1,936 results match your criteria zones cartilage

Cell-associated type I collagen in nondegenerate and degenerate human articular cartilage.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Chondrocytes with abnormal morphology are present in nondegenerate human cartilage suggesting dedifferentiation to a fibroblastic phenotype and production of a mechanically-weakened matrix of unknown composition. We determined the relationship between in situ chondrocyte morphology, chondrocyte clusters, and levels of cell-associated collagen type I. Chondrocyte morphology in fresh femoral head cartilage from 19 patients with femoral neck fracture and collagen type I labelling was identified with Cell Tracker fluorescence and immunofluorescence, respectively, in axial/coronal orientations using confocal microscopy with images analysed by Imaris . Read More

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Selected Phase Separation Renders High Strength and Toughness to Polyacrylamide/Alginate Hydrogels with Large-Scale Cross-Linking Zones.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 20;13(21):25383-25391. Epub 2021 May 20.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Institute of Marine Biobased Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

High water content usually contradicts the mechanics for hydrogels, and achieving both characteristics is extremely challenging. Herein, a novel confined-chain-aggregation (CCA) strategy is developed to fabricate ultrastrong and tough hydrogels without sacrificing their inherent water capacity. Based on the popular polyacrylamide/alginate (PAAm/Alg) system with a double network (DN), a poor solvent exchange is induced once PAAm is fully cross-linked but prior to ionic cross-linking of alginate. Read More

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Hox11 expression characterizes developing zeugopod synovial joints and is coupled to postnatal articular cartilage morphogenesis into functional zones in mice.

Dev Biol 2021 May 16;477:49-63. Epub 2021 May 16.

Translational Research Program in Pediatric Orthopaedics, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Previous studies on mouse embryo limbs have established that interzone mesenchymal progenitor cells emerging at each prescribed joint site give rise to joint tissues over fetal time. These incipient tissues undergo structural maturation and morphogenesis postnatally, but underlying mechanisms of regulation remain unknown. Hox11 genes dictate overall zeugopod musculoskeletal patterning and skeletal element identities during development. Read More

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Minimally invasive surgery rib fracture fixation based on location and anatomical landmarks.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shijiazhuang Third Hospital, No. 15 Tiyu South Street, Shijiazhuang, 050011, Hebei, China.

Background: Rib fracture is closely related to thoracic injury with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the clinical effect of Zhang ZhiFei (ZZF) zoning method on the selection of incision and approach in minimally invasive surgery for rib fracture.

Methods: A total of 110 patients with rib fractures from July 2017 to July 2019 were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Characterization of anisotropic T2W signals from human knee femoral cartilage: The magic angle effect on a spherical surface.

Yuxi Pang

NMR Biomed 2021 Jul 8;34(7):e4535. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

The aim of the current study was to propose a generalized magic angle effect (gMAE) function for characterizing anisotropic T2W signals of human knee femoral cartilage with a spherical surface in clinical studies. A gMAE model function f(α, ε) was formulated for an orientation-dependent (ε) transverse T (i.e. Read More

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Exploration of changes in spatial chondrocyte organisation in human osteoarthritic cartilage by means of 3D imaging.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9783. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Using two-dimensional top-down view microscopy, researchers have recently described chondrocytes as being spatially arranged in distinct patterns such as strings, double strings, and small and large clusters. Because of the seeming association of these changes with tissue degeneration, they have been proposed as an image-based biomarker for early osteoarthritis (OA) staging. The aim of our study was to investigate the spatial arrangement of chondrocytes in human articular cartilage in a 3D fashion and to evaluate the 3D changes of these patterns in the context of local tissue destruction. Read More

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Reliability of the classification of cartilage and labral injuries during hip arthroscopy.

J Hip Preserv Surg 2020 Aug 6;7(3):448-457. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.

To determine interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities of the combination of classification systems, including the Beck and acetabular labral articular disruption (ALAD) systems for transition zone cartilage, the Outerbridge system for acetabular and femoral head cartilage, and the Beck system for labral tears. Additionally, we sought to determine interobserver and intraobserver agreements in the location of injury to labrum and cartilage. Three fellowship trained surgeons reviewed 30 standardized videos of the central compartment with one surgeon re-evaluating the videos. Read More

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Morphological Observations of the Bony Canal Structure of the Eustachian Tube in Elderly Human Cadavers With Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Principal Component Analysis.

J Int Adv Otol 2021 Mar;17(2):134-144

Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Anatomical information regarding the eustachian tube (ET) is limited; therefore, more detailed analytical data on ET structure is needed when planning surgical treatments involving the temporal bone.

Methods: We examined the bony structure of the middle ear and ET in 30 Japanese donor cadavers (71-97 years old at the time of death) both macroscopically and with cone-beam computed tomography. Each ET was reconstructed in 3 dimensions, and the structure and correlations of ET element measurements, identified via principal component analysis, were analyzed. Read More

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Masquelet-Induced Membrane Characteristics in Chicken Radii Bone Defects.

J Avian Med Surg 2021 Apr;35(1):51-59

Departments of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Rubião Júnior s/n, 18618970 Botucatu, Brazil.

This study evaluated the formation of a Masquelet-induced membrane created through the formation of segmental bone defects in the radii of 15 healthy domestic chickens. When the chickens were in a surgical plane of anesthesia, a 1.5-cm segmental bone defect was produced in the left radius, which was subsequently filled with a bone cement spacer during its pasty polymerization phase. Read More

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Metalloelastase-12 is involved in the temporomandibular joint inflammatory response as well as cartilage degradation by aggrecanases in STR/Ort mice.

Biomed Rep 2021 Jun 1;14(6):51. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8640, Japan.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is characterised by clinical symptoms involving both the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Disc internal derangement and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common forms of TMJD. Currently, the molecular process associated with degenerative changes in the TMJ is unclear. Read More

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Biochemical MRI With dGEMRIC Corresponds to 3D-CT Based Impingement Location for Detection of Acetabular Cartilage Damage in FAI Patients.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Mar 19;9(3):2325967120988175. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Anterior femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is associated with labral tears and acetabular cartilage damage in athletic and young patients. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is an imaging method for detecting early damage to cartilage.

Purpose: We evaluated the following questions: (1) What is the sensitivity and specificity of morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dGEMRIC for detecting cartilage damage? Do the mean acetabular and femoral dGEMRIC indices differ between (2) superior acetabular clock positions with and without impingement and (3) between cam- and pincer-type FAI?

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Read More

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3D computational anatomy of the scaphoid and its waist for use in fracture treatment.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Mar 24;16(1):216. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstr. 8, Davos, Switzerland.

Background: A detailed understanding of scaphoid anatomy helps anatomic fracture reduction, and optimal screw position. Therefore, we analysed (1) the size and shape variations of the cartilage and osseous surface, (2) the distribution of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and (3) if the vBMD values differ between a peripheral and a central screw pathway?

Methods: Forty-three fresh frozen hand specimens (17 females, 26 males) were analysed with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and dissected to compute a 3D-statistical osseous and cartilage surface model and a 3D-averaged vBMD model of the scaphoid. 3D patterns were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). Read More

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[To the study of the corpse tissues' impedance dynamics in the late postmortem period].

Sud Med Ekspert 2021 ;64(2):23-27

Acad. I.P. Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

The purpose of this work is to establish the dynamics of the electrical conductivity of various corpse tissues using impedance measurements to assess this method for diagnosing the time of death. It was studied the values of the tissue impedance from the corpses of 8 persons of both sexes and different ages (30-50 years) who died from various causes, with the known date of death. A Keysight U1731 parting was used with two probes, which are stainless steel needles with a diameter of 0. Read More

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Substrate Topography Regulates Differentiation of Annulus Fibrosus-Derived Stem Cells via CAV1-YAP-Mediated Mechanotransduction.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 03 30;7(3):862-871. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215007, China.

Regeneration of annulus fibrosus (AF) through tissue engineering techniques shows promise as a treatment for patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). Yet, it remains challenging because of the intrinsic heterogeneity of AF tissue and shortage of in-depth knowledge of its structure-function correlation. In the current study, we fabricated fibrous poly(ether carbonate urethane)urea (PECUU) scaffolds with various fiber sizes to mimic the microstructural feature of native AF and aimed to regulate the differentiation of AF-derived stem cells (AFSCs) by controlling the topographical cues of the scaffold. Read More

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RFX1-mediated CCN3 induction that may support chondrocyte survival under starved conditions.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Cellular communication network factor (CCN) family members are multifunctional matricellular proteins that manipulate and integrate extracellular signals. In our previous studies investigating the role of CCN family members in cellular metabolism, we found three members that might be under the regulation of energy metabolism. In this study, we confirmed that CCN2 and CCN3 are the only members that are tightly regulated by glycolysis in human chondrocytic cells. Read More

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A Field Study of Histologic and Bacteriologic Characterization of Femoral Head Separation and Femoral Head Necrosis.

Avian Dis 2020 12;64(4):571-581

Veterinary Diagnostic Pathology, LLC, 638 South Fort Valley Road, Fort Valley, VA 22652.

Histologic and bacteriologic features for groups of average 31-day-old broilers displaying three gross categories of femoral head alterations were documented. Categories included simple femoral head separation (FHS), femoral head transitional changes (FHT), and femoral head necrosis (FHN). Groups with grossly normal (NORM) femoral heads and cull birds with FHN and having gross signs of sepsis (Cull-FHN) were also included in the study. Read More

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December 2020

Osteoarthritic meniscal entheses exhibit altered collagen fiber orientation.

Connect Tissue Res 2021 Mar 1:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

: The knee menisci are vital for maintaining the stability of the joint, allowing for force distribution, and protecting the underlying articular cartilage during loading. Each meniscus is attached to the underlying bone via two ligamentous entheses composed of collagen fibers that are continuous throughout all four zones of the attachment: ligament, uncalcified fibrocartilage, calcified fibrocartilage, and subchondral bone. The collagen fibers of the meniscal entheses are important for proper functionality of the entheses, particularly in preventing meniscal extrusion which is a common hallmark of osteoarthritis. Read More

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Graphene Oxide-Doped Gellan Gum-PEGDA Bilayered Hydrogel Mimicking the Mechanical and Lubrication Properties of Articular Cartilage.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 04 15;10(7):e2001434. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, Pisa, 56127, Italy.

Articular cartilage (AC) is a specialized connective tissue able to provide a low-friction gliding surface supporting shock-absorption, reducing stresses, and guaranteeing wear-resistance thanks to its structure and mechanical and lubrication properties. Being an avascular tissue, AC has a limited ability to heal defects. Nowadays, conventional strategies show several limitations, which results in ineffective restoration of chondral defects. Read More

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Structural Morphology of Rabbit Patella and Suprapatella Cartilage by Microscopic MRI and Polarized Light Microscopy.

Cartilage 2021 Feb 8:1947603521990882. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA.

Objective: In order to appreciate the roles articular cartilage of sesamoid bones and sesamoid fibrocartilage play in anatomy and pathology, the articular cartilage of the patella ( = 4) and suprapatella ( = 4) (a sesamoid fibrocartilage) of 12 to 14 weeks old New Zealand rabbits were studied qualitatively and quantitatively.

Design/method: The intact knee joints and block specimens from the joints were imaged using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) at a 97.6-µm pixel resolution for the former and 19. Read More

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February 2021

Osteoarthritic Subchondral Bone Release Exosomes That Promote Cartilage Degeneration.

Cells 2021 Jan 28;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4059, Australia.

Altered subchondral bone and articular cartilage interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA); however, the mechanisms remain unknown. Exosomes are membrane-derived vesicles that have recently been recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. Herein, we investigated if OA subchondral bone derived exosomes alter transcriptional and bioenergetic signatures of chondrocytes. Read More

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January 2021

Histological Analysis of Cartilage Defects Repaired with an Autologous Human Stem Cell Construct 48 Weeks Postimplantation Reveals Structural Details Not Detected by T2-Mapping MRI.

Cartilage 2021 Jan 29:1947603521989423. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of T2-mapping MRI and correlation with histology for the evaluation of tissue repair quality following the first-in-human implantation of an autologous tissue engineered construct.

Design: We directly compared the results of T2-mapping MRI of cartilage repair tissue with the histology of a biopsy specimen from the corresponding area at 48 weeks postoperatively in 5 patients who underwent the implantation of a scaffold-free tissue-engineered construct generated from autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells to repair an isolated cartilage lesion. T2 values and histological scores were compared at each of 2 layers of equally divided halves of the repair tissue (upper and lower zones). Read More

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January 2021

Topographical and zonal patterns of T2 relaxation in osteoarthritic tibial cartilage by low- and high-resolution MRI.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 05 23;78:98-108. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Physics and Center for Biomedical Research, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to establish the topographical and zonal T2 patterns of multi-resolution MRI in medial tibial cartilage in a canine model of osteoarthritis (OA), initiated by the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection surgery, and studied after 8-weeks and 12-weeks post-surgery.

Methods: Articular cartilage from healthy, two stages of contralateral, and of OA knees were quantitatively imaged by the MRI T2 protocols at two imaging resolutions (100 and 17.6 μm/pixel). Read More

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Characterization of connective tissues using near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging.

Nat Protoc 2021 02 18;16(2):1297-1329. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for rapid, non-destructive and label-free assessment of biological materials. Compared to mid-infrared spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy excels in penetration depth, allowing intact biological tissue assessment, albeit at the cost of reduced molecular specificity. Furthermore, it is relatively safe compared to Raman spectroscopy, with no risk of laser-induced photothermal damage. Read More

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February 2021

Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Phosphatase 1 (Phlpp1) Suppresses Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 (Pth1r) Expression and Signaling During Bone Growth.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 May 8;36(5):986-999. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Endochondral ossification is tightly controlled by a coordinated network of signaling cascades including parathyroid hormone (PTH). Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and leucine rich repeat phosphatase 1 (Phlpp1) affects endochondral ossification by suppressing chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate, longitudinal bone growth, and bone mineralization. As such, Phlpp1 mice have shorter long bones, thicker growth plates, and proportionally larger growth plate proliferative zones. Read More

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Chondrocytes respond both anabolically and catabolically to impact loading generally considered non-injurious.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 03 17;115:104252. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States of America; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States of America. Electronic address:

We aimed to determine the longitudinal effects of low-energy (generally considered non-injurious) impact loading on (1) chondrocyte proliferation, (2) chondroprogenitor cell activity, and (3) EGFR signaling. In an in vitro study, we assessed 127 full-thickness, cylindrical osteochondral plugs of bovine cartilage undergoing either single, uniaxial unconfined impact loads with energy densities in the range of 1.5-3. Read More

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Editorial Commentary: Discovery: Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Cells Are Found in the White-White Zone of the Meniscus, But This Does Not Mean That These Tears Heal or Should Be Repaired.

Erik Hohmann

Arthroscopy 2021 01;37(1):266-267

More than 35 years ago, the concept of vascular zones of the meniscus was introduced. It has been shown that blood supply is limited to the peripheral 25% of the lateral and 30% of the medial meniscus. This obviously has repercussions with regard to the healing potential of meniscus tears, whether repaired or not. Read More

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January 2021

[Partial hip resurfacing-a critical analysis].

Orthopade 2021 Feb;50(2):119-123

Orthopädische Klinik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, DIAKOVERE Annastift, Anna-von Borries Str. 1-7, 30625, Hannover, Deutschland.

Background: Localized cartilage lesions or osteochondral defect areas of the hip joint often affect young patients with an active professional and personal live. There are multiple causes of these defect zones, but they determine the therapeutic options to some extent.

Therapeutic Options: In addition to the domain of joint-preserving, implant-free hip surgery, so-called mini-prostheses or partial implants represent another treatment strategy prior to the application of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Read More

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February 2021

Cell-Free Biomimetic Scaffold with Cartilage Extracellular Matrix-Like Architectures for Inductive Regeneration of Osteochondral Defects.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 12 2;6(12):6917-6925. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Digital Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 210006 Nanjing, China.

The development of a biomimetic scaffold designed to provide a native extracellular matrix (ECM)-like microenvironment is a potential strategy for cartilage repair. The ECM in native articular cartilage is structurally composed of three different architectural zones, i.e. Read More

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December 2020

Laser Capture Microdissection of Mouse Growth Plate Cartilage.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2245:105-119

Section on Growth and Development, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The ability to identify, isolate, and study pure populations of cells is critical for understanding normal physiology in organs and tissues, which involves spatial regulation of signaling pathways and interactions between cells with different functions, expression profiles, and lineages. Here, we focus on assessing the growth plate cartilage, composed of multiple functionally and histologically distinct zones, to investigate temporally and spatially dependent gene expression differences. In this chapter, we describe the method of laser capture microdissection to isolate chondrocytes from different zones of differentiation in the mouse growth plate cartilage for RNA isolation, and subsequent downstream applications, such as RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

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Tissue optical properties combined with machine learning enables estimation of articular cartilage composition and functional integrity.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Nov 19;11(11):6480-6494. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics, Yliopistonranta 1, Kuopio 70120, Finland.

Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients ( ) of biological tissues have shown significant potential in biomedical applications. Thus, they are effective parameters for the characterization of tissue integrity and provide vital information on the health of biological tissues. This study investigates the potential of optical properties ( ) for estimating articular cartilage composition and biomechanical properties using multivariate and machine learning techniques. Read More

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November 2020