Sheila Rao - National Institutes of Health
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National Institutes of Health
Publications Authored By Sheila Rao
We now show a novel role for the MyD88-dependent interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor, ST2, in FHL. Expression of IL-33 and ST2 is upregulated in LCMV-infected Prf1(-/-) mice. Blockade of ST2 markedly improves survival of LCMV-infected Prf1(-/-) mice and reduces the severity of multiple disease parameters, including serum levels of IFNγ. This decrease in IFNγ corresponds to a reduction in both the frequency of IFNγ(+) LCMV-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells and the magnitude of IFNγ expression in these cells. These findings demonstrate that disruption of ST2 signaling in the murine model of FHL reduces T cell-mediated production of IFNγ and suggest a revised paradigm in which danger signals such as IL-33 are crucial amplifiers of immune dysregulation in FHL. Furthermore, this study provides evidence to support blockade of ST2 as a novel therapeutic strategy for FHL.
Using the Msn5 substrate Crz1 as a marker for Msn5-mediated protein export, we observe that deletions of NUP100 or NUP2 result in decreased rates of Crz1 export, while nup60Δ and nup42Δ mutants do not vary significantly from wild type. The decreased Msn5 export rate in nup100Δ was confirmed using Mig1-GFP as a transport substrate. A nup100ΔGLFG mutant shows defects in nuclear export kinetics similar to a nup100Δ deletion. Removal of FG-repeats from Nsp1 also decreases export kinetics, while a loss of Nup1 FXFGs does not. To confirm that our export data reflected functional differences in protein localization, we performed Crz1 transcription activation assays using a CDRE::LacZ reporter gene that is upregulated upon increased transcription activation by Crz1 in vivo. We observe that expression from this reporter increases in nup100ΔGLFG and nsp1ΔFGΔFXFG strains that exhibit decreased Crz1 export kinetics but resembles wild-type levels in nup1ΔFXFG strains that do not exhibit export defects. These data provide evidence that the export of Msn5 is likely mediated by a specific subset of FG-Nups and that the GLFG repeat domain of Nup100 is important for Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export.
Using macrophages and dendritic cells deficient in spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), we identified a novel pathway by which TNFα trafficking and secretion are regulated by Syk following stimulation with CpG DNA. In the absence of PLCγ2, a Syk substrate, or the calcium-responsive kinase calcium calmodulin kinase II, CpG-induced TNFα secretion was impaired. Forced calcium mobilization rescued the TNFα secretion defect in Syk-deficient cells. In contrast to its effect on TNFα, Syk deficiency did not affect IL-6 secretion, suggesting that Syk-dependent signals participate in differential sorting of cytokines, thus tailoring the cytokine response. Our data report a novel pathway for TNFα regulation and provide insight into non-transcriptional mechanisms for shaping cytokine responses.
However, infectious triggers are often not identified in patients with MAS, and some patients with HLH or MAS lack defects in cytotoxic T cell killing. Herein, we show that repeated stimulation of TLR9 produced an HLH/MAS-like syndrome on a normal genetic background, without exogenous antigen. Like previous HLH models, TLR9-induced MAS was IFN-γ dependent; however, unlike other models, disease did not require lymphocytes. We further showed that IL-10 played a protective role in this model and that blocking IL-10 signaling led to the development of hemophagocytosis. IL-10 may therefore be an important target for the development of effective therapeutics for MAS. Our data provide insight into MAS-like syndromes in patients with inflammatory diseases in which there is chronic innate immune activation but no genetic defects in cytotoxic cell function.
Circulating CD34+ cells were measured 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18 and 24 h after each dose. Blood colony-forming units were measured at baseline and 6 h after each dose. Common adverse events were diarrhoea, injection site erythema, perioral numbness, sinus tachycardia, headache, nausea, abdominal distention and injection site pain. No dose limiting toxicities occurred. When higher doses of plerixafor were administered, there was a trend towards higher peak CD34+ counts and CD34+ area under the curves, although these differences did not achieve statistical significance, perhaps due to intra-subject variability. Together, these data show that the higher doses of plerixafor evaluated in this study are reasonably safe and suggest that a larger study should be performed to definitively answer whether increased numbers of CD34+ cell are mobilized with higher doses of plerixafor.
Reduction in CTL killing persisted for days, was not due to changes in tumor expression of MHC class I, and was overcome by pulsing tumors with peptides recognized by tumor-reactive CTLs. Tumor-outgrowth experiments showed tumors grew faster in SCID mice when cocultures of tumor-reactive CTLs and bortezomib-treated tumors were injected compared with untreated tumors (tumor doubling time 3.1 and 10.6 d, respectively; p < 0.01), whereas tumors grew slower in mice receiving cocultures of NK cells and bortezomib-treated tumors compared with untreated tumors (11.8 d and 5.0 d, respectively; p < 0.01). These findings demonstrate bortezomib-treated tumors sensitized to NK cell apoptosis paradoxically acquire resistance to CTLs as a consequence of bortezomib altering proteasomal processing and presentation of tumor Ags.
Subjects also expelled a water-filled (50 cc) balloon or silicone-stool (FECOM) either lying or sitting and rated their stooling sensation.
When attempting to defecate in the lying position, a dyssynergic pattern was seen in 36% of subjects with empty rectum and 24% with distended rectum. When sitting, 20% showed dyssynergia with empty rectum and 8% with distended rectum. More subjects (p < 0.05) showed dyssynergia in lying position. When lying, 60% could not expel balloon and 44% FECOM. When sitting, fewer (p < 0.05) failed to expel balloon (16%) or FECOM (4%). FECOM expulsion time was quicker (p < 0.02). Stool-like sensation was more commonly (p < 0.005) evoked by FECOM than balloon.
In the lying position, one-third showed dyssynergia and one-half could not expel artificial stool. Whereas when sitting with distended rectum, most showed normal defecation pattern and ability to expel stool. Thus, body position, sensation of stooling and stool characteristics may each influence defecation. Defecation is best evaluated in the sitting position with artificial stool.