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Risk assessment of labial bone perforation in the anterior mandibular region: a virtual immediate implant placement study.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 Jul 26;7(1):68. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: This study investigated the prevalence of labial bone perforation (LBP) related to the associated anatomic factors in anterior mandibular region using a virtual immediate implant placement procedure.

Methods: Series qualified CBCT images of 149 participants (894 teeth) were selected to analyze the assigned anatomical parameters, including concavity depth, concavity angle, torque, and deep bone thickness. Four classes of crestal and radicular dentoalveolar bone phenotypes (CRDAPs) of mandibular anterior teeth were categorized according to the thickness of dentoalveolar bone at both crestal and radicular zones. Read More

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Toward Corona virus Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Public Hospitals in Three Wollega Zones, Ethiopia.

Int J Gen Med 2021 15;14:3563-3573. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Departments of Pediatrics and Neonatology Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Pregnancy is an immune-suppressed state which makes pregnant women generally more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Extensive precautions have been recommended to avoid exposure to the virus. Knowledge and attitude toward the disease play an integral role in readiness to accept public health measures. Read More

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Genomic heterogeneity affects the response to Daylight Saving Time.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14792. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Michigan Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Circadian clocks control the timing of many physiological events in the 24-h day. When individuals undergo an abrupt external shift (e.g. Read More

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Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence following the first pandemic wave in UK healthcare workers in a large NHS Foundation Trust.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Background: We aimed to measure SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the first UK wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, explore risk factors associated with infection, and investigate the impact of antibody titres on assay sensitivity.

Methods: HCWs at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (STH) were prospectively enrolled and sampled at two time points. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were tested using an in-house assay for IgG and IgA reactivity against Spike and Nucleoprotein (sensitivity 99·47%, specificity 99·56%). Read More

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Climate of origin has no influence on drought adaptive traits and the drought responses of a widely distributed polymorphic shrub.

Tree Physiol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, University of Melbourne, 500 Yarra Boulevard, 3121 Richmond, Vic, Australia.

Climate has a significant influence on species distribution and the expression of functional traits in different plant species. However, it is unknown if subspecies with different climate envelopes also show differences in their expression of plant functional traits or if they respond differently to drought stress. We measured functional traits and drought responses of five subspecies of a widely distributed, cosmopolitan polymorphic shrub, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Read More

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Awareness and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Nigeria: A national pilot cross-sectional study.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211031718

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Background: There are no national data on hepatitis C virus awareness and burden among pregnant women to justify its routine screening.

Objectives: To investigate awareness, seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 159 pregnant women from antenatal clinics across six geopolitical zones in Nigeria consented to anti-hepatitis C virus testing which was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction technique. Read More

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Associations of changes in neighbourhood walkability with changes in walking activity in older adults: a fixed effects analysis.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jul 6;21(1):1323. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Supporting older adults to engage in physically active lifestyles requires supporting environments. Walkable environments may increase walking activity in older adults, but evidence for this subgroup is scarce, and longitudinal studies are lacking. This study therefore examined whether changes in neighbourhood walkability were associated with changes in walking activity in older adults, and whether this association differed by individual-level characteristics and by contextual conditions beyond the built environment. Read More

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The Burden of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C by Armed Conflict Setting: The Nigeria AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey, 2018.

Ann Glob Health 2021 Jun 25;87(1):53. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Against a background of security challenges, Nigeria conducted recently the largest population-based HIV survey in the world to ascertain the burden of the HIV disease in the country.

Objective: We evaluated the main outcomes of the survey and the level of success using participation/response indicators.

Methods: The survey was conducted from July-December 2018 by over 6,000 field staff across Nigeria in six consecutive webs, using two-stage cluster sampling. Read More

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Epidemiology of hypertension in selected towns of Wollega zones, Western Ethiopia, 2019: A community-based cross-sectional study.

SAGE Open Med 2021 12;9:20503121211024519. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Hypertension remains an emerging public health problem globally, particularly in developing countries. Age, income level, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, vegetables and fruit consumption, physical activity and chat chewing were some risk factors of hypertension. However, there are limited data on the epidemiology of hypertension in Ethiopia. Read More

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A geospatial based hotspot and regression analysis of abortion and stillbirth prevalence in Manipur, India.

Women Health 2021 Jul 20;61(6):599-608. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Manipur, India.

Safe delivery of healthy newborn from the state of pregnancy is one of the main objectives of prenatal health care. Women face maternal health issues due to lack of awareness, excessive stress during pregnancies and lack of appropriate maternal health-care services. The main objectives of this research study is to identify the abortion and stillbirth prevalent hotspot zones in Manipur from the year 2011 to 2018 and identification of statistically significant factors related to the cause of abortion and stillbirth. Read More

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DRASTIC model adjusted with lineament density to map groundwater vulnerability: a case study in Rania basin, Kurdistan, Iraq.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.

Groundwater has never been heavily relied on as a water source in Northern Iraq as it has been in the last two decades due to the rapid and often unplanned urbanization, industrial and agricultural projects. This paper attempts to present a concise groundwater vulnerability assessment of Rania basin to the local and regional planning authorities to ensure a more sustainable development in the area. The focus of the study is the Rania basin, which is a part of Dokan subbasin in northeast Iraq. Read More

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Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Labor Pain Management and Associated Factors among Skilled Birth Attendants Working at Hospitals Found in Central, West, and North Gondar Zones, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

Pain Res Manag 2021 13;2021:8835677. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Delivery of the infant into the arms of a conscious and pain-free mother is the most exciting and rewarding moment in maternal care services. Physical and mental care of women during delivery requires good knowledge and a positive insight to the needs and rights of the mothers. Little was known regarding skilled birth attendants' knowledge, attitude, and practice towards labor pain management in the study area. Read More

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Lung Ultrasound Can Predict the Clinical Course and Severity of COVID-19 Disease.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 08 3;47(8):2090-2096. Epub 2021 May 3.

Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compromises the lung in large numbers of people. The development of minimally invasive methods to determine the severity of pulmonary extension is desired. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of sequential lung ultrasound and to test the prognostic usefulness of this exam in a group of patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. Read More

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Disparities in HIV Clinical Stages Progression of Patients at Outpatient Clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 17;18(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

National AIDS Control Program (PNLS), HIV Program, Ministry of Health, Kinshasa 316, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Context: In this era of patient-centered care, it is increasingly important for HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs to customize their services according to patients' clinical stage progression and other risk assessments. To enable such customization of HIV care and treatment delivery, the research evidence explaining factors associated with patients' clinical stages is needed.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to produce such scientific evidence by analyzing the most recent data for patients at outpatient clinics in the provinces of Kinshasa and Haut-Katanga and to examine the patient characteristics associated with WHO stages of disease progression. Read More

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Phthalates exposure during pregnancy a study in a Mexican cohort.

Toxicol Rep 2021 12;8:1040-1045. Epub 2021 May 12.

Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, Decanato de Ciencias de la Salud, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

A prospective cohort study was conducted to measure the concentration levels of three primary phthalate metabolites (MBP, MEHP, MEP) during pregnancy in a group of women from the State of Mexico. The urinary concentration levels of the three phthalate primary metabolites were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The geometric mean and 95 % CI for MBP was 20. Read More

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Types and spatial contexts of neighborhood greenery matter in associations with weight status in women across 28 U.S. communities.

Environ Res 2021 08 19;199:111327. Epub 2021 May 19.

Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Excess body weight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. Studies have identified neighborhood greenery as supportive of healthy weight. However, few have considered plausible effect pathways for ecosystem services (e. Read More

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Magnitude and Determinants of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Indian Diabetic Patients Undergoing Telescreening in India.

Telemed J E Health 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Research Department, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

To determine the magnitude, determinants, and public health issues related to diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India using 2019 data from a for-profit telescreening program. Digital retinal images were captured using a nonmydriatic fundus camera and transferred via the telescreening program to a reading center. Ophthalmologists trained in DR image reading created the DR status reports. Read More

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Thoracic CTA in infants and young children: Image quality of dual-source CT (DSCT) with high-pitch spiral scan mode (turbo flash spiral mode) with or without general anesthesia with free-breathing technique.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Aug 20;56(8):2660-2667. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: To determine whether diagnostic quality thoracic computed tomography angiography (CTA) studies can be obtained without general anesthesia (GA) in infants and young children using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) with turbo flash spiral mode (TFSM) and free-breathing technique.

Materials And Methods: All consecutive infants and young children (≤ 6 years old) who underwent thoracic CTA studies from January 2018 to October 2020 for suspected congenital thoracic disorders were categorized into two groups: with GA (Group 1) and without GA (Group 2). All thoracic CTA studies were performed on a DSCT scanner using TFSM and free-breathing technique. Read More

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Is PSA density of the peripheral zone as a useful predictor for prostate cancer in patients with gray zone PSA levels?

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 28;21(1):472. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Urology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, 282 Monwha-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon, 35015, Republic of Korea.

Background: Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used in screening tests for prostate cancer. As the low specificity of PSA results in unnecessary and invasive prostate biopsies, we evaluated the clinical significance of various PSAs and PSA density (PSAD) related to peripheral zones in patients with gray zone PSA level (4-10 ng/mL).

Methods: A total of 1300 patients underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy from 2014 to 2019. Read More

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Hacking biofilm developed in a structured-bed reactor (SBRRIA) with integrated processes of nitrogen and organic matter removal.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2021 Sep 17;44(9):1841-1851. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Biological Processes Laboratory, São Carlos School of Engineering (EESC), University of São Paulo (USP), Av. João Dagnone 1100, Santa Angelina, São Carlos, São Paulo, 13563-120, Brazil.

Biomass samples from a structured-bed reactor subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration (SBRRIA) were analyzed to investigate the bacterial community shift along with the changes in the C/N ratio. The C/N ratios tested were 7.6 ± 1. Read More

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September 2021

Examining changes in sleep duration associated with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: Who is sleeping and who is not?

medRxiv 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in social isolation and reports of insomnia. However, reports of changes in sleep duration and associated factors are few.

Methods: Data were from an online survey of adults recruited via social media that included a question asking whether the respondent slept less or more after the onset of the pandemic. Read More

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Malaria infection is common and associated with perinatal mortality and preterm delivery despite widespread use of chemoprevention in Mali: an observational study 2010 to 2014.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: In malaria-endemic areas, pregnant women and especially first-time mothers are more susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria diagnosis is often missed during pregnancy, since many women with placental malaria remain asymptomatic or have submicroscopic parasitemia, masking the association between malaria and pregnancy outcomes Severe maternal anemia and low birthweight deliveries are well-established sequelae, but few studies have confirmed the relationship between malaria infection and severe outcomes like perinatal mortality in high transmission zones.

Methods: Pregnant women of any gestational age enrolled at antenatal clinic into a longitudinal cohort study in Ouelessebougou, Mali, an area of high seasonal malaria transmission. Read More

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Prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: An analysis of data from the 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic Health Survey and Malaria Indicators Survey.

Authors:
Fabiola V Moshi

PLoS One 2021 6;16(4):e0249337. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Nursing Management and Education, School of Nursing and Public Health, The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania.

Background: Early initiation of the antenatal clinic is vital as it allows early detection, management, and prevention of problems that may occur during pregnancy time. The analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania.

Method: The study used data from the 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicators Survey (2015-16 TDHS-MIS). Read More

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Effect of limb oversizing on the risk of type Ib endoleak in patients after endovascular aortic repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We assessed the association between the degree of limb oversizing and the risk of type Ib endoleak (TIBEL) in different types of iliac landing zones after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with bifurcated and limb endografts in an academic center. The main exposure was the degree of limb oversizing. Read More

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[What are the benefits of patient-specific reconstruction in total hip replacement?]

Orthopade 2021 Apr 9;50(4):287-295. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Klinik für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, 69118, Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Background: The success of primary total hip replacement (THR) is predominately determined by the primary stability of the implant and the restoration of the patient-specific joint biomechanics. The three-dimensional (patho-) anatomy, size, geometry, and shape of the acetabulum and proximal femur is highly variable in patients with advanced hip osteoarthritis. Accurate preoperative planning is an essential prerequisite for all replacement procedures. Read More

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Dynamic versus static ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography in eyes with diabetic retinopathy: a pilot prospective cross-sectional study.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(3):409-415. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, China.

Aim: To analyze differences in ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) findings between dynamic and static images of eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 28 eyes of 28 patients with DR undergoing UWFA. A series of UWFA images acquired from each patient were converted into a time-lapse video and used as a dynamic image. Read More

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An image segmentation technique with statistical strategies for pesticide efficacy assessment.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(3):e0248592. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, California State University, Monterey Bay, Seaside, California, United States of America.

Image analysis is a useful technique to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment for weed control. In this study, we address two practical challenges in the image analysis. First, it is challenging to accurately quantify the efficacy of a treatment when an entire experimental unit is not affected by the treatment. Read More

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Mid-term results of a stemless ceramic on polyethylene shoulder prosthesis - A prospective multicentre study.

Shoulder Elbow 2021 Feb 14;13(1):67-77. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Sports Clinic Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.

Introduction: Early reports of stemless shoulder arthroplasty have shown promising clinical and radiological outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report on the mid-term results of an implant that utilises a ceramic humeral head.

Methods: A prospective, consecutive, multicentre study of stemless shoulder prosthesis with a minimum of four years of follow-up was conducted between August 2009 and May 2012. Read More

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February 2021

Geomatics and epidemiology: Associating oxidative stress and greenness in urban areas.

Environ Res 2021 06 10;197:110999. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Agriculture, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Torino, 10095, Grugliasco (TO), Italy. Electronic address:

Green spaces may benefit human health mainly by mitigating noise and air pollution, promoting physical or social activities and improving mental health. Based on the influence that green space exposure seems to exert on Public Health and using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated, the association between oxidative stress (OS) and green exposure in children. Overall, 207 subjects (10-13 yrs) living in Torino (NW- Italy) were involved in this study. Read More

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The association between body mass index and recovery from post-traumatic stress disorder after the nuclear accident in Fukushima.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5330. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obesity share common risk factors; however, the effect of obesity on recovery from PTSD has not been assessed. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and recovery from PTSD after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We analyzed 4356 men and women with probable PTSD aged ≥ 16 years who were living in evacuation zones owing to the radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan. Read More

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