Publications by authors named "Abbas Ebadi"

247 Publications

Examination of the psychometric properties of the persian version of the COVID-19-impact on Quality of Life Scale.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Jul 30;19(1):188. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Spiritual Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Introduction: As a result of high transmission and mortality rates, the Covid-19 pandemic has led to a worldwide health crisis, isolation, and widespread fear, therefore negatively influencing people's quality of life (QOL). The goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the Persian version of the COVID-19-Impact on Quality of Life (COV19-QoL) scale.

Methods: After translating the scale using the forward-backward method, face and content validly was qualitatively assessed. Then the scale was distributed to 488 individuals from the general population via online platforms. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis. In addition, internal consistency was examined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and McDonald's omega, relative stability was assessed using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and absolute stability was calculated through examination of standard error of measurement.

Results: The EFA revealed one factor that explained 55.96% of the total variance of the scale. Internal consistencies of 0.823 and 0.882 were found using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and McDonald's omega, respectively. In addition, an ICC of 0.837 (with a two-week interval) was found. Covid-19 had a greater impact on the QOL of healthy participants than that of those with underling conditions (p = 0.004), and also on the QOL of single participants than that of married ones (p = 0.032).

Conclusion: The Persian version of the COV19-QoL is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to examine the impact of Covid-19 on QOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01829-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323082PMC
July 2021

Developing and Psychometric Evaluation of a Reproductive Health Assessment Scale for Married Adolescent Women: An Exploratory Mixed-Method Study.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2021 May-Jun;26(3):266-271. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: Adolescent women's reproductive health is often neglected despite the high prevalence of early marriage. Since no appropriate scales were found to assess the health status of adolescent women, this study aimed to develop a reproductive health scale in married adolescent women in Iran and investigate its psychometric properties.

Materials And Methods: An exploratory mixed-methods study was conducted in Ardabil healthcare centers (Ardabil City, Iran) between May 2017 and December 2018. In the qualitative phase, 14 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with married adolescent women, and two focus group discussions were held with 12 key informants. In the quantitative phase, the initial scales were validated using face, content, and construct validities. In a cross-sectional study among 300 women, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to assess the construct validity. Internal consistency and test-retest methods were used to review. The initial scale was designed with 45 items, but only 30 items reached the construct validity stage. EFA revealed five factors that explained 50.96% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.75 estimates the reliability of the scale.

Results: The qualitative study identified 76 items that reached 88 items through literature confirmed its reliability, and test-retest with a two-week interval confirmed its consistency (ICC = 0.99, < 0.001). Finally, the scale was approved with 27 items and four domains: sexual, pregnancy and childbirth, psychosocial, and family planning.

Conclusions: This valid and reliable scale with cultural sensitivity can be used to help health professionals to improve the reproductive health of married adolescent women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_238_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262531PMC
May 2021

Nurse Managers' Perceptions and Experiences during the COVID-19 Crisis: A Qualitative Study.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2021 May-Jun;26(3):238-244. Epub 2021 May 17.

Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemics are an international threat to global health and health systems and then healthcare providers. Nurses' managers who are responsible for organizing the nurses and their activities grapple with even more challenges, which are overlooked. This study was conducted to elaborate on the nurse managers' experiences facing the Coronavirus pandemic.

Materials And Methods: This study adopted a conventional approach to qualitative content analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 nurse managers working at the University Hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from April 5, 2020 to June 15, 2020. The interviews continued until data saturation. Data analysis was performed using the method proposed by Lundman and Graneheim.

Results: Participants described their experiences about facing COVID-19 pandemic into three categories of 'facing the personnel's mental health', 'Managerial and equipment provision challenges', and 'adaptability and exultation process', with 13 sub-categories.

Conclusions: Dealing with critical conditions could make the frontline managers, and specially nurse managers, face serious challenges. However, in case of proper crisis management andadaptation of sufficient supporting strategies, these threats could turn into an opportunity to exault the individuals and consequently the organizations engaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_285_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262538PMC
May 2021

Iranian Women's Self-concept after Hysterectomy: A Qualitative Study.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2021 May-Jun;26(3):230-237. Epub 2021 May 17.

Assistant Professor in Reproductive Health, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The loss of female organs leads to profound changes in one's perception of oneself. There is limited information about the impact of hysterectomy on women's self-concept and culture. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim to deepen our understanding of the self-concept of Iranian women after hysterectomy.

Materials And Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using directed content analysis approach. The participants included 30 women with a history of hysterectomy who were selected through purposive sampling method. Data were collected from August 2018 to November 2019 using in-depth and semi-structured interviews based on the self-concept mode of the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM) in Mashhad, Iran. Data analysis was performed using the deductive approach of Elo and Kyngäs in MAXQDA software.

Results: As a result of the analysis of the interviews, the main category of "incoherent cognition of self-concept" emerged, which included the two generic categories of "heterogeneous feelings toward and imaginations of the body" and "changed self-perception", and five subcategories.

Conclusions: Women's self-concept changed after hysterectomy in both its physical and psychological aspects. Therefore, counseling before and after hysterectomy is recommended to improve women's self-concept after hysterectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_146_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262543PMC
May 2021

Development and psychometric evaluation of the loneliness inventory for older adults (Lonely): A mixed-methods study.

Nurs Open 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Population Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Centre, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To develop and initially validate the Loneliness Inventory for Older Adults.

Design: Scale development and evaluation.

Methods: This was a two-phase study. In phase 1, the initial items pool (126 items) was generated based on the concept analysis and literature review. Moreover, content validity was established by geriatric and psychometric experts. Phase 2 evaluated structural validity by performing item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and convergent validity. Reliability was evaluated by examining internal consistency, stability (ICC) and absolute reliability.

Results: Following the development process, 94 items were removed and a provisional version of the questionnaire with 32 items was subjected to psychometric evaluation. Three hundred and seventy older adults completed the questionnaire. After performing factor analysis, overall 3 items were removed due to low loading, and the questionnaire was reduced to 29 items tapping into five factors. The Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was 0.94, and the ICC value was 0.97.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.983DOI Listing
July 2021

Participation and Rehabilitation: The Need for Developing Native Instruments.

Iran J Public Health 2021 Apr;50(4):848-849

Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i4.6018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219616PMC
April 2021

Exploring the criteria and factors affecting firefighters' resilience: A qualitative study.

Chin J Traumatol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Workplace Health Promotion Research Center (WHPRC), School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health in Emergencies and Disasters, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Firefighters are exposed to high levels of occupational risk factors, such as safety risks, chemical, ergonomic, and physical hazards that may jeopardize their lives. To overcome these hazards, firefighters must be physically, mentally, and personally fit to work. This study aimed to explore the criteria and factors affecting firefighters' resilience based on stakeholders' experiences.

Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using conventional content analysis. In total, 21 face-to-face interviews were conducted by firefighters who were experienced in the field. The interviews were carried out by firefighters from July 2019 to January 2020. The data were collected using three unstructured interviews and then resumed by 18 semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was done using Graneheim method.

Results: The participants had more than five years of experience in the field of search and rescue. The extracted codes through data analysis were classified into 3 main categories (individual, organizational, and social factors), 9 sub-categories (mental, physical, occupational, managerial, colleagues-related, equipment-related, environmental, community-related, and family-related factors), as well as 19 sub-sub-categories and 570 codes.

Conclusion: Firefighters' personality, physical condition, behavior and psychological characteristics can affect their resilience along with organizational and management factors that play significant role in people's safety. Developing a tool for assessing resilience can help decision makers to have a real depict of firefighters' job qualifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2021.06.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and psychometric properties of the Nursing Student Academic Resilience Inventory (NSARI): A mixed-method study.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252473. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Nursing Care Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Introduction: Resilience has been proposed as a suitable solution to better deal with nursing students in cases of challenges but the complex and multidimensional nature of resilience has made its measurement challenging. This study aimed to develop and validate a new inventory theory-driven labeled Nursing Student Academic Resilience Inventory.

Methods: This study was performed with an exploratory sequential mixed-method design. In the qualitative phase of the study, individual interviews were conducted by including 15 participants to elicit the concept of resilience through purposive sampling. In the quantitative phase, psychometric analysis of the extracted items was performed using face, content, and construct validities (exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses) on a sample size of 405 nursing students. Besides, reliability has been tested using internal consistency and test-retest methods. According to the COSMIN standards, beside two important indicators of validity and reliability, responsiveness and interpretability were also considered.

Results: A 6-factor structure (optimism, communication, self-esteem/evaluation, self-awareness, trustworthiness, and self-regulation) with 24 items were extracted in terms of the derived categories from the qualitative phase. In confirmatory factor analysis, the χ2/df ratio was calculated as 2.11 for the NSARI six-factor structure. Suitable values were obtained for the goodness of fit indices (CFI = 0.904, AGFI = 0.885, IFI = 0.906, PCFI = 0.767, and RMSEA = 0.053). In the second-order factor analysis, AVE = 0.70 indicated the existence of both convergent and divergent validities. The Cronbach's alpha and omega coefficients were investigated as (0.66-0.78) and (0.66-0.80), respectively. The AIC was between 0.33 and 0.45 for all factors, which is an acceptable rate. Additionally, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was obtained as .903 for the whole instrument (CI .846- .946, P <0.0001).

Conclusion: Multidimensional nature of resilience was supported through exploring its 6-factor structures in the nursing students' field. This tool also showed an acceptable validity and reliability for measuring resilience in the population of nursing students.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252473PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205183PMC
June 2021

Development and validation of the Domestic Violence during Quarantine Scale (DVQS).

Z Gesundh Wiss 2021 Jun 8:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Management, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Domestic violence is a common health problem that often affects women's mental health. Although domestic violence may not be reported during quarantine, it may increase due to increased restrictions. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to develop and validate the Domestic Violence during Quarantine Scale (DVQS) on a sample from Iran.

Methods: Two hundred and three Iranians participated in this study and completed online questionnaires. This cross-sectional and methodological study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, item pool generation and questionnaire design was carried out through literature review. In the second phase, psychometric properties were assessed via an exploratory factors analysis (EFA). Internal consistency was examined by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and McDonalds' Omega.

Results: In the EFA, three factors, including humiliation (seven items), threatening (six items), and restriction (four items) were extracted that together explained 64.4% of the variance of domestic violence during quarantine. Using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the internal consistency of humiliation, threatening, and restriction was found to be 0.90, 0.896, and 0.76 respectively, and an alpha of 0.927 was found for the total scale. In addition, using McDonalds' Omega, internal consistencies of 0.82, 0.84, and 0.78 were found for the three factors respectively.

Conclusion: The DVQS has good validity and reliability; therefore, it can be used in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10389-021-01596-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186019PMC
June 2021

Confusion at the beginning of sexual intercourse, the challenge of patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in Iran: A qualitative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 31;10:92. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Many patients suffer from sexual dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, but they refuse to propose and follow up on the problem due to the cultural structures prevailing in Iranian society. Untreated sexual dysfunction will disturb the quality of life of these patients. This study was performed to explain the experiences of male patients from sexual problems after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

Materials And Methods: This qualitative study was performed with the approach of conventional content analysis in Tehran in 2020. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 men after coronary artery bypass graft surgery at the hospital's cardiac surgery clinic, as well as the surgeon's clinic. Participants were selected by the targeted sampling method. After obtaining informed consent, the collected data were written word by word, and the content analysis approach was used to name the data, create analytical codes, and determine subcategories and categories. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA 10 software.

Results: The findings of this study show that the dimensions of confusion in patients' sexual intercourse after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in four subcategories of challenges of the first intercourse after surgery, ambiguity in how to obtain information, the ambiguity of sexual issues after surgery, and spouse are concerned about having sexual intercourse.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that male patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery have many ambiguities in the process of sexual intercourse, which passes the beginning of sexual intercourse with fear and avoidance of intercourse. Postoperative patients do not propose these problems with the medical staff when they suffer from sexual dysfunction or ambiguity due to the taboo of talking about sexual intercourse. Eventually, the patient and his or her partner become confused about sexual intercourse after surgery. Therefore, it is recommended that policymakers in the field of health create the culture and planning for solving the ambiguities created in the path of sexual intercourse of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_752_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150053PMC
March 2021

Military nurses' Experiences of Interprofessional education in Crisis Management: a Qualitative Content Analysis.

J Adv Med Educ Prof 2021 Apr;9(2):85-93

Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Today's human health care needs are so complex and dealing with them requires interprofessional collaboration and teamwork, which must be learned by the appropriate educational methods. In this regard, the Crisis Management Interprofessional Education program (CMIPE) in the form of desktop maneuver with the presence of the military nurses and other professional groups involved in the crisis was designed and implemented in Military Nursing School in Tehran, Iran. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the military nurses of participating in an interprofessional education program in crisis management domain.

Methods: This was an exploratory case study using conventional content analysis of the experiences of 28 military nurses participating in this program. The qualitative data were collected with three methods including observation in the field (note-taking and filming) and an open-ended questionnaire and two focus group discussions with military nurses.

Results: Qualitative analysis of the experiences of military nurses led to the emergence of four overarching themes which included professional mutual recognition, shared mental models, valuing joint responsibility and collaboration, perceived self-worth as a member of an interprofessional team.

Conclusion: The crisis management education based on an interprofessional approach created new experiences for military nurses by bringing together professional groups involved in a crisis in a constructive interaction, and with emphasis on learning from each other. This empowers them to provide teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in a critical situation, and therefore, enhancing their ability to cope with different crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/jamp.2021.87653.1317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106742PMC
April 2021

Components of driving competency measurement in the elderly: A scoping review.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 5;35. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Iran will face the "aging Tsunami" phenomenon by the 2040s. Therefore, paying attention to the elderly's driving to maintain and promote their independence and quality of life on the one hand and paying attention to the dangers of driving by the elderly for road safety will be important. The purpose of this research was to determine the components of driving competency in the elderly. The research has employed a scoping review. To this end, searches of scientific databases were conducted using keywords between 1990 and 2019. The process of selecting the documentation was-based on the PRISMA chart. In the first phase, 2769 records were found, and finally, 37 records met the inclusion criteria set for this study. The results indicated that 18 components were extracted that were classified into seven main categories including cognitive, sensory, motor, mental functions, and medications, diseases, and driving history. Sensory, motor, and cognitive abilities are the most important components of elderly safe driving. Therefore, as age increases, chronic disease, multiple drug use, and subsequent problems increase. This can affect the ability to drive safely and can cause traffic injuries. Therefore, it is recommended to use the results of this research to design a suitable tool and model for assessing driving competency in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47176/mjiri.35.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111623PMC
January 2021

Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the nurse spiritual care therapeutics scale (NSCTS).

BMC Palliat Care 2021 Apr 12;20(1):56. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life style institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Background: Dealing with the spiritual needs of patients has been recognized as one of the principles of holistic care in nursing. Therefore, it is necessary for nurses to deal with the spiritual issues of patients. Also, a valid and reliable scale is needed to measure nurse-provided spiritual care. So the purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the "Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale" in Iranian nurses.

Method: In a methodological study, English version of the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale was translated into Persian by forward-backward translation procedure. Face validity was assessed by cognitive interview, and content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. In addition, construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis. The participants were 188 nurses working in different adult wards. Reliability was measured using the Cronbach's alpha and stability reliability was assessed using the internal correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: In assessing the construct validity, two factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were identified, which explained 58.47% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha value was 0.932, and ICC was 0.892.

Conclusion: As a result, the Persian version of the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale shows a good validity and reliability. Therefore, this scale can be used to evaluate spiritual care at the bedside in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12904-021-00750-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041019PMC
April 2021

The Persian version of the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS-P): a validation study on stroke patients with dysphagia.

Logoped Phoniatr Vocol 2021 Mar 16:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style Institute, Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The present study aimed to validate the Persian version of the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS-P) for stroke patients.

Materials And Methods: The current study was conducted in two phases: (1) translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FOIS into Persian and (2) validation of the FOIS-P. Phase 1 included forward translation, synthesis, back-ward translation, expert panel, and pretesting. To validate the FOIS-P, inter-rater reliability, cross-validity, and sensitivity to change of the scale were investigated. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the FOIS-P, two speech-language pathologists, who were blind to the study aims and procedure, applied the FOIS-P to assess the oral intake of 60 stroke survivors. The cross-validity was assessed by investigating the correlation between the FOIS scores and the Video Fluoroscopy Swallowing Study (VFSS). Also, we applied the FOIS-P on 60 patients with stroke at three different times to investigate the sensitivity to change.

Results: Inter-rater reliability of the FOIS-P was excellent according to Cohen's Kappa calculation ( = 0.89, <.001). Investigation of cross-validity showed that there were significant correlations between the FOIS scores and presence of dysphagia, presence of aspiration, and severity of dysphagia (<.001). The changes of the FOIS-P scores over follow-ups revealed that the FOIS-P was sensitive to the patient's oral intake changes.

Conclusions: The FOIS-P is a valid and reliable tool for assessing oral intake in stroke survivors with dysphagia. Hence, the FOIS-P may be suitable for clinical and research in the field of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14015439.2021.1896778DOI Listing
March 2021

Indicators of Sensory and Intellectual Thinking Based on Clinical Psychology and Islamic Perspective and their Role in Psychotherapy and Spiritual Health: Introducing a New Model of Thinking.

J Relig Health 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Today, the field of health is not limited to physical and mental health, but is related to all aspects of life, including spirituality. Spiritual health is so important that it is suggested as the fourth dimension of health, and in the near future, it will form part of the definition of health by the WHO. According to research in clinical psychology, in addition to spiritual health, another important issue in most psychotherapy theories is the issue of thinking. Given the importance of health and thinking, so far, no model has been presented in the field of the relationship between "thinking and health". So, the purpose of the present study is introducing a new model of healthy thinking based on human soul faculties. In this study, qualitative content analysis method has been used. Indicators of sensory and intellectual thinking have been noted within research results, which are the main components of the new model of thinking. In this type of thinking model, it is argued that all human beings have powers within them that can grow, which are referred to as the faculties of the soul. The level of thinking of individuals is determined by the level of each person's soul faculties. The lowest level is sensory perception and the highest level is intellectual perception. The more a person grows from the level of sensory thinking to the level of intellectual thinking, the sources of thought error decrease and the better the health of the thinking. Also, those who have a level of intellectual thinking have a higher level of spiritual health and the lifestyle of these people is health-oriented. This is a philosophical-psychological model in which indicators of sensory thinking and intellectual deviation have been extracted from theories and texts of psychology and philosophy. The results of this study can be used in psychotherapy because research has shown that thinking, especially healthy thinking, has a very effective role in mental health and a healthy lifestyle as well as treatment of disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-021-01192-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Acute Kidney Injury and Covid-19: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:309-324

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a fatal complication of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 disease. Here, we performed a scoping review and meta-analysis including clinical studies on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with data on AKI assessment and characteristics, and the overall prevalence of AKI was estimated using a random-effects model. We identified 21 articles which passed the search criteria. All were quantitative observational studies which used a cross-sectional, retrospective, case report, or cohort methodology. This showed that aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, previous chronic disease, and other comorbidities were risk factors of AKI. Although the prevalence of proteinuria, hematuria, and increased serum creatinine was reported for up to 60% of the patients with COVID-19, the overall prevalence of AKI was estimated to be 8%. We conclude that although approximately two-thirds of patients with COVID-19 had symptoms of kidney damage, most of these did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AKI. Further studies should be performed to validate biomarkers for improved AKI diagnosis in COVID-19 patients and new treatment options are required to reduce the rate of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_28DOI Listing
March 2021

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and COVID-19: A Scoping Review and Meta-analysis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:211-228

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal complication of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19 disease. This scoping review was carried out with international, peer-reviewed research studies and gray literature published up to July 2020 in Persian and English languages. Using keywords derived from MESH, databases including Magiran, IranMedex, SID, Web of Sciences, PubMed, Embase via Ovid, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched. After screening titles and abstracts, the full texts of selected articles were evaluated, and those which passed the criteria were analyzed and synthesized with inductive thematic analysis. Study quality was also evaluated using a standard tool. The overall prevalence of ARDS was estimated using a random-effects model. This led to identification of 23 primary studies involving 2880 COVID-19 patients. All articles were observational with a cross-sectional, retrospective, case report, and cohort design with moderate to strong quality. The main findings showed that COVID-19-related ARDS has a high prevalence and is different to ARDS due to other etiologies. Elderly and patients with comorbidities and organ failure should be closely surveyed for respiratory organ indications for several weeks after the onset of respiratory symptoms. There is currently no definitive treatment for ARDS in COVID-19 disease, and supportive therapies and their effects are somewhat controversial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_18DOI Listing
March 2021

Experience of Uncertainty in Patients with Thalassemia Major: A Qualitative Study.

Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res 2020 Oct;14(4):237-247

Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Uncertainty leads to a stressful situation in patients with thalassemia major that can dramatically affect their psychosocial coping ability, treatment process and disease outcomes, and reduce patients' quality of life. As one of the important factors affecting the health of thalassemia patients, understanding the concept of uncertainty is of major importance to health care providers especially nurses as the first line of exposure to these patients. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of uncertainty in patients with thalassemia major. The present qualitative study was conducted through in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews held with 18 patients with major thalassemia selected through purposive sampling. Interviews continued until saturation of data. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed with conventional content analysis method of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Two main themes, including 'living in the shadow of anxiety' and 'coping with uncertainty' emerged from patients' experiences of illness uncertainty of thalassemia. 'Living in the shadow of anxiety' included four categories of 'fear of complications', 'contradictory views on treatment', 'unknown future' and 'stigma'. 'Coping with uncertainty' included three categories of 'spiritual coping', 'psychosocial coping' and 'knowledge acquisition'. According to the results of this study, uncertainty is a major psychological stress in patients with thalassemia major. Healthcare providers should therefore consider the challenges and concerns faced by patients and, through utilizing appropriate training and communicational practices, plan interventions and strategies to empower patients for coping with uncertainty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijhoscr.v14i4.4479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876423PMC
October 2020

Validation of the Persian version of the Compassionate Care Assessment Tool.

Int J Nurs Sci 2021 Jan 14;8(1):95-101. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: The present study aimed to translate and determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Compassionate Care Assessment Tool (CCAT) ©.

Methods: The study was carried out to translate and validate of the CCAT©. After securing permission from the designer of the tool and translating it, the psychometric properties were determined through examining face validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test/retest reliability. With regard to construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis was used so that 300 patients in internal and surgery wards were selected by a simple random sampling method from three hospitals. Data were analyzed using SPSS (v.24.0) and LISREL statistical software version 8.8.

Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the CCAT© and its four factors. The reliability of the tool and internal consistency were confirmed through test/retest method with two weeks' interval. At the two areas of importance and provision of compassionate care, Cronbach's α coefficient equaled to 0.918 and 0.933 and intraclass consistency equaled to 0.848 and 0.907 respectively.

Conclusion: The results showed that the Persian version of the CCAT© was adequately valid and reliable for Iranian patients. Given the acceptable psychometric parameters of the tool, using it in future studies to measure importance and provision of compassionate nursing care to Iranian patients at internal and surgery wards is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859547PMC
January 2021

Evaluating the disaster preparedness of emergency medical service agencies in the world: A systematic literature review protocol.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 29;9:351. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

MD National Emergency Medical Organization, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Disasters occur almost everywhere in the world, and preparation is essential. Preparedness is an effective approach for disaster management, and it is crucial for the health systems, especially the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies. This systematic review will be conducted to assess the preparedness levels of EMS agencies in the world for the response to disasters and explore the key dimensions and strategies to enhance it.

Methodology: This systematic literature review will be conducted to search comprehensively the articles published between 2000 and 2019 to explore the disaster preparedness of EMS Agencies. To this end, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar will be thoroughly assessed. The following terms and expression will be used for searching the databases: "EMS" and other keywords "Disaster Preparedness," "Mass Casualty Incident," "Mass Gathering," "Terrorist incident," "Weapons of Mass Destruction," and CBRNE, Disaster, included: 'Emergency Preparedness, Preparedness, Readiness.

Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review study has been conducted on disaster preparedness of EMS agencies in the world. This is the first study to address this gape. It will also explore the key dimensions of disaster preparedness in EMS services and the strategies to enhance their preparedness.

Conclusion: Identifying the key dimensions of disaster preparedness is the first step in designing valid assessment tools to evaluate disaster preparedness of EMS service. This study will provide valuable guides for EMS administrators and researchers in an attempt to enhance of preparedness of EMS systems in disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_416_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871916PMC
December 2020

Challenges of the patient transition process from the intensive care unit: a qualitative study.

Acute Crit Care 2021 May 28;36(2):133-142. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The transition of patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the general ward is challenging. This study aimed to explain the challenges that patients face during the transition process.

Methods: In this qualitative research of conventional content analysis, data collection was conducted between February 2018 and July 2019 in educational hospitals. After obtaining informed consent, purposive sampling was performed with 22 nurses, intensive care physicians, anesthesiologists, and patients and their families using in-depth semi-structured interviews until data saturation.

Results: The content analysis yielded three main themes in the challenges patients face during the transition process from the ICU: mixed feelings regarding transition (happiness/hope, worry/uncertainty, abandonment); care break (different atmosphere, the difference between the program and the quality of care, assigning care to the patient and family, and care culture and beliefs); and search for support and information (ineffective communication, self-care capacity of patient and family, ineffective and disrupted training, and weak follow-up programs), which inflicts care shock in the patients.

Conclusions: The results showed that patients and their families were in a state of care shock during the ICU transition process and were sometimes disconcerted. It is necessary to design and implement care models according to the needs and challenges patients face during the transition period from ICU (patient-centered), based on the evidence available, and after considering the field of medicine and the accessibility of care in the country. The transition process can be improved and enhanced by obtaining knowledge about ICU care and related challenges as well as organizing a learning environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182156PMC
May 2021

Assessing sexual and reproductive health dimensions tools in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus with regard to Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments checklist.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 26;9:310. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A valid tool is of paramount importance in determining women's sexual and reproductive health status, meeting their health needs, and recognizing the effectiveness of some interventions. This review study aimed to assess sexual and reproductive health dimensions tools in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus with regard to Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. In this review study, in addition to Iranian databases (MagIran, Sid, Irandoc), non-Iranian databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science) and Google Scholar search engine were considered. The mentioned databases were searched for articles in English and Persian published within 2000-2019, using the search strategy for each database and Boolean operators along with appropriate keywords according to the MESH term. Articles with nonresearcher-made tools measuring the sexual and reproductive health concepts and dimensions were included in the present study. Afterward, the psychometric properties of the tools were assessed according to the COSMIN checklist. In the selected articles, there were 14 psychometrically valid tools to be assessed from 151 articles containing the sexual and reproductive health dimensions; among which, seven tools were evaluated with regard to COSMIN. None of the tools also had all the features noted in COSMIN. Moreover, all the concerned scales were not interpretable and accountable; however, a majority of them had internal consistency and construct validity. In this study, there was no valid and specific tool for measuring sexual-reproductive health status in this population group. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a valid tool according to the dimensions and needs of specific reproductive health in type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_391_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774613PMC
November 2020

Overcrowding Management and Patient Safety: An Application of the Stabilization Model.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2020 Sep-Oct;25(5):382-386. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style Institute, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Emergency department is among the most crowded hospital units. The function of this department considerably affects the functions of other hospital units as well as patient satisfaction. The Stabilization Model is a strategy with potential effectiveness in managing overcrowding in emergency department. This study aimed to determine the effects of overcrowding management based on the stabilization model on patient safety in emergency department.

Materials And Methods: This pretest-posttest quasi-experimental was conducted in 2015 in the emergency department of a teaching hospital located in Tehran, Iran. Primarily, the perceived safety of 35 patients was assessed using the Patient Safety Assessment Questionnaire. Then, an overcrowding management intervention was implemented based on the stabilization model. Finally, the perceived safety of 35 newly recruited patients was assessed after the intervention. The SPSS software (v. 16.0) was employed for data analysis through the Chi-square, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and the independent-sample t tests.

Results: The mean (SD) score of patient safety was 27.45 (8.43) in the control group and 34.45 (4.04) in the intervention group and the between-group difference was statistically significant (t = 50.37, < 0.001). The rate of patient safety increased from 65% at baseline to 82% after the intervention.

Conclusions: Overcrowding management based on the stabilization model can significantly enhance patients' perceived safety. Therefore, this strategy can be used to ease emergency department overcrowding and enhance patient safety and care quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_254_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737840PMC
September 2020

Family Intensive Care Unit Syndrome: An Integrative Review.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2020 Sep-Oct;25(5):361-368. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Atherosclerosis Research Center and Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) brings about psychological and physical symptoms in patients' family members. Family Intensive Care Unit Syndrome (FICUS) is a term used to explain the psychological symptoms of the family of a patient in response to the patient's admission to the ICU. The purpose of this study was to define FICUS along with its symptoms and predictors.

Materials And Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SID databases were searched for literature published in 2005-2018 with the keywords "FICUS," "intensive care unit," "family," "caregivers," "anxiety," "depression," and "post-traumatic stress disorder" in their title and abstract. The strategy for conducting an integrative review provided by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was used in this study.

Results: Twenty articles were included in the final data analysis. Following the patient's admission to the ICU, family members experience multiple psychological symptoms such as FICUS. The most commonly reported symptoms were anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complicated grief, sleep disorder, stress, and fatigue. The low education level, having a critically-ill spouse, adequate support, financial stability, preference for decision-making, understanding of the disease process, anxiety, depression, or previous acute stress were predictors of FICUS.

Conclusions: On the basis of the results, families also experience physical symptoms, so the FICUS is not limited to the occurrence of psychological symptoms. This study found that there is no universal definition for the term "FICUS" in the research literature. Thus, further research is needed to explore FICUS in the health field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_243_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737832PMC
September 2020

Investigating the relationship between organizational justice, job satisfaction, and intention to leave the nursing profession: A cross-sectional study.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Apr 10;77(4):1741-1750. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Spiritual Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Aims: This study aims to test a hypothetical model linking various dimensions of organizational justice to the job satisfaction and nurses' intention to leave the profession based on the theoretical assumptions of the Alexander model of voluntary turnover.

Design: A cross-sectional survey.

Methods: This study was conducted on 317 inpatient ward nurses of six teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran during 1 September 2017-14 November 2018. Clinical nurses were recruited by a multistage random sampling. Data were collected using structured questionnaires of organizational justice, job satisfaction, and nurses' intention to leave. Data were analysed by structural equation modelling using Amos 22 statistical program.

Results: The structural equation model demonstrated adequate fit and the hypothesized correlations were partially supported. The findings suggested that the distributive justice (p < .001; β = 0.24) and interactional justice (p < .001; β = 0.44) could indirectly affect the nurses' intention to leave the nursing profession via the direct impact on job satisfaction, while job satisfaction had a significant, negative effect on the nurses' intention to leave (p < .001; β = -0.71).

Conclusions: According to the results, the model fit was acceptable, suggesting the validity of the final model. Furthermore, distributive and interactional justice could reduce the intention to leave the nursing profession by influencing the job satisfaction of the clinical nurses.

Impact: This was one of the first studies to determine the aspects of justice that must be further emphasized by healthcare managers to increase the job satisfaction of nurses and their retention in healthcare systems. The findings indicated that fair interactions have a greater impact on job satisfaction and retention of nurses than procedural and distributive justice. The results of this study provide valuable references for nursing managers to increase the job satisfaction of nurses and their retention in healthcare settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14717DOI Listing
April 2021

Validation of the 30-item nurses' observation scale for inpatient evaluation and mental health-care promotion.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 30;9:281. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: The 30-item nurses' observation scale for inpatient evaluation (NOSIE-30) developed for the behavioral and observational rating of psychiatric inpatients.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validation of the NOSIE-30 and mental health-care promotion.

Materials And Methods: The participants with psychiatric disorders were selected from 310 inpatients referred to the military educational hospital in Iran. This study was carried out in two phases: First, translation of the NOSIE-30 into Persian followed the stepwise, iterative procedures developed by the International Quality of Life Assessment project approach. Second, face validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity, and reliability of the Persian version were determined. The concurrent validity was assessed by using the global assessment of functioning (GAF) instrument. Data were analyzed with the SPSS software of version 22. Exploratory factor analysis, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and interrater agreement with intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to data analysis.

Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient between the NOSIE and GAF was 0.75. The interrater reliability for subscale scores and structure of the NOSIE were ranging from 0.70 to 0.94 and Cohen's kappa = 0.74. Furthermore, the internal consistency of the scale's total scores was estimated by Cronbach's alpha = 0.85.

Conclusions: The finding indicated that NOSIE-30 Persian version scale has the desirable validity and reliability for evaluating the nursing care of inpatients. Thus, nurses can promote mental health care by applying this scale in the psychiatric setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_156_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709770PMC
October 2020

Disaster Preparedness among Emergency Medical Service Providers: A Systematic Review Protocol.

Emerg Med Int 2020 26;2020:6102940. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, The University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

. The emergency medical service (EMS) provides first-line medical care to people who require urgent medical care in emergency and disaster situations. Preparedness is the most effective approach for the management of disaster risks, and it is essential for the emergency medical service (EMS) providers, such as paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMT), and other EMS personnel. This systematic review will explore evidence on the preparedness of emergency medical service providers in emergency and disaster situations by reviewing peer-reviewed journal articles. . This study will be conducted on peer-reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2019 to explore the preparedness of emergency medical service providers in emergencies and disasters. Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar will be thoroughly searched to identify published studies on emergency and disaster preparedness. The following keywords will be used for searching the databases: "Medical Technician," "Paramedic," "Emergency Paramedic," "Emergency Medicine Technician," "Emergency Medical Technician," "Emergency Prehospital Provider," "Emergency Preparedness," "Disaster Preparedness," "Hospital Preparedness," "Disaster management," "Disaster Competencies," "Disaster Readiness," "Disaster," "Disaster Role," "Readiness, Preparedness, Terrorist," "Mass Casualty Incident," "Major incidents," "Mass Casualty," "Mass Gathering," "CBRNE," "Weapons of Mass Destruction," and "Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive Event." . To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive review study has been conducted on the preparedness of emergency medical service providers in disaster situations. This study is the first attempt to address this gap. It will also explore the key dimensions in disaster preparedness of EMS providers and the strategies to enhance their preparedness. Identifying the key dimensions of disaster preparedness is the first step in designing and developing valid instruments to evaluate EMS provider's disaster preparedness and as well as adopting appropriate strategies to improve the level of their preparedness (This systematic review is registred in PROSPERO with CRD42020149689).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6102940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683168PMC
October 2020

The impact of interventions on management of frailty in hospitalized frail older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Geriatr 2020 12 3;20(1):526. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: One of the most challenging issues for the elderly population is the clinical state of frailty. Frailty is defined as a cumulative decline across psychological, physical, and social functioning. Hospitalization is one of the most stressful events for older people who are becoming frail. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of interventions focused on management of frailty in hospitalized frail older adults.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of research was conducted using the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, ProQuest, CINAHL, SCOPUS and Web of Science electronic databases for papers published between 2000 and 2019. Randomized controlled studies were included that were aimed at the management of frailty in hospitalized older adults. The outcomes which were examined included frailty; physical, psychological, and social domains; length of stay in hospital; re-hospitalization; mortality; patient satisfaction; and the need for post discharge placement.

Results: After screening 7976 records and 243 full-text articles, seven studies (3 interventions) were included, involving 1009 hospitalized older patients. The quality of these studies was fair to poor and the risk of publication bias in the studies was low. Meta-analysis of the studies showed statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups for the management of frailty in hospitalized older adults (ES = 0.35; 95% CI: 0. 067-0.632; z = 2.43; P < 0.015). However, none of the included studies evaluated social status, only a few of the studies evaluated other secondary outcomes. The analysis also showed that a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment unit intervention was effective in addressing physical and psychological frailty, re-hospitalization, mortality, and patient satisfaction.

Conclusions: Interventions for hospitalized frail older adults are effective in management of frailty. Multidimensional interventions conducted by a multidisciplinary specialist team in geriatric settings are likely to be effective in the care of hospitalized frail elderly. Due to the low number of RCTs carried out in a hospital setting and the low quality of existing studies, there is a need for new RCTs to be carried out to generate a protocol appropriate for frail older people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01935-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712609PMC
December 2020

Psychometric evaluation of the Farsi version of the diabetes foot self-care bahavior scale.

J Foot Ankle Res 2020 Nov 30;13(1):68. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Spiritual Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Diabetes foot self-care is one of the self-management behaviors of diabetic patients leading to a reduction in the incidence of pressure ulcers and amputation. Having a valid, reliable, simple and comprehensive tool is essential in measuring the self-care behavior of diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the diabetes foot self-care bahavior scale (DFSBS) in Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional and methodological study, 500 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited by convenience sampling. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (over 300 patients) and confirmatory factor analysis (over 200 patients). Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and its stability was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: In the exploratory factor analysis, two self-care factors related to feet and shoes were extracted which had specific values of 38.49 and 1.24, respectively, and were able to account for 56.22% of the total self-care variance of diabetes foot. Confirmatory factor analysis had excellent fit model. The internal consistency and ICC of the whole instrument were 0.83 and 0.791 (95% CI: 0.575-0.925; P < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: The Farsi version of DFSBS (F-DFSBS) has good validity and reliability, and due to its appropriate psychometric properties, this tool can be used in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13047-020-00437-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708251PMC
November 2020

Examination of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument in nurses.

J Tissue Viability 2021 Feb 5;30(1):116-120. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Spiritual Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Pressure ulcer development is a known indicator of the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards the prevention of pressure ulcers can lead to preventive care with suboptimal quality. There is no valid and reliable instrument in Iran to assess clinicians' attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention; therefore, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP) in Nurses.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 250 nurses were selected using a convenience sampling method. Face, content, and construct validity were examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Internal consistency was assessed using the McDonald's omega (ω), and reliability was assessed using the test-retest method.

Results: In the EFA, five factors of Competence, Responsibility, Perceived Consequences of Pressure Ulcers on Patients, Priority, and Confidence in the Effectiveness of Prevention were extracted that together explained 50.26% of the total variance. A McDonald's ω of 0.891 demonstrated the internal consistency of the total scale, and internal consistencies ranging from 0.70 to 0.86 were found for different dimensions of the instrument. In addition, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.876 was found that indicated the reliability (stability) of the total scale (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.736-0.963).

Conclusion: The Persian version of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP) has good validity and reliability in Iranian nurses and can be used in future clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtv.2020.11.001DOI Listing
February 2021
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