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Exposure to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles enhances Toll-like Receptor 4 signal transduction and overcomes endotoxin tolerance in vitro and in vivo.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Emerging studies indicate hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) exhibit modest immunogenicity to elicit innate immune response which might involve Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. This study was proposed to elucidate how HANPs direct over TLR4 signal activity in macrophage in response to TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study for the first time reveals that HANPs themselves can induce TLR4 endocytosis and activate pathways both of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which potentially trigger the production of inflammatory cytokine by macrophage. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine through 6 Months.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

From the State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., S.B., W.V.K., D.C., Q.Y., P.L., P.R.D., W.C.G., K.U.J.) - both in New York; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.) and Fundacion INFANT, Buenos Aires (F.P.P.) - all in Brazil; Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.); Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., X.X.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance, and Risk Management (D.B.T., S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (Ö.T., U.Ş.) and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance, and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T., S.M.).

Background: BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine encoding a prefusion-stabilized, membrane-anchored severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) full-length spike protein. BNT162b2 is highly efficacious against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and is currently approved, conditionally approved, or authorized for emergency use worldwide. At the time of initial authorization, data beyond 2 months after vaccination were unavailable. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of enteric disease in children using a low-cost specimen preservation method.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:JCM0170321. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

M.A. SANTE (Meilleur Accès aux Soins de Santé) , Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of death in children under five. Molecular methods exist for the rapid detection of enteric pathogens; however, the logistical costs of storing stool specimens limit applicability. We sought to demonstrate that dried filter paper specimen preservation can identify diarrheal diseases causing significant morbidity among children in resource constrained countries. Read More

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September 2021

Porcine deltacoronavirus and its prevalence in China: a review of epidemiology, evolution, and vaccine development.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is one of the most important enteropathogenic pathogens, and it causes enormous economic losses to the global commercial pork industry. PDCoV was initially reported in Hong Kong (China) in 2012 and subsequently emerged in swine herds with diarrhea in Ohio (USA) in 2014. Since then, it has spread to Canada, South Korea, mainland China, and several Southeast Asian countries. Read More

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September 2021

Tendon transfer in foot drop: a systematic review.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Marienkrankenhaus Soest, Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Widumgasse 5, 59494, Soest, Germany.

Introduction: Foot drop is a disorder that impairs walking and leads to tripping and falling. Tendon transfer (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Association Between Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Pregnant Women and Preterm Birth.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2125308. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Importance: Preterm birth remains a leading cause of perinatal mortality and lifelong morbidity worldwide. The cause of most preterm births is unknown, although several infectious processes have been implicated.

Objective: To assess whether human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a frequent infection among women of childbearing age, is associated with preterm birth. Read More

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September 2021

SWIMmeR: an R-based software to unveiling crucial nodes in complex biological networks.

Bioinformatics 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute for Systems Analysis and Computer Science "Antonio Ruberti", National Research Council, Rome, Italy.

Summary: We present SWIMmeR, an open-source version of its predecessor SWIM (SWitchMiner) that is a network-based tool for mining key (switch) genes that are associated with intriguing patterns of molecular co-abundance and may play a crucial role in phenotypic transitions in various biological settings. SWIM was originally written in MATLAB®, a proprietary programming language that requires the purchase of a license to install, manipulate, operate, and run the software. Over the last years, SWIM has sparked a widespread interest within the scientific community thanks to the promising results obtained through its application in a broad range of phenotype-specific scenarios, spanning from complex diseases to grapevine berry maturation. Read More

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September 2021

Outcomes of Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Following Septic Arthritis of the Native Knee: A Case-Control Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Sep;103(18):1685-1693

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Septic arthritis of the native knee often results in irreversible joint damage leading to the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of the present study was to examine the intermediate-term risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), aseptic revision, and reoperation following primary TKA in patients with a history of septic arthritis of the native knee as compared with primary TKA performed for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 215 primary TKAs performed from 1971 to 2016 at a single institution in patients with a history of septic arthritis of the native knee. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in bariatric surgery.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 ;92:397-405

Morbid obesity (BMI>40 kg/m2) is a challenging health condition with an increasing incidence in the last decades. Conventional therapy which consists in diet and lifestyle interventions, along with pharmaceutical therapy, has a limited effect on morbidly obese patients. In this context, bariatric surgery is the most effective approach, leading to significant weight loss, along with other beneficial effects like type 2 diabetes resolution or improvement of cardiovascular status. Read More

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January 2021

B Cell Receptor Repertoire Analysis in Malaria-Naive and Malaria-Experienced Individuals Reveals Unique Characteristics of Atypical Memory B Cells.

mSphere 2021 Sep 15:e0072621. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antoniogrid.267309.9, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Malaria, caused by parasites of the genus, is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality globally. Chronic Plasmodium falciparum exposure affects the B cell compartment, leading to the accumulation of atypical memory B cells (atMBCs). IgM-positive (IgM) and IgG atMBCs have not been compared in-depth in the context of malaria, nor is it known if atMBCs in malaria-experienced individuals are different from phenotypically similar B cells in individuals with no known history of exposure. Read More

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September 2021

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Outpatient Management.

Am Fam Physician 2021 Sep;104(3):253-262

Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

Approximately one-half of patients with alcohol use disorder who abruptly stop or reduce their alcohol use will develop signs or symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The syndrome is due to overactivity of the central and autonomic nervous systems, leading to tremors, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, hallucinations, anxiety, and agitation. If untreated or inadequately treated, withdrawal can progress to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, delirium tremens, and death. Read More

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September 2021

A critical review of the environmental impacts of manufactured nano-objects on earthworm species.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 31;290:118041. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

The presence of manufactured nano-objects (MNOs) in various consumer or their (future large-scale) use as nanoagrochemical have increased with the rapid development of nanotechnology and therefore, concerns associated with its possible ecotoxicological effects are also arising. MNOs are releasing along the product life cycle, consequently accumulating in soils and other environmental matrices, and potentially leading to adverse effects on soil biota and their associated processes. Earthworms, of the group of Oligochaetes, are an ecologically significant group of organisms and play an important role in soil remediation, as well as acting as a potential vector for trophic transfer of MNOs through the food chain. Read More

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Giant pulmonary hydatid cyst in children.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Pulmonology B Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana; Faculty of Medicine, El Manar University, Tunis.

Hydatid disease is still endemic in Tunisia. It is mostly seen in young people less than 40 years and children are affected in one third of cases. The lungs are the predominant location in children. Read More

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September 2021

A Multicenter Study of Viral Aetiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children in Chinese Mainland.

Virol Sin 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to describe the aetiology of viral infection of pediatric CAP in Chinese mainland. During November 2014 to June 2016, the prospective study was conducted in 13 hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

The EHA Research Roadmap: Blood Coagulation and Hemostatic Disorders.

Hemasphere 2021 Oct 10;5(10):e643. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

n 2016, the European Hematology Association (EHA) published the EHA Roadmap for European Hematology Research aiming to highlight achievements in the diagnostics and treatment of blood disorders, and to better inform European policy makers and other stakeholders about the urgent clinical and scientific needs and priorities in the field of hematology. Each section was coordinated by 1-2 section editors who were leading international experts in the field. In the 5 years that have followed, advances in the field of hematology have been plentiful. Read More

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October 2021

The EHA Research Roadmap: Immune-based Therapies for Hematological Malignancies.

Hemasphere 2021 Oct 10;5(10):e642. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, Cancer Center Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

n 2016, the European Hematology Association (EHA) published the EHA Roadmap for European Hematology Research aiming to highlight achievements in the diagnostics and treatment of blood disorders, and to better inform European policy makers and other stakeholders about the urgent clinical and scientific needs and priorities in the field of hematology. Each section was coordinated by 1-2 section editors who were leading international experts in the field. In the 5 years that have followed, advances in the field of hematology have been plentiful. Read More

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October 2021

Tension and trauma releasing exercises for people with multiple sclerosis - An exploratory pilot study.

J Tradit Complement Med 2021 Sep 8;11(5):383-389. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

The Danish MS Society, Valby, Denmark.

Background And Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by increasing symptom burden leading many people with MS to use complementary treatments. TRE (Tension and Trauma Releasing Exercises) is a mind-body therapeutic method aiming to release muscle tension and stress. People with MS (PwMS) have reported benefits from TRE, but no scientific studies have investigated the effects of TRE on PwMS. Read More

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September 2021

Systematic Review of Serum Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury.

Cureus 2021 Aug 10;13(8):e17056. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is responsible for the majority of trauma-related deaths and is a leading cause of disability. It is characterized by an inflammatory process involved in the progression of secondary brain injury. TBI is measured by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with scores ranging from 15-3, demonstrating mild to severe brain injury. Read More

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Recent Advances in Photosensitizers as Multifunctional Theranostic Agents for Imaging-Guided Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer.

Theranostics 2021 26;11(18):9054-9088. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, South Africa.

In recent years tremendous effort has been invested in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment with an overall goal of improving cancer management, therapeutic outcome, patient survival, and quality of life. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), which works on the principle of light-induced activation of photosensitizers (PS) leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) mediated cancer cell killing has received increased attention as a promising alternative to overcome several limitations of conventional cancer therapies. Compared to conventional therapies, PDT offers the advantages of selectivity, minimal invasiveness, localized treatment, and spatio-temporal control which minimizes the overall therapeutic side effects and can be repeated as needed without interfering with other treatments and inducing treatment resistance. Read More

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Disease and economic burden increase with systemic lupus erythematosus severity 1 year before and after diagnosis: a real-world cohort study, United States, 2004-2015.

Lupus Sci Med 2021 Sep;8(1)

BioPharmaceuticals Medical, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

Objective: To assess the economic burden of patients with SLE by disease severity in the USA 1 year before and after diagnosis.

Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with a first SLE diagnosis (index date) between January 2005 and December 2014 were identified from administrative commercial claims data linked to electronic medical records (EMRs). Disease severity during the year after diagnosis was classified as mild, moderate, or severe using claims-based algorithms and EMR data. Read More

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September 2021

A comparison of immediate release and delayed release cysteamine in 17 patients with nephropathic cystinosis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Sep 14;16(1):387. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of General Pediatrics, Metabolic Diseases, University of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Background: Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare and severe metabolic disease leading to an accumulation of cystine in lysosomes which especially harms kidney function. A lifelong therapy with the aminothiol cysteamine can delay the development of end-stage renal disease and the necessity of kidney transplantation. The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of immediate-release and delayed-release cysteamine on cystine and cysteamine levels as well as assessing the onset of adverse effects. Read More

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September 2021

An Updated Review for the Diabetic Wound Healing Systems.

Curr Drug Targets 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

KES College, Nicosia. Cyprus.

Background & Objective: Diabetes is a global health problem associated with millions of deaths; the most common of diabetes complications is that wounds of diabetic patients tend to heal more slowly or non-healed at all, leading to undesirable facts. Diabetic wounds if become chronic and infected could provoke lower extremities amputation, sepsis even death. Hence, early detection, careful examination, debridement, cleaning, and prevention or controlling the infection of diabetic wounds are important factors for the successful outcome of the case. Read More

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September 2021

Outcomes of Arch Reintervention for Recurrent Coarctation in Young Children.

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objectives:  To evaluate the outcomes of reintervention for postrepair recoarctation in young children.

Methods:  Between January 2011 and December 2020, all consecutive patients aged ≤3 years who were treated for postrepair recoarctation were included. Recoarctations were classified into two morphological types by three-dimensional imaging. Read More

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September 2021

[Overdose from a patch].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Sep 14;146(18):1207-1210. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Klinik für Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Oberhausen.

History And Clinical Findings:  We present the case of an 89-year-old patient with impaired consciousness for whom the emergency services were called. She was soporose and showed a pronounced generalized muscle rigidity. Due to a third-party history the incorrect use of a fentanyl patch was found out to be at cause. Read More

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September 2021

Non-relapse mortality among patients diagnosed with chronic GVHD: An updated analysis from The Chronic GVHD Consortium.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. To better understand patients at highest risk for non-relapse mortality (NRM), we analyzed patient, transplant, and chronic GVHD-related variables, risk factors, and causes of non-relapse deaths in an updated cohort of 937 subjects enrolled on two prospective, longitudinal observational studies through the Chronic GVHD Consortium. The median follow-up of survivors was 4 years (0. Read More

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September 2021

Development of a novel reporter gene assay to evaluate antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis for anti-CD20 therapeutic antibodies.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 11;100:108112. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Division of Monoclonal Antibody Products, National Institu-tes for Food and Drug Control, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Health for Research on Quality and Standardization of Biotech Products, Beijing 102629, China.

More than 100 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved by FDA. The mechanism of action (MoA) involves in neutralization of a specific target via the Fab region and Fc effector functions through Fc region, while the latter include complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). ADCP has been recognized one of the most important MoAs, especially for anti-cancer mAbs in recent years. Read More

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September 2021

Increased Expression of Long Non-coding RNA H19 is Associated With Colon Cancer Recurrence.

J Surg Res 2021 Sep 11;269:59-68. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Price Institute of Surgical Research, Hiram C. Polk Jr. MD Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky. Electronic address:

Background: Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Long non-coding (Lnc) RNAs are critical mediators of tumor biology. H19 is a well-characterized lncRNA involved in p53 regulation and cancer progression. Read More

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September 2021

Potential microplastic release from the maritime industry: Abrasion of rope.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;804:150155. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

International Marine Litter Research Unit, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, United Kingdom.

While land-based sources of plastic pollution have gained increasing attention in recent years, ocean-based sources have been less well studied. The aim of this study was to compare a variety of ropes (differing in age, wear surface and material) to quantify and characterise the production of microplastic during use. This was achieved by simulating, in laboratory and field experiments, rope hauling activity which is typically performed on board maritime vessels, such as fishing boats. Read More

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September 2021

Association Between Twitter Mentions and Academic Citations in Otolaryngology Literature.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Sep 14:1945998211044680. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between Twitter mentions and academic citations in otolaryngology literature.

Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

Setting: Altmetric Twitter mention and Google Scholar citation rosters. Read More

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September 2021