16,011 results match your criteria youth autism

Social attention as a cross-cultural transdiagnostic neurodevelopmental risk marker.

Autism Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Neurological Disorders Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the structure and age-related stability of social attention in English and Arabic-speaking youth and to compare social attention between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), other developmental disabilities (DD), and typically-developing controls. Eye-tracking data were collected from US (N = 270) and Qatari (N = 242) youth ages 1-17, including children evaluated for possible ASD. Participants viewed 44 stimuli from seven social paradigms. Read More

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Imbalanced social-communicative and restricted repetitive behavior subtypes of autism spectrum disorder exhibit different neural circuitry.

Commun Biol 2021 May 14;4(1):574. Epub 2021 May 14.

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Rare Diseases, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Social-communication (SC) and restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are autism diagnostic symptom domains. SC and RRB severity can markedly differ within and between individuals and may be underpinned by different neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms. Modeling SC-RRB balance could help identify how neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms map onto such phenotypic heterogeneity. Read More

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'Investigating longitudinal associations between parent reported sleep in early childhood and teacher reported executive functioning in school-aged children with autism'.

Sleep 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Montreal Neurological Institute, Azrieli Centre for Autism Research, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Up to 80% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience sleep disturbance. Poor sleep impairs executive functioning (EF), a lifelong difficulty in ASD. Evidence suggests EF difficulties in ASD are exacerbated by poor sleep. Read More

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ADHD and autism symptoms in youth: a network analysis.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departamento de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Previous research investigating the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (henceforth, autism) symptoms in population samples have relied on latent variable modeling in which averaged scores representing dimensions were derived from observed symptoms. There are no studies evaluating how ADHD and autism symptoms interact at the level of individual symptom items.

Methods: We aimed to address this gap by performing a network analysis on data from a school survey of children aged 6-17 years old (N = 7,405). Read More

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Problematizing Perceptions of STEM Potential: Differences by Cognitive Disability Status in High School and Postsecondary Educational Outcomes.

Socius 2021 Jan-Dec;7. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA.

The STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) potential of youth with cognitive disabilities is often dismissed through problematic perceptions of STEM ability as natural and of youth with cognitive disabilities as unable. National data on more than 15,000 adolescents from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 first suggest that, among youth with disabilities, youth with medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have the highest levels of STEM achievement, and youth with learning or intellectual disabilities typically have the lowest. Undergraduates with medicated ADHD or autism appear to be more likely to major in STEM than youth without cognitive disabilities, and youth with autism have the most positive STEM attitudes. Read More

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Correction: Attentive brain states in infants with and without later autism.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 10;11(1):277. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK.

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Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Children and Youth with Autism: A Systematic Review.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Majority of youth with autism are taking two or more medications (psychotropic or nonpsychotropic) simultaneously, also known as polypharmacy (Wink et al.). Yet the efficacy and the potential outcomes of polypharmacy in this population are widely unknown. Read More

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A Multistate Trial of an Early Surveillance Program for Autism Within General Practices in Australia.

Front Pediatr 2021 23;9:640359. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Cooperative Research Centre for Living With Autism (Autism CRC), The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, QLD, Australia.

The early detection of developmental conditions such as autism is vital to ensure children can access appropriate and timely evidence-based supports, services, and interventions. Children who have undetected developmental conditions early in life are more likely to develop later health, developmental, learning, and behavioral issues, which in turn can have a cumulative effect over the life course. The current protocol describes a multi-site, cluster randomized control trial comparing a developmental surveillance pathway for autism to usual care, using opportunistic visits to general practitioners (GPs). Read More

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"Camouflaging" by adolescent autistic girls who attend both mainstream and specialist resource classes: Perspectives of girls, their mothers and their educators.

Autism 2021 May 9:13623613211012819. Epub 2021 May 9.

UCL Institute of Education, UK.

Lay Abstract: There are a range of different types of schools that support children diagnosed with autism, including mainstream schools (where pupils are taught in general classrooms) and specialist schools (where pupils are exclusively taught alongside other children with special educational needs). An intermediary option involves resource bases attached to mainstream schools, which enable children to transition between mainstream and specialist educational settings. Autistic girls use a variety of strategies to negotiate the expectations and demands of school life. Read More

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Intervention Services for Autistic Adults: An ASDEU Study of Autistic Adults, Carers, and Professionals' Experiences.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Dpto. Personalidad, Evaluación Y Tratamiento Psicológicos, INICO - Instituto Universitario de Integración en La Comunidad University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

The Autism Spectrum Disorders in the European Union (ASDEU) survey investigated local services' use experiences of autistic adults, carers and professionals with interventions for autistic adults. The majority of the 697 participants experienced recommended considerations prior to deciding on intervention and during the intervention plan and implementation. Psychosocial interventions were the most commonly experienced interventions, while pharmacological interventions NOT recommended for core autistic symptoms were reported by fairly large proportions of participants. Read More

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The Association of the Medicaid 1915(c) Home and Community-Based Services Waivers with Emergency Department Utilization among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, 90 Hope Drive, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.

Using the 2008-2013 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files, this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the effect of Medicaid home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver programs on emergency department (ED) utilizations among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our study showed that the annual ED utilization rates were 13.5% and 18. Read More

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Buspirone for the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Down Syndrome: 3 Cases.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; Lurie Center for Autism, Lexington, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Oak Creek Franklin Joint School District, Oak Creek, WI.

Objective: Reports on the pharmacologic treatment of anxiety, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are lacking.

Methods: We present the case histories of 1 adolescent and 2 young adults with DS and the treatment course of comorbid GAD with buspirone.

Results: Treatment with buspirone was safe and well-tolerated and resulted in sustained improvement in symptoms of anxiety for a minimum of 2 years in all 3 cases. Read More

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Cognitive and Electrophysiological Correlates of Working Memory Impairments in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Neuroscience & Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Room 3.310 Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL , UK.

Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a single gene disorder associated with working Memory (WM) impairments. The aim of this study was to investigate P300 event-related potential (ERP) associated with WM in NF1. Sixteen adolescents with NF1 were compared with controls on measures of WM and EEG was recorded during a WM nback task. Read More

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Effect of the TEACCH program on the rehabilitation of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 30;138:420-427. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Population and Health Research Center, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effect of Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) intervention on the rehabilitation of preschool children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in China.

Methods: Sixty children with ASD were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 30) or the control group (n = 30). The intervention group received TEACCH training plus Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) for six months, while the control group received only DTT. Read More

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Translational evidence for the Inflammatory Response System (IRS)/Compensatory Immune Response System (CIRS) and neuroprogression theory of major depression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4:110343. Epub 2021 May 4.

Deakin University, School of Medicine, IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, severe and disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with a heterogenous aetiology. Among the most widely recognized etiological models, immunopathogenesis is a predominant one. Numerous studies have demonstrated aberrant levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain of patients with MDD. Read More

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The science of humanity and the humanity of science: Perspectives on Ed Zigler's contributions to developmental psychopathology and the study of all children.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 May;33(2):441-452

Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

We present this article as a testament to Ed Zigler's commitment to science in the service of humanity and to policy based on conceptually compelling theory and methodologically rigorous science. In doing so, we highlight ways that Ed's universal and inclusive developmental world view, early training as a behaviorist, exacting scientific standards, concern for others, and appreciation of his own roots and upbringing all transformed the way that many different groups of people of all ages and backgrounds are studied, viewed, and intervened with by researchers, policy makers, and society at large. Ed's narrative of development rather than defect, universality rather than difference, and holistic rather than reductionist continues to compel us in the quest for a kinder, more inclusive, and enabling society. Read More

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Neuropsychological Profile, Emotional/Behavioral Problems, and Parental Stress in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.

Background: The aim of our study was to trace a specific neuropsychological profile, to investigate emotional-behavioral problems and parental stress in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Level 1/High functioning (ASD-HF), Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) disorders and to highlight similarities and differences among the three groups.

Methods: We retrospectively collected the data from a total of 62 subjects with ASD-HF ( = 19) ADHD ( = 21), SLD ( = 22) and 20 typical development. All the participants underwent neuropsychological standardized test for the evaluation of cognitive profile (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition-WISC-IV), behavioral and emotional problems (Child Behavior CheckList CBCL), and parental stress (Parental Stress Index Short Form-PSI-SF). Read More

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Tic disorders in children and adolescents: does the clinical presentation differ in males and females? A report by the EMTICS group.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic Universitari, c/ Villarroel 170, Section 11 Floor 3, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Tic disorders have a strong male predominance, with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1 in Tourette syndrome (TS) and 2:1 in persistent tic disorders. In other neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the disparity in sex distribution has been partially related to differences in symptom presentation between males and females. In tic disorders, however, little research has been conducted on this topic, probably due to the limited access to large samples with a significant proportion of females. Read More

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Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Japan, 2009 to 2019.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219234. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Child and Adolescent Developmental Psychiatry, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan.

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The Role of Acceptance in the Transition to Adulthood: A Multi-Informant Comparison of Practitioners, Families, and Youth with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department or Counselor Education, Emporia State University, 1601 State Street, Emporia, KS, 66801, USA.

This study investigated the role of acceptance during the transition process among autistic young adults, parents, and practitioners. Six focus groups were run and thematic analysis was used to identify four themes: Youth on the autism spectrum discussed transition as a time where Self-Advocacy and Self-Acceptance were salient. Both youth and parents discussed the Lack of Understanding and Acceptance they experience. Read More

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"I Met Someone Like Me!": Autistic Adolescents and Their Parents' Experience of the KONTAKT® Social Skills Group Training.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Curtin School of Allied Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

This study captured the experiences of 35 autistic adolescents and their parents after completing a 16-session variant of social skills group training KONTAKT® (ACTRN12617001117303). Semi-structured interviews explored participants' and relatives' perceptions of KONTAKT® and associated social outcomes. Adolescents were classified as either high (HR, n = 23) or low (LR, n = 12) responders based on the primary outcome effects during the previous trial. Read More

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Temporal trends in annual incidence rates for psychiatric disorders and self-harm among children and adolescents in the UK, 2003-2018.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 05 3;21(1):229. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Mental Health & Safety, Division of Psychology & Mental Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine, and Health, The University of Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: There has been growing concern in the UK over recent years that a perceived mental health crisis is affecting children and adolescents, although published epidemiological evidence is limited.

Methods: Two population-based UK primary care cohorts were delineated in the Aurum and GOLD datasets of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We included data from 9,133,246 individuals aged 1-20 who contributed 117,682,651 person-years of observation time. Read More

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Neurodiversity and Intelligence: Evaluating the Flynn Effect in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Counseling and Psychology in Education, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA.

The Flynn Effect (FE) among child and adolescent populations indicates that intelligence scores improve by about three points per decade. Using nine years of data from the National Database for Autism Research, this study examined whether general intelligence changed significantly for nine cohorts with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 671). Analyses demonstrated a downward trend such that Cohen's d from 1998 to 2006 was - 0. Read More

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Social Cognition in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:658823. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

The purpose of our study was to perform a comparative analysis of social cognition in children and adolescents with epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific learning disorder (SLD) and in typical development (TD) controls. The secondary aim was to relate social cognition to some clinical and demographic characteristics. Our work is a transversal observational study. Read More

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Operative list of genes associated with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders based on database review.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Apr 28:103623. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, UMR3571 CNRS, Université de Paris, F-75015, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) has made tremendous progress during the last few decades with the identification of more than 1500 genes associated with conditions such as intellectual disability and autism. The functional roles of these genes are currently studied to uncover the biological mechanisms influencing the clinical outcome of the mutation carriers. To integrate the data, several databases and curated gene lists have been generated. Read More

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An Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis: Behavioral Treatments for Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Washington, Seattle.

Objective: Behavioral interventions are well established treatments for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, insight into moderators of treatment outcome is limited.

Method: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis [IPDMA], including data of randomized controlled behavioral intervention trials for individuals with ADHD<18 years. Read More

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Brainhack: Developing a culture of open, inclusive, community-driven neuroscience.

Neuron 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Graduate Division of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Brainhack is an innovative meeting format that promotes scientific collaboration and education in an open, inclusive environment. This NeuroView describes the myriad benefits for participants and the research community and how Brainhacks complement conventional formats to augment scientific progress. Read More

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Atypical Arousal Regulation in children with Autism but not with ADHD as indicated by pupillometric measures of Locus Coeruleus Activity.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Autism Research and Intervention Center of Excellence, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-University, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: Atypical arousal regulation may explain slower mean reaction times (MRT) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing controls (TD). The Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine system (LC-NE) underlies arousal regulation and adapts its activity to the utility of a task. LC-NE tonic and phasic activity are indexed by baseline pupil size (BPS) and stimulus-evoked pupillary response (SEPR). Read More

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Month of Birth and Mental Disorders: A Population-Based Study and Validation Using Global Meta-Analysis.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Objective: Month of birth (MOB) is associated with specified mental disorders (MDs). However, whether these relationships extend to all MDs remains unclear. We investigate the association using a population-based cohort study and a meta-analysis. Read More

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