Publications by authors named "Ahmed Aarab"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of 20-Hydroxyecdysone, a Phytoecdysteroid, on Development, Digestive, and Detoxification Enzyme Activities of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

J Insect Sci 2019 Sep;19(5)

Research Team in Biological Engineering, Agrifood and Aquaculture, Faculty Polydisciplinary - Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Larache, Morocco.

Plants present a delimited reservoir of biologically active compounds. Many plants synthesize several compounds of secondary metabolism, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, steroids, etc. Such compounds are generally thought to be involved in plant-insect interactions. Phytoecdysteroids are a class of chemicals that plants synthesize; these compounds are analogues of molting hormones produced by insects. In this work, the effect of the 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is a molecule that belongs to the family of phytoecdysteroids, was tested on an insect pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Firstly, the effect of this molecule on post-embryonic development parameters was tested after ingestion at 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 ppm. Secondly, the effect of the 20-hydroxyecdysone was also tested on the biological parameters (proteins, alpha-amylase, detoxification enzymes). The results of the post-embryonic parameters test showed an important induction of larval mortality and a significant reduction of pupation and adult emergence rates. On the other hand, the test on the biological parameters showed that the 20-hydroxyecdysone caused a significant decrease in the levels of soluble proteins in treated larvae. In addition, the alpha-amylase activity was significantly inhibited by the ingestion of the phytoecdysteroid. And there was also a disruption of detoxification enzymes. The whole of the disturbances recorded in this work prove that phytoecdysteroids are thought to have potential value on T. castaneum control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iez097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804910PMC
September 2019

20-Hydroxyecdysone protects wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) against lead stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Jan 19;98:64-71. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Université Hassan I, Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Khouribga, BP 145, Khouribga, Morocco.

20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the most abundant phytoecdysteroid (PE) produced by plants, where it represents a protective molecule against insect attack. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 20E on the growth, metabolic enzymes and antioxidant systems of wheat seedlings under lead stress induced by Pb(NO3)2 (3 mM). Pre-treatment concentrations (0, 1, 3 and 5 μM) of 20E were applied for two days, then wheat seedlings were transferred for 5 days to a treatment solution containing lead nitrate. When plants were grown without pre-treatment, germination and growth were impaired, while signs of oxidative stress were observed. 20E pre-treatment (3 or 5 μM) was able to efficiently protect seedlings from Pb toxicity by reducing Pb uptake and Pb-induced oxidative stress, as well by enhancing Pb excretion. Thus, 20E pre-treatment maintains normal germination, elongation, biomass, and metabolism in spite of the presence of Pb. Our results show that 20E protects oxidative balance and enhances the anti-oxidative systems, and more specifically the ascorbate-glutathione system. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that 20E treatment induces metabolic changes that allow the plants to resist heavy metal stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.11.006DOI Listing
January 2016

Effect of lead stress on mineral content and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seedlings.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2013 Jan 8;20(1):29-36. Epub 2012 Sep 8.

PER-Centre des Etudes Environnementales Méditerranéennes, Equipe de recherche Biotechnologies et Génie des Biomolécules, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP 416, Tangier, Morocco.

Lead (Pb) is the most common heavy metal contaminant in the environment. Pb is not an essential element for plants, but they absorb it when it is present in their environment, especially in rural areas when the soil is polluted by automotive exhaust and in fields contaminated with fertilizers containing heavy metal impurities. To investigate lead effects on nutrient uptake and metabolism, two plant species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were grown under hydroponic conditions and stressed with lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, at three concentrations (1.5, 3, and 15 mM). Lead is accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in both plant species, which results in reduced growth and lower uptake of all mineral ions tested. Total amounts and concentrations of most mineral ions (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) are reduced, although Mn concentrations are increased, as its uptake is reduced less relative to the whole plant's growth. The deficiency of mineral nutrients correlates in a strong decrease in the contents of chlorophylls a and b and proline in both species, but these effects are less pronounced in spinach than in wheat. By contrast, the effects of lead on soluble proteins differ between species; they are reduced in wheat at all lead concentrations, whereas they are increased in spinach, where their value peaks at 3 mM Pb. The relative lead uptake by spinach and wheat, and the different susceptibility of these two species to lead treatment are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3730938PMC
January 2013

Protective role of a methanolic extract of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) against Pb toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings: beneficial effects for a plant of a nutraceutical used with animals.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2013 Oct 5;20(10):7377-85. Epub 2013 May 5.

PER-Centre des Etudes Environnementales Méditerranéennes, Equipe de recherche Biotechnologies et Génie des Biomolécules, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, BP 416, Tangier, Morocco.

Spinach extracts contain powerful natural antioxidants and have been used to improve the response of animal cells to various stress factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a methanolic extract of spinach (SE) used at two concentrations (21.7 and 217 ppm) on the growth, certain enzymes and antioxidant systems in wheat seedlings under lead stress. When wheat seedlings were grown for 7 days in a solution containing Pb(NO3)2 (3 mM), germination and growth were impaired, while signs of oxidative stress were observed. SE (217 ppm) pretreatment was able to protect seedlings from Pb toxicity by both reducing Pb uptake and Pb-induced oxidative stress. As a consequence, almost normal germination, elongation, biomass and α-amylase activity were restored by SE (217 ppm) pretreatment of wheat seedlings, in spite of the presence of Pb. Our results support the protective role and the antioxidant effect of SE against Pb. These results show an amazing similarity to the effects of SE in animals, which suggests that providing "nutraceuticals" to plants could improve their "health" status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1755-1DOI Listing
October 2013

Lead phytotoxicity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination and seedlings growth.

C R Biol 2011 Feb 12;334(2):118-26. Epub 2011 Jan 12.

Équipe de recherche biotechnologies et génie des biomolécules, PER - centre des études environnementales méditerranéennes, faculté des sciences et techniques, université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tangier, Morocco.

Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant extremely toxic to plants and other living organisms including humans. To assess Pb phytotoxicity, experiments focusing on germination of wheat seeds were germinated in a solution containing Pb (NO(3))(2) (0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1g/L) during 6 days. Lead accumulation in seedlings was positively correlated with the external concentrations, and negatively correlated with morphological parameters of plant growth. Lead increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced soluble protein concentrations and induced a significant accumulation of proline in roots. Esterase activity was enhanced in the presence of lead, whereas α-amylase activity was significantly inhibited. Antioxidant enzymes activities, such as, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase were generally significantly increased in the presence of lead in a dose-dependent manner. The present results thus provide a model system to screen for natural compounds able to counteract the deleterious effects of lead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2010.12.006DOI Listing
February 2011

Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial strains isolated from Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica in Tangier, Morocco.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2010 May 1;4(4):194-201. Epub 2010 May 1.

Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tangier, Morocco.

Background: Flies and cockroaches are two insects in close contact with human beings. They are carriers of human pathogenic bacteria on the external areas of their bodies or in their digestive tracts. This study examines Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica collected from the residential areas of six districts in Tangier, Morocco.

Methodology: In total, 251 bacteria were isolated from external areas of the participants' bodies and the antimicrobial susceptibility was calculated.

Results: The predominant bacterial species included Escherichia coli (17.9%), Klebsiella spp. (14.7%), Providencia spp. (9.6%), Staphylococcus spp. (15.1%) and Enterococcus spp. (11.6%). The study showed no difference between the species of bacterial strains from American cockroaches and houseflies. Carbapenems and aminoglycosides were active against 100% of the Gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study. Staphylococcus spp. strains were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, levofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, and no antibiotic resistance was found in Enterococcus spp.

Conclusions: In our setting, although both cockroaches and flies collected from residential areas may be vectors of human pathogenic bacteria, the infections caused by them are easily treatable as a result of the high susceptibility of their bacteria to antibiotics routinely used in the community or in hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.336DOI Listing
May 2010
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