347 results match your criteria yellowstone ecosystem

People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 4072.

Archaeological and paleoecological evidence shows that by 10,000 BCE, all human societies employed varying degrees of ecologically transformative land use practices, including burning, hunting, species propagation, domestication, cultivation, and others that have left long-term legacies across the terrestrial biosphere. Yet, a lingering paradigm among natural scientists, conservationists, and policymakers is that human transformation of terrestrial nature is mostly recent and inherently destructive. Here, we use the most up-to-date, spatially explicit global reconstruction of historical human populations and land use to show that this paradigm is likely wrong. Read More

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Effects of supplemental feeding on the fecal bacterial communities of Rocky Mountain elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249521. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America.

Supplemental feeding of wildlife is a common practice often undertaken for recreational or management purposes, but it may have unintended consequences for animal health. Understanding cryptic effects of diet supplementation on the gut microbiomes of wild mammals is important to inform conservation and management strategies. Multiple laboratory studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiome for extracting and synthesizing nutrients, modulating host immunity, and many other vital host functions, but these relationships can be disrupted by dietary perturbation. Read More

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Quantifying energetic costs and defining energy landscapes experienced by grizzly bears.

J Exp Biol 2021 Mar 30;224(Pt 6). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236, USA.

Animal movements are major determinants of energy expenditure and ultimately the cost-benefit of landscape use. Thus, we sought to understand those costs and how grizzly bears () move in mountainous landscapes. We trained captive grizzly bears to walk on a horizontal treadmill and up and down 10% and 20% slopes. Read More

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Diet overlap among non-native trout species and native cutthroat Trout ( in two U.S. ecoregions.

Ecol Evol 2021 Mar 7;11(6):2782-2795. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Biology Ball State University Muncie IN USA.

The invasion of freshwater ecosystems by non-native species can constitute a significant threat to native species and ecosystem health. Non-native trouts have long been stocked in areas where native trouts occur and have negatively impacted native trouts through predation, competition, and hybridization. This study encompassed two seasons of sampling efforts across two ecoregions of the western United States: The Great Basin in summer 2016 and the Yellowstone River Basin in summer 2017. Read More

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Land use-induced spillover: a call to action to safeguard environmental, animal, and human health.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 04 6;5(4):e237-e245. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Center for Large Landscape Conservation, Bozeman, MT, USA.

The rapid global spread and human health impacts of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, show humanity's vulnerability to zoonotic disease pandemics. Although anthropogenic land use change is known to be the major driver of zoonotic pathogen spillover from wildlife to human populations, the scientific underpinnings of land use-induced zoonotic spillover have rarely been investigated from the landscape perspective. We call for interdisciplinary collaborations to advance knowledge on land use implications for zoonotic disease emergence with a view toward informing the decisions needed to protect human health. Read More

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Elk migration influences the risk of disease spillover in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

J Anim Ecol 2021 05 26;90(5):1264-1275. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, Bozeman, MT, USA.

Wildlife migrations provide important ecosystem services, but they are declining. Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), some elk Cervus canadensis herds are losing migratory tendencies, which may increase spatiotemporal overlap between elk and livestock (domestic bison Bison bison and cattle Bos taurus), potentially exacerbating pathogen transmission risk. We combined disease, movement, demographic and environmental data from eight elk herds in the GYE to examine the differential risk of brucellosis transmission (through aborted foetuses) from migrant and resident elk to livestock. Read More

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Patterns and processes of pathogen exposure in gray wolves across North America.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 12;11(1):3722. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

The presence of many pathogens varies in a predictable manner with latitude, with infections decreasing from the equator towards the poles. We investigated the geographic trends of pathogens infecting a widely distributed carnivore: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). Specifically, we investigated which variables best explain and predict geographic trends in seroprevalence across North American wolf populations and the implications of the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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February 2021

Reintroduced wolves and hunting limit the abundance of a subordinate apex predator in a multi-use landscape.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 11 11;287(1938):20202202. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand.

Top-down effects of apex predators are modulated by human impacts on community composition and species abundances. Consequently, research supporting top-down effects of apex predators occurs almost entirely within protected areas rather than the multi-use landscapes dominating modern ecosystems. Here, we developed an integrated population model to disentangle the concurrent contributions of a reintroduced apex predator, the grey wolf, human hunting and prey abundances on vital rates and abundance of a subordinate apex predator, the puma. Read More

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November 2020

Relationship between Microorganisms Inhabiting Alkaline Siliceous Hot Spring Mat Communities and Overflowing Water.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 11 10;86(23). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Land Resources and Environmental Sciences Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA

The compositions of Octopus Spring and Mushroom Spring (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA) microbial mats have been thoroughly studied, but the compositions of the effluent waters that flow above the mats have not. In this study, cells in the mats and overflowing waters of both springs were investigated at multiple sites where spp. are the dominant cyanobacteria (ca. Read More

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November 2020

The Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory and size at maturity/maximum size relationships for salmonid populations occupying flowing waters.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jan 20;98(1):44-49. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Nampa, Idaho, USA.

The slowing of growth as fish age has long been believed to be related to energy expenditure for maturation, and this rationalization has been used to explain why, across nearly all fish species, the relationship between size at first maturity (L ) and maximum (L ) or asymptotic length (L ) is relatively constant. In contrast, the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) postulates that (a) fish growth slows because as they grow, their two-dimensional ability to extract oxygen from the water diminishes relative to their three-dimensional weight gain, and (b) they can only invest energy for maturation if oxygen supply at their size at first maturity (Q ) exceeds that needed for maintenance metabolism (Q ). It has been reported previously across dozens of marine fish species that the relationship between Q and Q is linear and, further, it can be mathematically converted to L vs. Read More

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January 2021

Microbial biomarkers reveal a hydrothermally active landscape at Olduvai Gorge at the dawn of the Acheulean, 1.7 Ma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 10 15;117(40):24720-24728. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139.

Landscape-scale reconstructions of ancient environments within the cradle of humanity may reveal insights into the relationship between early hominins and the changing resources around them. Many studies of Olduvai Gorge during Pliocene-Pleistocene times have revealed the presence of precession-driven wet-dry cycles atop a general aridification trend, though may underestimate the impact of local-scale conditions on early hominins, who likely experienced a varied and more dynamic landscape. Fossil lipid biomarkers from ancient plants and microbes encode information about their surroundings via their molecular structures and composition, and thus can shed light on past environments. Read More

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October 2020

The propagule doesn't fall far from the tree, especially after short-interval, high-severity fire.

Ecology 2021 01 9;102(1):e03194. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706, USA.

Subalpine forests that historically burned every 100-300 yr are expected to burn more frequently as climate warms, perhaps before trees reach reproductive maturity or produce a serotinous seedbank. Tree regeneration after short-interval (<30-yr) high-severity fire will increasingly rely on seed dispersal from unburned trees, but how dispersal varies with age and structure of surrounding forest is poorly understood. We studied wind dispersal of three conifers (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa, and Pinus contorta var. Read More

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January 2021

Group density, disease, and season shape territory size and overlap of social carnivores.

J Anim Ecol 2021 01 1;90(1):87-101. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, USA.

The spatial organization of a population can influence the spread of information, behaviour and pathogens. Group territory size and territory overlap and components of spatial organization, provide key information as these metrics may be indicators of habitat quality, resource dispersion, contact rates and environmental risk (e.g. Read More

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January 2021

Mini-Metagenomics and Nucleotide Composition Aid the Identification and Host Association of Novel Bacteriophage Sequences.

Adv Biosyst 2019 11 16;3(11):e1900108. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

A broad spectrum of metagenomic and single cell sequencing techniques have become popular for dissecting environmental microbial diversity, leading to the characterization of thousands of novel microbial lineages. In addition to recovering bacterial and archaeal genomes, metagenomic assembly can also produce genomes of viruses that infect microbial cells. Because of their diversity, lack of marker genes, and small genome size, identifying novel bacteriophage sequences from metagenomic data is often challenging, especially when the objective is to establish phage-host relationships. Read More

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November 2019

Effect of bioaugmentation on digestate metal concentrations in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235508. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin, Poland.

This study examined the influence of bioaugmentation on metal concentrations (aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and zinc) in anaerobically digested sewage sludge. To improve the digestion efficiency, bioaugmentation with a mixture of wild-living Archaea and Bacteria (MAB) from Yellowstone National Park, USA, was used. The total concentration of all metals was higher in the digestate than in the feedstock. Read More

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September 2020

The Fire and Tree Mortality Database, for empirical modeling of individual tree mortality after fire.

Sci Data 2020 06 22;7(1):194. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Wildland fires have a multitude of ecological effects in forests, woodlands, and savannas across the globe. A major focus of past research has been on tree mortality from fire, as trees provide a vast range of biological services. We assembled a database of individual-tree records from prescribed fires and wildfires in the United States. Read More

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Rewilding in the face of climate change.

Conserv Biol 2021 02 1;35(1):155-167. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Florida Institute for Conservation Science, Melrose, FL, 32666, U.S.A.

Expansion of the global protected-area network has been proposed as a strategy to address threats from accelerating climate change and species extinction. A key step in increasing the effectiveness of such expansion is understanding how novel threats to biodiversity from climate change alter concepts such as rewilding, which have underpinned many proposals for large interconnected reserves. We reviewed potential challenges that climate change poses to rewilding and found that the conservation value of large protected areas persists under climate change. Read More

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February 2021

Phylum-level diversity of the microbiome of the extremophilic basidiomycete fungus Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert: An island of biodiversity in a thermal soil desert.

Microbiologyopen 2020 08 1;9(8):e1062. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

JQ Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA.

We used high-throughput DNA sequencing methods combined with bio-geochemical profiles to characterize the internal environment and community structure of the microbiome of the basidiomycete fungus Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert from soils within a geothermal feature of Yellowstone National Park. Pisolithus arhizus is unique in that it forms closed fruiting bodies that sequester visible sulfur within. Read More

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Landscape- and local-scale habitat influences on occurrence and detection probability of Clark's nutcrackers: Implications for conservation.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(5):e0233726. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone species and an obligate mutualist of the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), is rapidly declining throughout its range. Evidence suggests this decline is leading to a downward trend in local nutcracker populations, which would in-turn decrease whitebark pine regeneration. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate temporal variation in nutcracker habitat use as a function of whitebark pine and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) habitat, at local and landscape scales, (2) develop metrics for predicting when whitebark pine communities require intervention to sustain nutcracker visitation, and (3) test McKinney et al. Read More

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September 2020

Caribou in the cross-fire? Considering terrestrial lichen forage in the face of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) expansion.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(4):e0232248. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Caribou Program, fRI Research, Hinton, Alberta, Canada.

Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has become an invasive forest pest of mature pine in western North America as it spreads beyond its former endemic range. Management actions such as timber harvest can reduce the spread of MPB but may affect species of conservation concern like woodland caribou. Our goal was to inform MPB management within caribou ranges by exploring the impacts of MPB on caribou habitat-focusing on terrestrial lichens, an important winter food for caribou. Read More

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Reply to Craine: Bison redefine what it means to move to find food.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 04 21;117(17):9171-9172. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071.

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Chronic wasting disease undermines efforts to control the spread of brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

Ecol Appl 2020 09 5;30(6):e02129. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming, 82070, USA.

Wildlife diseases pose a substantial threat to the provisioning of ecosystem services. We use a novel modeling approach to study the potential loss of these services through the imminent introduction of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to elk populations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). A specific concern is that concentrating elk at feedgrounds may exacerbate the spread of CWD, whereas eliminating feedgrounds may increase the number of elk on private ranchlands and the transmission of a second disease, brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Read More

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September 2020

The curse of observer experience: Error in noninvasive genetic sampling.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(3):e0229762. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California, United States of America.

Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is commonly used to study elusive or rare species where direct observation or capture is difficult. Little attention has been paid to the potential effects of observer bias while collecting noninvasive genetic samples in the field, however. Over a period of 7 years, we examined whether different observers (n = 58) and observer experience influenced detection, amplification rates, and correct species identification of 4,836 gray wolf (Canis lupus) fecal samples collected in Idaho and Yellowstone National Park, USA and southwestern Alberta, Canada (2008-2014). Read More

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Biogeography of American Northwest Hot Spring A/B-Lineage Populations.

Front Microbiol 2020 24;11:77. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, United States.

Previous analyses have shown how diversity among unicellular cyanobacteria inhabiting island-like hot springs is structured relative to physical separation and physiochemical differences among springs, especially at local to regional scales. However, these studies have been limited by the low resolution provided by the molecular markers surveyed. We analyzed large datasets obtained by high-throughput sequencing of a segment of the photosynthesis gene from samples collected in hot springs from geothermal basins in Yellowstone National Park, Montana, and Oregon, all known from previous studies to contain populations of A/B'-lineage . Read More

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February 2020

How climate impacts the composition of wolf-killed elk in northern Yellowstone National Park.

J Anim Ecol 2020 06 27;89(6):1511-1519. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA.

While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets of climate interact with prey abundance and demography to influence the composition of predator kills. Over 20 winters, we monitored 17 wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park and recorded the sex, age and nutritional condition of kills of their dominant prey-elk-in both early and late winter periods when elk are in relatively good and relatively poor condition, respectively. Read More

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Individual variation creates diverse migratory portfolios in native populations of a mountain ungulate.

Ecol Appl 2020 07 31;30(5):e2106. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Fish and Wildlife Ecology and Management Program, Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, 59717, USA.

Ecological theory and empirical studies have demonstrated population-level demographic benefits resulting from a diversity of migratory behaviors with important implications for ecology, conservation, and evolution of migratory organisms. Nevertheless, evaluation of migratory portfolios (i.e. Read More

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Short-Term Stable Isotope Probing of Proteins Reveals Taxa Incorporating Inorganic Carbon in a Hot Spring Microbial Mat.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 03 18;86(7). Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA

The upper green layer of the chlorophototrophic microbial mats associated with the alkaline siliceous hot springs of Yellowstone National Park consists of oxygenic cyanobacteria ( spp.), anoxygenic spp., and several other anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. Read More

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Improved genetic identification of acipenseriform embryos with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus.

J Fish Biol 2020 Feb 6;96(2):486-495. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Center for Fisheries Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

We produced pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus embryos at five pre-hatch developmental stages and isolated and quantified genomic DNA from four of the stages using four commercial DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA prepared using the kit that produced the largest yields and concentrations were used for microsatellite DNA analyses of 10-20 embryos at each of the five developmental stages. We attempted to genotype the hatchery-produced embryos at 19 microsatellite loci and confirmed reliable genotyping by comparing the microsatellite genotypes to those of known parents. Read More

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February 2020

Migrating bison engineer the green wave.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 12 21;116(51):25707-25713. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071.

Newly emerging plants provide the best forage for herbivores. To exploit this fleeting resource, migrating herbivores align their movements to surf the wave of spring green-up. With new technology to track migrating animals, the Green Wave Hypothesis has steadily gained empirical support across a diversity of migratory taxa. Read More

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December 2019

Vertical Distribution and Diversity of Phototrophic Bacteria within a Hot Spring Microbial Mat (Nakabusa Hot Springs, Japan).

Microbes Environ 2019 Dec 2;34(4):374-387. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Phototrophic microbial mats are assemblages of vertically layered microbial populations dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms. In order to elucidate the vertical distribution and diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in a hot spring-associated microbial mat in Nakabusa (Japan), we analyzed the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences of the microbial mat separated into five depth horizons, and correlated them with microsensor measurements of O and spectral scalar irradiance. A stable core community and high diversity of phototrophic organisms dominated by the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs, Roseiflexus castenholzii and Chloroflexus aggregans were identified together with the spectral signatures of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) a and c absorption in all mat layers. Read More

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December 2019