TIR). The current work studies its capability to improve TIR induced injury with more concentration on the mechanisms involved in such effect. Four groups of animals were included: sham, TIR induced group, TIR plus CLZ low dose (10 mg/kg), TIR plus CLZ high dose (30 mg/kg). Our results proved that TIR had significant decrease of the serum ELISA of testosterone, marked disturbances in oxidative stress evaluated parameters as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ELISA measurement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) inflammatory mediators, apoptotic marker (caspase3) using western blotting, immunohistochemistry of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). TIR reduced the protective agents as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) by ELISA method with marked germinal cell apoptosis. The biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathological findings that showed marked decrease in both Johnsen's score and Cosentino's score. However, treatment with CLZ significantly reversed the profound TIR damaging effects, on the basis of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities with recuperation of the testicular vascularity. Modulation of HIF/VEGF and cAMP/SIRT1 pathways showed a great role in mediating such effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108197DOI Listing
October 2021

Philadelphia chromosome-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with e1a3 BCR-ABL1 transcript in a Nigerian with sickle cell anemia: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Oct 8;15(1):504. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Background: The occurrence of acute leukemia in patients with sickle cell anemia is uncommon. The Philadelphia chromosome is the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, it may also be associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia. The common BCR-ABL1 transcripts seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are e1a2, e13a2, and e14a2, while other transcripts such as e1a3, e13a3, and e6a2 occur rarely. This report describes the presentation, management, and outcome of the occurrence of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the rare e1a3 BCR-ABL1 transcript in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

Case Presentation: A 19-year-old male Nigerian, a known sickle cell anemia patient was admitted on account of severe vaso-occlusive crisis. Examination revealed fever, palor, and jaundice. Full blood count showed anemia and leukocytosis. Peripheral blood and bone marrow smears revealed numerous large and small lymphoblasts in keeping with the L2 subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the French-American-British classification. Further evaluation was in keeping with a diagnosis of BCR-ABL1-positive mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with the rare e1a3 transcript. He was commenced simultaneously on induction chemotherapy and Imatinib while being prepared for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, he died  six  months after diagnosis from meningoencephalitis.

Conclusion: The occurrence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a rare BCR-ABL1 e1a3 transcript in association with sickle cell anemia is uncommon and associated with poor prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-021-03060-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8501580PMC
October 2021

Frequency of Neuropathic Sensory Symptoms Among Patients With Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus in Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Cureus 2021 Aug 28;13(8):e17528. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Family Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, SAU.

Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a chronic sensorimotor length-dependent and symmetrical polyneuropathy. Some peripheral neuropathies have painful presentations, and some are painless. DPN can have a potential impact on the patient's life. Objectives This study was conducted in order to investigate the frequency of neuropathic sensory symptoms among patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Security Forces hospital using the Neuropathy Total Symptom Score-6 (NTSS-6) questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered by contacting patients through the phone. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1C >9) were included in the study. Results This study included 285 participants; 58.9% had type II diabetes and 41.1% had type I diabetes, 156 (54.7%) were females, and 129 (45.3%) were males. Most of the patients (51.1%) were 45-64 years old and the majority were non-smokers (77.9%). Patients with neuropathic pain were 182 (63.9%); 79 (43.4%) of them were males and 103 (56.6%) were females. The prevalence of neuropathic symptoms was much higher in females than in males. Conclusion The prevalence of painful DPN is high among patients with long-term uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Older, unemployed, and low-educated patients are at higher risk of developing painful DPN. Proper glycemic control and lifestyle modifications are essential in preventing the progression of this condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476209PMC
August 2021

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Vs Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Unprotected Left Main Coronary Disease: G-LM Registry.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2021 Sep 26:101002. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has been the standard of care for revascularization for patients with obstructive unprotected left main coronary disease (ULMCA). There have been multiple randomized and registry data demonstrating the technical and clinical efficacy of PCI in certain patients with ULMCA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of ULMCA PCI as compared to CABG in patients requiring revascularization in three Gulf countries. All ULMCA cases treated by PCI with DES versus CABG were retrospectively identified from 14 centers in 3 Arab Gulf countries (KSA, UAE, and Bahrain) from January 2015 to December 2019. In total, 2138 patients were included: 1222 were treated with PCI versus 916 with CABG. Patients undergoing PCI were older, and had higher comorbidities and mean European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE). Aborted cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock were reported more in the PCI group at hospital presentation. In addition, lower ejection fractions were reported in the PCI group. In hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurred more in patients undergoing CABG than PCI. At median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 30), no difference was observed in freedom from revascularization, MACCE, or total mortality between those treated with PCI and CABG. While findings are similar to Western data registries, continued follow-up will be needed to ascertain whether this pattern continues into latter years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2021.101002DOI Listing
September 2021

Plasma Kallikrein as a Modulator of Liver Injury/Remodeling.

Front Pharmacol 2021 9;12:715111. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon.

The occurrence and persistence of hepatic injury which arises from cell death and inflammation result in liver disease. The processes that lead to liver injury progression and resolution are still not fully delineated. The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (PKKS) has been shown to play diverse functions in coagulation, tissue injury, and inflammation, but its role in liver injury has not been defined yet. In this study, we have characterized the role of the PKKS at various stages of liver injury in mice, as well as the direct effects of plasma kallikrein on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Histological, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analyses were utilized to assess cell injury on inflammatory and fibrotic factors. Acute liver injury triggered by carbon tetrachloride (CCl) injection resulted in significant upregulation of the plasma kallikrein gene (Klkb1) and was highly associated with the high mobility group box 1 gene, the marker of cell death ( = 0.75, < 0.0005, = 7). In addition, increased protein expression of plasma kallikrein was observed as clusters around necrotic areas. Plasma kallikrein treatment significantly increased the proliferation of CCl-induced HepG2 cells and induced a significant increase in the gene expression of the thrombin receptor (protease activated receptor-1), interleukin 1 beta, and lectin-galactose binding soluble 3 (galectin-3) ( < 0.05, = 4). Temporal variations in the stages of liver fibrosis were associated with an increase in the mRNA levels of bradykinin receptors: beta 1 and 2 genes ( < 0.05; = 3-10). In conclusion, these findings indicate that plasma kallikrein may play diverse roles in liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis, and suggest that plasma kallikrein may be a target for intervention in the states of liver injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.715111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458624PMC
September 2021

Accuracy of infrared thermography in detecting febrile critically ill patients.

Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2021 10 21;40(5):100951. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2021.100951DOI Listing
October 2021

Application of Various Machine Learning Techniques in Predicting Total Organic Carbon from Well Logs.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 30;2021:7390055. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Petroleum Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Box: 5049, Saudi Arabia.

Unconventional resources have recently gained a lot of attention, and as a consequence, there has been an increase in research interest in predicting total organic carbon (TOC) as a crucial quality indicator. TOC is commonly measured experimentally; however, due to sampling restrictions, obtaining continuous data on TOC is difficult. Therefore, different empirical correlations for TOC have been presented. However, there are concerns about the generalization and accuracy of these correlations. In this paper, different machine learning (ML) techniques were utilized to develop models that predict TOC from well logs, including formation resistivity (FR), spontaneous potential (SP), sonic transit time (Δ), bulk density (RHOB), neutron porosity (CNP), gamma ray (GR), and spectrum logs of thorium (Th), uranium (Ur), and potassium (K). Over 1250 data points from the Devonian Duvernay shale were utilized to create and validate the model. These datasets were obtained from three wells; the first was used to train the models, while the data sets from the other two wells were utilized to test and validate them. Support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and decision tree (DT) were the ML approaches tested, and their predictions were contrasted with three empirical correlations. Various AI methods' parameters were tested to assure the best possible accuracy in terms of correlation coefficient () and average absolute percentage error (AAPE) between the actual and predicted TOC. The three ML methods yielded good matches; however, the RF-based model has the best performance. The RF model was able to predict the TOC for the different datasets with values range between 0.93 and 0.99 and AAPE values less than 14%. In terms of average error, the ML-based models outperformed the other three empirical correlations. This study shows the capability and robustness of ML models to predict the total organic carbon from readily available logging data without the need for core analysis or additional well interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7390055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448996PMC
September 2021

A Huge Carotid Space Schwannoma Arising from The Cervical Sympathetic Chain - A Case Report.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jan-Jun;11(1):144-147. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

The Rationale: Although 25%-45% of schwannomas are originating from the neck, carotid space schwannomas are extremely rare.

Patient Concerns: We report a rare case of huge-sized schwannoma in a 20-year-old student who presented with a symptomless large carotid space mass.

Diagnosis: Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast revealed a huge, well-defined mass measuring 13.7 cm × 6.4 cm × 4.1 cm. Cervical MRI along with brain MRI were consistent with neurofibromatosis type II.

Treatment And Outcomes: Preoperative tracheostomy and wide local excision of schwannoma via a transcervical approach were performed with nerve preservation.

Takeaway Lessons: The scarceness of cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma made this case of our patient very interesting to report. Moreover, our patient's huge tumour size is extremely rare, and we could not find any similar cases in the literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ams.ams_230_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407632PMC
July 2021

Graphene-Based Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, and Characterizations.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo 11421, Egypt.

Graphene-based nanocomposites possess excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and chemical properties. These materials have potential applications in high-performance transistors, biomedical systems, sensors, and solar cells. This paper presents a critical review of the recent developments in graphene-based nanocomposite research, exploring synthesis methods, characterizations, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. Emphasis is placed on characterization techniques and mechanical properties with detailed examples from recent literature. The importance of characterization techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for the characterization of graphene flakes and their composites were thoroughly discussed. Finally, the effect of graphene even at very low loadings on the mechanical properties of the composite matrix was extensively reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13172869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434110PMC
August 2021

Outcomes of pediatric patients with therapy-related myeloid neoplasms.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Long-term outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs) are dismal. There are few multicenter studies defining prognostic factors in pediatric patients with tMNs. We have accumulated the largest cohort of pediatric patients who have undergone HCT for a tMN to perform a multivariate analysis defining factors predictive of long-term survival. Sixty-eight percent of the 401 patients underwent HCT using a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen, but there were no statistically significant differences in the overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), or cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality based on the conditioning intensity. Among the recipients of MAC regimens, 38.4% of deaths were from treatment-related causes, especially acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and end-organ failure, as compared to only 20.9% of deaths in the reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) cohort. Exposure to total body irradiation (TBI) during conditioning and experiencing grade III/IV acute GVHD was associated with worse OS. In addition, a diagnosis of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and having a structurally complex karyotype at tMN diagnosis were associated with worse EFS. Reduced-toxicity (but not reduced-intensity) regimens might help to decrease relapse while limiting mortality associated with TBI-based HCT conditioning in pediatric patients with tMNs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01448-xDOI Listing
September 2021

A Rare Case of Rapidly Transforming Pancreatitis With Life-Threatening Complications and Multi-Organ Failure.

Cureus 2021 Jul 30;13(7):e16766. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA.

Acute pancreatitis affects approximately 50,000-80,000 Americans each year. Eighty percent of those cases are related to alcohol use or biliary stones. It has traditionally been thought of as a self-limiting disease, in which the pancreas fully recovers with little or no intervention. The occurrence of complications, particularly infectious ones, characterize the most severe forms of acute pancreatitis and is associated with high mortality. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with transformation into necrotizing and hemorrhagic pancreatitis complicated with splenic vein thrombosis (SVT), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury (AKI), and later, fungemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403497PMC
July 2021

NATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS AND ACHIEVABLE DOSES FOR STANDARD CT EXAMINATIONS IN SUDAN.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Nov;196(1-2):1-9

Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Institute, PO Box 3001, Khartoum, Sudan.

Radiation doses were determined to propose national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in Sudan. Doses were estimated from retrospectively collected scan parameters for 1336 CT examinations of adult patients from 14 Sudanese hospitals using CT Expo 2.5 software. ADs and NDRLs were set at the 50th and 75th percentile of the hospital median dose distribution, respectively. The proposed CTDIvol (mGy) ADs ranged from: 10 (chest) to 64 (head), and that of the dose-length product (DLP; mGy.cm) ranged from 366 (chest) to 1225 (head). The proposed CTDIvol (mGy) NDRLs ranged from 15 kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) to 79 (head), whereas that of the DLP (mGy.cm) ranged from 690 (chest) to 1490 (head). Current doses fell within the upper range of the doses presented in the literature emphasizing the need for implementation of the current ADs and NDRLs for CT to enhance patient protection and dose optimization in Sudan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncab123DOI Listing
November 2021

Nigeria's race to zero COVID-19 cases: True disease burden or testing failure?

J Glob Health 2021;11:03094. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.03094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364253PMC
August 2021

Chronic low-grade inflammation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Aging Cell 2021 09 12;20(9):e13453. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Smidt Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is currently the predominant form of HF with a dramatic increase in risk with age. Low-grade inflammation, as occurs with aging (termed "inflammaging"), is a common feature of HFpEF pathology. Suppression of proinflammatory pathways has been associated with attenuated HFpEF disease severity and better outcomes. From this perspective, inflammasome signaling plays a central role in mediating chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease progression. However, the causal link between the inflammasome-immune signaling axis on the age-dependent progression of HFpEF remains conjectural. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of inflammatory pathways in age-dependent cardiac function decline. We will also evaluate recent advances and evidence regarding the inflammatory pathway in the pathophysiology of HFpEF, with special attention to inflammasome signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441359PMC
September 2021

An Extract of Taro () Mediates Potent Inhibitory Actions on Metastatic and Cancer Stem Cells by Tumor Cell-Autonomous and Immune-Dependent Mechanisms.

Breast Cancer (Auckl) 2021 27;15:11782234211034937. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The taro plant, , contains bioactive proteins with potential as cancer therapeutics. Several groups have reported anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo of taro-derived extracts (TEs). We reported that TE inhibits metastasis in a syngeneic murine model of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).

Purpose: We sought to confirm our earlier studies in additional models and to identify novel mechanisms by which efficacy is achieved.

Methods: We employed a panel of murine and human breast and ovarian cancer cell lines to determine the effect of TE on tumor cell viability, migration, and the ability to support cancer stem cells. Two syngeneic models of TNBC were employed to confirm our earlier report that TE potently inhibits metastasis. Cancer stem cell assays were employed to determine the ability of TE to inhibit tumorsphere-forming ability and to inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. To determine if host immunity contributes to the mechanism of metastasis inhibition, efficacy was assessed in immune-compromised mice.

Results: We demonstrate that viability of some, but not all cell lines is inhibited by TE. Likewise, tumor cell migration is inhibited by TE. Using 2 immune competent, syngeneic models of TNBC, we confirm our earlier findings that tumor metastasis is potently inhibited by TE. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that TE directly inhibits breast cancer stem cells. Administration of TE to mice elicits expansion of several spleen cell populations but it was not known if host immune cells contribute to the mechanism by which TE inhibits tumor cell dissemination. In novel findings, we now show that the ability of TE to inhibit metastasis relies on immune T-cell-dependent, but not B cell or Natural Killer (NK)-cell-dependent mechanisms. Thus, both tumor cell-autonomous and host immune factors contribute to the mechanisms underlying TE efficacy. Our long-term goal is to evaluate TE efficacy in clinical trials. Most of our past studies as well as many of the results reported in this report were carried out using an isolation protocol described earlier (TE). In preparation for a near future clinical trial, we have now developed a strategy to isolate an enriched taro fraction, TE-method 2, (TE-M2) as well as a more purified subfraction (TE-M2F1) which can be scaled up under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions for evaluation in human subjects. We demonstrate that TE-M2 and TE-M2F1 retain the anti-metastatic properties of TE.

Conclusions: These studies provide further support for the continued examination of biologically active components of as potential new therapeutic entities and identify a method to isolate sufficient quantities under GMP conditions to conduct early phase clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11782234211034937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320546PMC
July 2021

Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Predict Oil Rate for High Gas-Oil Ratio and Water-Cut Wells.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 20;6(30):19484-19493. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Measuring oil production rates of individual wells is important to evaluate a well's performance. Multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) and test separators have been used to estimate well production rates. Due to economic and technical issues with MPFMs, especially for high gas-oil ratio (GOR) reservoirs, the use of a choke formula for estimating well production rate is still popular. The objective of this study is to implement different artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the oil rate through wellhead chokes. Support-vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) were used to generate different models to predict the production rates for high GOR and WC wells. A set of data (548 wells) was obtained from oil fields in the Middle East. GOR varied from 1000 to 9351 scf/stb, and WC ranged from 1 to 60%. Around 300 wells were flowing under critical flow conditions, while the rest were subcritical. Hence, two cases were studied using each AI model. Seventy percent of the data was used to train both RF and SVM models, while 30% of the data was used to test and validate these models. The developed RF and SVM models were then compared against the previous empirical formulas. The RF model in both critical and subcritical flow conditions was able to perfectly match the actual oil rates. SVM was able to predict the general trend for the oil rates but missed some of the sharp changes in the oil rate trend. The average absolute percent error (AAPE) values in the subcritical flow for SVM and RF were 1.7 and 0.7%, respectively, while in the critical flow, the AAPE values were 1.4 and 0.75% for SVM and RF models, respectively. SVM and RF models outperform the published formulas by 34%. The results from this study will help to estimate the real-time oil and gas rates based on the available data from wellhead chokes without the need for field intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340095PMC
August 2021

Highly Sensitive and Selective Eco-Toxic 4-Nitrophenol Chemical Sensor Based on Ag-Doped ZnO Nanoflowers Decorated with Nanosheets.

Molecules 2021 Jul 30;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras, Greece.

Herein, we have developed a novel sensing electrode to detect the eco-toxic 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Ag-doped-ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized by facile hydrothermal method and examined by several characterization techniques in order to understand the morphology, crystal structure, composition, and surface properties. Morphological results were confirmed by the formation of Ag-doped ZnO nanoflowers decorated with nanosheets. Ag-doped ZnO/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) electrode-material-matrix was used for electrochemical sensing of toxic 4-NP. Under optimized conditions, Ag-doped ZnO/GCE modified electrode exhibits high-sensitivity and selectivity compared to the bare GCE electrode. The Ag-doped ZnO/GCE modified electrode exhibits high electrocatalytic oxidation towards 4-NP. Anodic peak current of 4-NP is increased linearly by increasing the concentration of nitrophenol. Additionally, Ag-doped ZnO/GCE shows a wide range of sensitivity from 10 µM to 500 µM, and a linear calibration plot with a good detection limit of 3 µM (S/N = 3). The proposed Ag-doped ZnO/GCE modified electrode showed high sensing stability. In addition, the oxidation mechanism was studied. The obtained results revealed that the Ag-ZnO/GCE electrode could be the promising sensing electrode for 4-NP sensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347949PMC
July 2021

Relative Contribution of Different Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Components to the Retinal Pigment Epithelium Barrier Function: Implications for RPE-Related Retinal Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 29;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, 540 East Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Disruption of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) barrier integrity is involved in the pathology of several blinding retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), but the underlying causes and pathophysiology are not completely well-defined. Mitochondria dysfunction has often been considered as a potential candidate implicated in such a process. In this study, we aimed to dissect the role of different mitochondrial components; specifically, those of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), in maintaining the barrier functionality of RPE. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology was used to collect multi-frequency electrical impedance data to assess in real-time the barrier formation of the RPE cells. For this purpose, the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line-ARPE-19-was used and treated with varying concentrations of specific mitochondrial inhibitors that target different steps in OxPhos: Rotenone for complex I (the largest protein complex in the electron transport chain (ETC)); oligomycin for ATP synthase; and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) for uncoupling ATP synthesis from the accompanying ETC. Furthermore, data were modeled using the ECIS-Zθ software to investigate in depth the effects of these inhibitors on three separate barrier parameters: cell-cell interactions (R), cell-matrix interactions (α), and the cell membrane capacitance (C). The viability of ARPE-19 cells was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Cytotoxicity Assay. The ECIS program's modeling demonstrated that FCCP and thus OxPhos uncoupling disrupt the barrier function in the ARPE-19 cells across all three components of the total resistance (Rb, α, and C) in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, oligomycin and thus ATP synthase inhibition mostly affects the ARPE-19 cells' attachment to their substrate evident by a significant decrease in α resistance in a dose-dependent manner, both at the end and throughout the duration of the experiment. On the contrary, rotenone and complex I inhibition mostly affect the ARPE-19 paracellular resistance R in a dose-dependent manner compared to basolateral resistance α or C. Our results clearly demonstrate differential roles for different mitochondrial components in maintaining RPE cell functionality in which uncoupling of OxPhos is a major contributing factor to the disruption barrier function. Such differences can be used in investigating gene expression as well as for screening of selective agents that improve the OxPhos coupling efficiency to be used in the therapeutic approach for treating RPE-related retinal diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348500PMC
July 2021

Extracellular vesicles from immortalized cardiosphere-derived cells attenuate arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy in desmoglein-2 mutant mice.

Eur Heart J 2021 09;42(35):3558-3571

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 127 S. San Vicente Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Aims: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is characterized by progressive loss of cardiomyocytes, and fibrofatty tissue replacement. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cardiosphere-derived cells, immortalized, and engineered to express high levels of β-catenin, exert anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects. The aim of the current study was to assess efficacy of EVs in an ACM murine model.

Methods And Results: Four-week-old homozygous knock-in mutant desmoglein-2 (Dsg2mt/mt) were randomized to receive weekly EVs or vehicle for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, DSG2mt/mt mice receiving EVs showed improved biventricular function (left, P < 0.0001; right, P = 0.0037) and less left ventricular dilation (P < 0.0179). Electrocardiography revealed abbreviated QRS duration (P = 0.0003) and QTc interval (P = 0.0006) in EV-treated DSG2mt/mt mice. Further electrophysiology testing in the EV group showed decreased burden (P = 0.0042) and inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias (P = 0.0037). Optical mapping demonstrated accelerated repolarization (P = 0.0290) and faster conduction (P = 0.0274) in Dsg2mt/mt mice receiving EVs. DSG2mt/mt hearts exhibited reduced fibrosis, less cell death, and preserved connexin 43 expression after EV treatment. Hearts of Dsg2mt/mt mice expressed markedly increased levels of inflammatory cytokines that were, in part, attenuated by EV therapy. The pan-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the inflammasome sensor NLRP3, and the macrophage marker CD68 were all reduced in EV-treated animals. Blocking EV hsa-miR-4488 in vitro and in vivo reactivates NF-κB and blunts the beneficial effects of EVs.

Conclusions: Extracellular vesicle treatment improved cardiac function, reduced cardiac inflammation, and suppressed arrhythmogenesis in ACM. Further studies are needed prior to translating the present findings to human forms of this heterogenous disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442111PMC
September 2021
-->