153,143 results match your criteria young children

Machine learning model on heart rate variability metrics identifies asymptomatic toddlers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy.

Physiol Meas 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

GYNOB, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington, UNITED STATES.

Objective Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) seems to be prominently neurotropic, there are some reports of involvement of other organs, particularly the heart. Of special concern are those children exposed prenatally to ZIKV and born without microcephaly or other congenital anomalies. Electrocardiogram (ECG) - derived heart rate variability (HRV) metrics represent an attractive, low-cost, widely deployable tool for early identification of developmental functional alterations in exposed children born without such overt clinical symptoms. Read More

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Effects of soil lead exposure and land use characteristics on neurodevelopment among children under 3 years of age in northern Taiwan.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 4;286:117288. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Neuroscience Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) exposure increases the risks of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Child-specific activities and land use scenarios may lead to elevated opportunities for Pb exposure through the soil. Therefore, we investigated hair and fingernail Pb concentrations among young children in northern Taiwan, in relation to soil Pb pollution and land use characteristics. Read More

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Proton beam therapy for children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs): JASTRO and JSPHO Guidelines.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Apr 16;98:102209. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Nagaizumi, Shizuoka, Japan.

Children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are often treated with a multidisciplinary approach. This includes use of radiotherapy, which is important for local control, but may also cause adverse events in the long term, including second cancer. The risks for limited growth and development, endocrine dysfunction, reduced fertility and second cancer in children and AYAs are reduced by proton beam therapy (PBT), which has a dose distribution that decreases irradiation of normal organs while still targeting the tumor. Read More

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Rapid Detection of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus A and B by Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR.

J Virol Methods 2021 May 10:114171. Epub 2021 May 10.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Victoria Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of acute respiratory disease worldwide, especially in young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated an RSV Surveillance Pilot program that aims to perform worldwide RSV surveillance, requiring the development of reliable and rapid molecular methods to detect and identify RSV. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay developed for simultaneous detection of both A and B subtypes of RSV was included as part of this program. Read More

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Teenage pregnancy as a risk factor for placental abruption: Findings from the prospective Japan environment and children's study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251428. Epub 2021 May 13.

Fukushima Regional Center for the Japan Environmental and Children's Study, Fukushima, Japan.

Objective: Placental abruption is a significant obstetric complication that affects both maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The present study examined the effect of maternal age on the incidence of placental abruption.

Methods: We used data of singleton pregnancies from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which was a prospective birth cohort study conducted between January 2011 and March 2014 across 15 regional centers in Japan. Read More

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Evaluation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Positive Psychosocial Constructs in Children and Adolescent/Young Adults with Cancer: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer are a vulnerable population in whom improvements in psycho-oncology care would be valuable. We previously published a scoping review exploring what is known about positive psychological constructs in this population. A key finding was that evidence-based patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were needed to standardize psycho-oncology research. Read More

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Strengthening CAMHS and reducing child and adolescent mental health inequalities in Europe.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Protection, IPH, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 1, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.

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ACG Clinical Report and Recommendations on Transition of Care in Children and Adolescents With Hereditary Polyposis Syndromes.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):638-646

1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 4St Mark's Hospital Polyposis Registry, Harrow, United Kingdom; 5Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children and the Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 6Center for Behavioral Health, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH, USA; 7Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 8Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Transition of care (TOC) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic gastrointestinal disorders has received increased attention, especially in those with inflammatory bowel disease. AYAs with hereditary polyposis syndromes are a heterogeneous group of patients with overlapping and complex medical needs. These patients are particularly vulnerable because of the risk of loss of continuity of care and subsequent poor disease outcomes. Read More

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Structural Vulnerability and Occupational Injury Among Latinx Child Farmworkers in North Carolina.

New Solut 2021 May 13:10482911211017556. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Family and Community Medicine-Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Children as young as ten-years-old can legally work as hired farm labor in the United States. In North Carolina, many hired children are part of the Latinx farmworker community. Agriculture is a hazardous industry, and child workers experience high rates of injury, illness, and mortality. Read More

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Supporting treatment adherence regimens in children with epilepsy: A randomized clinical trial.

Epilepsia 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of a family-tailored education and problem-solving behavioral intervention, Supporting Treatment Adherence Regimens (STAR), in young children (2-12 years old) with new onset epilepsy compared to an attention control (i.e., education only [EO]) intervention. Read More

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Short- and Long-Term Effects of Superhero Media on Young Children's Risk-Taking Behaviors.

J Pediatr Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Objective: Unintentional injuries, the leading cause of death for American children, are caused by a range of psychosocial factors, including risk behavior. One factor that may impact child risk-taking is modeling of superhuman risk-taking from superhero media, both immediately following superhero exposure and based on lifetime exposure and engagement.

Methods: Fifty-nine 5-year-olds were randomly assigned to view either a 13-min age-appropriate superhero television show or a comparable nonsuperhero show. Read More

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Averting a public health crisis in England's coastal communities: a call for public health research and policy.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Plymouth Institute of Health and Care Research (PIHR), University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.

Coastal communities have received little attention in the public health literature, perhaps because our mental maps tend to associate socio-economic deprivation and health inequalities with inner cities. Mapping a range of key health indicators at small area level, this paper reveals a distinct core-periphery pattern in disease prevalence, with coastal communities experiencing a high burden of ill health across almost all conditions included in the Quality and Outcomes Framework dataset. Other sources suggest poor outcomes for children and young people living in coastal areas. Read More

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A Recombinant BCG Vaccine Is Safe and Immunogenic in Neonatal Calves and Reduces the Clinical Disease Caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:664212. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) constitutes a major health burden, causing millions of hospitalizations in children under five years old worldwide due to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Despite decades of research, licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV are not available. Development of vaccines against hRSV targeting young infants requires ruling out potential vaccine-enhanced disease presentations. Read More

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The Impact on Service Collaboration of Co-location of Early Childhood Services in Tasmanian Child and Family Centres: An Ethnographic Study.

Int J Integr Care 2021 Apr 29;21(2):14. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Social Sciences, University of Tasmania; Private Bag 22, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia.

Introduction: There is a global trend towards place-based initiatives (PBIs) to break the cycle of disadvantage and promote positive child development. Co-location is a common element of these initiatives and is intended to deliver more coordinated services for families of young children. This paper examines how co-locating early childhood services (ECS) from health and education in Child and Family Centres (CFCs) has impacted collaboration between services. Read More

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A Case of Acute Gonococcal Conjunctivitis in an Unusual Age Group.

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan;13(25):137-140

Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Nepal.

Introduction: This is a case of case of acute gonococcal conjunctivitis in a 2.5 years old female child.

Case: A 2. Read More

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January 2021

Low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the Austrian capital after an early governmental lockdown.

Sci Rep 2021 05 12;11(1):10158. Epub 2021 May 12.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Health, Vienna, Austria.

We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a large, well-described representative Viennese cohort after an early governmental lockdown with respect to the occurrence of symptoms and household transmission. Participants of the LEAD Study, a population-based cohort study from Vienna, Austria, were invited along with their household members (April 20th to May20th 2020). Sera were analyzed using anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay including a neutralization test as a confirmatory assay. Read More

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Long-Term Care of the Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipient.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Pediatric kidney transplant recipients are distinguished from adult recipients by the need for many decades of graft function, the potential effect of CKD on neurodevelopment, and the changing immune environment of a developing human. The entire life of an individual who receives a transplant as a child is colored by their status as a transplant recipient. Not only must these young recipients negotiate all of the usual challenges of emerging adulthood (transition from school to work, romantic relationships, achieving independence from parents), but they must learn to manage a life-threatening medical condition independently. Read More

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Complete atrioventricular block due to ingestion of Visine eye drops.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 12;14(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Visine eye drops are a commonly used topical drug for irritation of the eye. The active component in Visine eye drops is tetrahydrozoline. Tetrahydrozoline is an imidazoline derivative found in several ophthalmic and nasal decongestants. Read More

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One cross-sectional investigation revealed that non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae could be identified more frequently in elderly Chinese people.

Vaccine 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the serotype distribution and drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients of all ages in Zhongjiang county, Sichuan province, where the young children have just begun to vaccinate the PCV13 in private sector.

Methods: Serotypes were determined for 387 isolates of S. pneumoniae by Quellung reaction. Read More

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Nahua biocultural richness: an ethnoherpetological perspective.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2021 May 12;17(1):33. Epub 2021 May 12.

Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad, IIES, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro 8701, 58190, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

Background: Mexico harbours one of the greatest biocultural diversities of the world, where multiple social and natural elements and systems form complex networks of interactions in which both culture and nature are mutually influenced. Biocultural states and processes are studied by ethnosciences, among them ethnoherpetology, which seeks understanding material and non-material expressions of the interactions between humans, amphibians, and reptiles. Herpetofauna has been part of the magic-religious world and source of goods for Mesoamerican cultures. Read More

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Metabolic differences among newborns born to mothers with a history of leukemia or lymphoma.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 12:1-8. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: Leukemia and lymphoma are cancers affecting children, adolescents, and young adults and may affect reproductive outcomes and maternal metabolism. We evaluated for metabolic changes in newborns of mothers with a history of these cancers.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on California births from 2007 to 2011 with linked maternal hospital discharge records, birth certificate, and newborn screening metabolites. Read More

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Pool Testing as a Strategy for Avoidance of SARS-CoV-2 Outbreaks in Schools (STACAMA): Protocol for a Feasibility Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research and Development Campus Regensburg (WECARE), Hospital St. Hedwig of the Order of St. John and University of Regensburg, Regensburg, DE.

Background: School closures are a widely implemented strategy for limiting infection spread in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The negative impact on children and young people is increasingly apparent, however.

Objective: We aim to evaluate the feasibility of an infection monitoring program in schools to enable targeted quarantining to replace school closures. Read More

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Development and validation of the Italian version of the "Parental perceptions of silver diamine fluoride dentinal color changes" questionnaire.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM), Unit of Dental Care for Special Needs Patients and Paediatric Dentistry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The original English version of the questionnaire "Parental perceptions of SDF's dentinal color changes" was used among parents in the New York City metropolitan area.

Aim: To develop an Italian version of the questionnaire and to assess its validity.

Design: The construct validity and the internal consistency were assessed in a convenience sample of Italian parents of 251 young healthy children seen at the University of Bologna and Pisa. Read More

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Medical Treatment Following Violence Exposure in a National Sample of Children and Youth.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219250. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire.

Importance: Children and youth experience high rates of exposure to violence, which is associated with later poor physical and mental health outcomes. The immediate injuries and impacts from these exposures are often treated in emergency departments and medical offices.

Objective: To characterize, using nationally representative data, the size and characteristics of the child and youth population being seen by medical authorities in the wake of violence exposure. Read More

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Prevalence and genetic characterization of Dientamoeba fragilis in asymptomatic children attending daycare centers.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 7;63:e39. Epub 2021 May 7.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Departmento de Parasitologia, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

In order to provide additional data on the prevalence and genetic diversity of Dientamoeba fragilis in human populations, we conducted a study in children from low-income communities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Fecal samples from daycare center attendees up to 6 years old (n=156) and staff members (n=18) were submitted to PCR and sequencing of D. fragilis as well as to microscopic examination for the presence of other intestinal parasites. Read More

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Quality Improvement Methodology Optimizes Infliximab Levels in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 May-Jun;6(3):e400. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Achieving and maintaining target serum trough infliximab levels improves outcomes in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Our goal was to improve adherence to an infliximab therapy guideline. The primary aim was to increase the percentage of patients with infliximab levels ≥5 μg/mL and results checked in the last 12 months from 73% to ≥80% from July 2017 to January 2018. Read More

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Injuries in mothers hospitalised for domestic violence-related assault: a whole-population linked data study.

BMJ Open 2021 May 11;11(5):e040600. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: To retrospectively assess a cohort of mothers for characteristics of injuries that they have suffered as a result of family and domestic violence (FDV) and which have required admission to a hospital during both the intrapartum and postpartum periods.

Design And Setting: Retrospective, whole-population linked data study of FDV in Western Australia using the Western Australia birth registry from 1990 to 2009 and Hospital Morbidity Data System records from 1970 to 2013.

Main Outcome Measures: Number of hospitalisations, and mode, location and type of injuries recorded, with particular focus on the head and neck area. Read More

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Between the City and the Farm: Food Environments in Artisanal Mining Communities in Upper Guinea.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 12:1-34. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a widespread livelihood in low- and middle-income countries, however many in ASM communities face high levels of poverty and malnutrition. The food environments in ASM communities have non-agricultural rural characteristics that differ from those in urban and subsistence rural areas examined in much existing food environment literature.

Design: We examine these complex external and personal food environments in ASM communities via a study using qualitative and quantitative methods. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and future self-rated health: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 12;21(1):895. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Occupational Medicine, Danish Ramazzini Centre, University Research Clinic, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400, Herning, Denmark.

Background: Negative life events (re) occurring during childhood is often described as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and may have long-lasting negative effects on health. Previous studies on the association between ACEs and self-rated health (SRH) have primarily been focusing on chronic diseases in elderly, non-Scandinavian populations using a cross-sectional design. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between ACEs and SRH in early adulthood and to investigate if disadvantageous health-behavioral strategies explain the association between ACEs and SRH. Read More

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Associations between Inhaled Corticosteroid in the First 6 Years of Life and Obesity Related Traits.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Copenhagen, 4321, COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Kobenhavn, Denmark;

Rationale Infants and young children might be particularly susceptible to the potential clinical side effects of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on body mass index (BMI), adiposity rebound and body composition, but this has rarely been studied in long-term studies in this age-group. Objective To determine the association between ICS exposure in the first 6 years of life on BMI, adiposity rebound, body composition and blood lipid levels. Methods Children from the two Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood mother-child cohorts were included. Read More

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