85,043 results match your criteria years california


"I'm not going to be a guinea pig:" medical mistrust as a barrier to male contraception for Black American men in Los Angeles, CA.

Contraception 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA.

Background: Racial disparities in unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use in the United States are not mediated by access to family planning services alone. Rather, a history of medical mistrust underlies Black Americans' adoption of new medical technologies, inclusive of contraception. Efforts to develop hormonal male contraceptives need to incorporate Black Americans' experiences and perspectives so that new contraceptives enable their reproductive goals and promote gender equity. Read More

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Association of Age with Risk of Adverse Pathological Findings in Men Undergoing Delayed Radical Prostatectomy Following Active Surveillance.

Urology 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Urology, UCSF - Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine if older men with Gleason grade group (GG) 1 prostate cancer have a higher risk of having adverse pathology at radical prostatectomy after initially being managed with active surveillance (AS).

Methods: A total of 365 patients with GG1 prostate cancer initially managed with AS followed by delayed radical prostatectomy were identified. The primary outcome was adverse pathology after delayed radical prostatectomy in the men that were <65 years versus men ≥65 years at the initiation of AS. Read More

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Association of kidney function and atrial fibrillation progression to clinical outcomes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

Am Heart J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

Background: Kidney function may promote progression of AF.

Objective: We evaluated the association of kidney function to AF progression and resultant clinical outcomes in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using national clinical data from the Veterans Health Administration linked to CIED data from the Carelink® remote monitoring data warehouse (Medtronic Inc, Mounds View, MN). Read More

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Pralsetinib for patients with advanced or metastatic RET-altered thyroid cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, registrational, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET represent important therapeutic targets in thyroid cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers.

Methods: ARROW, a phase 1/2, open-label study done in 13 countries across 71 sites in community and hospital settings, enrolled patients 18 years or older with RET-altered locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET-mutant medullary thyroid and RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers, and an Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment). Read More

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Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Read More

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Identifying counties at risk of high overdose mortality burden during the emerging fentanyl epidemic in the USA: a predictive statistical modelling study.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: The emergence of fentanyl around 2013 represented a new, deadly stage of the opioid epidemic in the USA. We aimed to develop a statistical regression approach to identify counties at the highest risk of high overdose mortality in the subsequent years by predicting annual county-level overdose death rates across the contiguous USA and to validate our approach against observed overdose mortality data collected between 2013 and 2018.

Methods: We fit mixed-effects negative binomial regression models to predict overdose death rates in the subsequent year for 2013-18 for all contiguous state counties in the USA (ie, excluding Alaska and Hawaii). Read More

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Adipokines, Weight Gain and Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: ACTG A5260s.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: The adipokines leptin and adiponectin, produced primarily by adipose tissue, have diverse endocrine and immunologic effects, and circulating levels reflect adipocyte lipid content, local inflammation, and tissue composition. We assessed relationships between changes in regional fat depots, leptin and adiponectin levels, and metabolic and inflammatory markers over 96 weeks in the ACTG A5260s metabolic substudy of the A5257 randomized trial of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine plus atazanavir-ritonavir, darunavir-ritonavir, or raltegravir among treatment-naïve persons with HIV (PWH).

Methods: Fat depots were measured using dual-energy absorptiometry and abdominal CT imaging at treatment initiation and 96 weeks later. Read More

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Time to Viral Rebound After Interruption of Modern Antiretroviral Therapies.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Unversity of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Development of HIV remission strategies requires precise information on time to HIV rebound after treatment interruption, but there is uncertainty regarding whether modern ART regimens and timing of ART initiation may impact this outcome.

Methods: ACTG A5345 enrolled individuals who initiated ART during chronic or early HIV infection and on suppressive ART for ≥2 years. Participants underwent carefully monitored antiretroviral interruption. Read More

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Sinonasal adenocarcinoma: A population-based analysis of demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

Head Neck 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Sinonasal adenocarcinoma (SNAC) is a rare tumor. The impact of health disparities on survival, stage at presentation, and utilization of surgery is not well understood in patients with SNAC.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for cases of SNAC from 1973 to 2015. Read More

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A preliminary examination of expressive writing in boys with isolated orofacial clefts.

Pediatr Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The Stead Family Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: Children with isolated cleft of the lip and/or palate (iCL/P) are at a higher risk for language and reading issues. The current pilot study evaluated concurrent writing skills of children with iCL/P compared to unaffected participants with average (uAR) and impaired (uIR) reading. It was hypothesized that children with iCL/P would perform lower than age-expectations. Read More

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Defect and strain engineering of monolayer WSe enables site-controlled single-photon emission up to 150 K.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3585. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

In recent years, quantum-dot-like single-photon emitters in atomically thin van der Waals materials have become a promising platform for future on-chip scalable quantum light sources with unique advantages over existing technologies, notably the potential for site-specific engineering. However, the required cryogenic temperatures for the functionality of these sources has been an inhibitor of their full potential. Existing methods to create emitters in 2D materials face fundamental challenges in extending the working temperature while maintaining the emitter's fabrication yield and purity. Read More

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Ritonavir concentrations in hair predict virologic outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents with virologic failure on atazanavir/ritonavir-based second-line treatment.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Zimbabwe; Department of Paediatrics, University of Zimbabwe; Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe; Department of Medicine, Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine, University of California San Francisco; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University and Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California San Francisco.

Background: Sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is responsible for most virologic failure among adolescents with HIV. Methods for objectively measuring adherence to ART are limited. This study assessed the association between ritonavir concentrations in hair, self-reported adherence and modified directly administered antiretroviral therapy on virologic outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents who were virologically failing second-line ART in Harare, Zimbabwe. Read More

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Effectiveness of the recombinant zoster vaccine among Kaiser Permanente Hawaii enrollees aged 50 and older: A retrospective cohort study.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) has been on the rise for decades in the United States. Clinical trials for the recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) demonstrated vaccine efficacy of over 90% in preventing herpes zoster. However, there is limited information on its effectiveness outside of a clinical trial setting, as well as its effectiveness against herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). Read More

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Review: Adult Outcome as Seen Through Controlled Prospective Follow-up Studies of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Into Adulthood.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Child Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe adult outcome of people with childhood diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its several key predictors via a review of seven North American controlled prospective follow-up studies: the Montreal, New York, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Berkeley and the seven-site Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA).

Method: All studies were prospective and followed children diagnosed with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group at regular intervals from childhood (6-12 years) through adolescence into adulthood (20-40 years), evaluating symptom and syndrome persistence, functional outcomes and predictors of these outcomes.

Results: The rates of the ADHD syndrome persistence ranged from 5. Read More

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Brainstem Dysfunction in Healthy Aging.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 8:118241. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Dept. of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:

The brainstem controls sub-cortical and cortical activity and influences the processing of incoming information. The goal of this study was to characterize age related alterations of brainstem-brain interactions during different brain states detected by dynamic analysis of task-free fMRI. 79 young (20-40 years) and 51 older adults (55-80 years) were studied. Read More

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Cognitive Performance Trajectories Before and After Sleep Treatment Initiation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Background: Sleep disturbances are associated with risk of cognitive decline but it is not clear if treating disturbed sleep mitigates decline. We examined differences in cognitive trajectories before and after sleep treatment initiation.

Methods: Data came from the 2006-2014 Health and Retirement Study. Read More

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Volunteering Dynamics and Life Satisfaction: Self-Perceptions of Aging as a Buffer.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Child Development and Family Studies, Seoul National University.

Objectives: Research has extensively documented the concurrent benefits of being a volunteer (versus a non-volunteer), but little is known about older adults who once served as a volunteer but then stopped at some point in their lives (i.e., former volunteers). Read More

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U.S. Population-referenced Percentiles for Wrist-Worn Accelerometer-derived Activity.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA US Public Health Service, retired, Silver Spring, MD.

Purpose: To present age- and sex- specific percentiles for daily wrist-worn movement metrics in U.S. youth and adults. Read More

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TNF-alpha inhibition in the setting of undiagnosed HIV infection: a call for enhanced screening guidelines.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Hospital Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Gastroenterology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Experimental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Despite the risks of immunosuppression, recommendations regarding screening for HIV infection prior to initiation of biologic therapies targeting common rheumatologic disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammatory arthritides, are limited. Few cases of patients started on biologics while living with undiagnosed HIV infection have been reported.

Methods: We report 3 cases of patients initiated on biologics in the absence of recent or concurrent HIV screening who developed refractory disease or unanticipated complications and were later found to have undiagnosed chronic HIV infection. Read More

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Functional and morphological correlates of developmental dyslexia: A multimodal investigation of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background And Purpose: The ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is a region crucial for reading acquisition through selective tuning to printed words. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder of reading with underlying neurobiological bases often associated with atypical neural responses to printed words. Previous studies have discovered anomalous structural development and function of the vOT in individuals with dyslexia. Read More

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Efficacy of venetoclax plus rituximab for relapsed CLL: Five-year follow-up of continuous or limited-duration therapy.

Blood 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Hematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Hospital; University of Melbourne, Australia.

We report long-term follow-up of the phase 1b study of venetoclax and rituximab (VenR) in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including outcomes with continuous or limited-duration therapy. Patients received venetoclax daily (200-600 mg) and rituximab over 6 months, then venetoclax monotherapy. Patients achieving complete response (CR), CR with incomplete marrow recovery (CRi), or undetectable minimal residual disease (uMRD) assessed by flow cytometry (<10-4 cutoff) were allowed, but not required, to discontinue therapy, while remaining on study and could be re-treated with VenR upon progression. Read More

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Building upon the foundational science curriculum with physiology-based grand rounds: a multi-institutional program evaluation.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1937908

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

: Vertically integrating physiology into patient care has the potential to improve clinical reasoning. Clinical Physiology Grand Rounds (CPGR) is a case-based teaching method that brings together students from all years of medical school to focus on linking clinical presentations to core basic science concepts including anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. In this study, we describe the implementation of CPGR at two different institutions in the United States and assess student-reported outcomes. Read More

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December 2021

Delivering health insurance through informal financial groups: Evidence on moral hazard and adverse selection.

Authors:
Ketki Sheth

Health Econ 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of California, Merced, Merced, California, USA.

Moral hazard and adverse selection are potential explanations for missing health insurance in low-income countries. In recent years, informal financial institutions have attempted to complete health insurance markets by offering micro health insurance (MHI). We evaluate an MHI offered through informal financial institutions (Self-Help Groups) in Maharashtra, India. Read More

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Elderly traumatic central cord syndrome in the United States: a review of management and outcomes.

J Neurosurg Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA -

Introduction: As the incidence of elderly spinal cord injury rises, improved understanding of risk profiles and outcomes is needed. This review summarizes clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes specific to the elderly (≥65-years) with acute traumatic central cord syndrome in the United States.

Evidence Aquisition: Literature review of the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases (01/2007-03/2020) regarding elderly subjects with acute traumatic central cord syndrome. Read More

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Impact of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Group B Streptococcus on the Term Infant Gut Microbiome: A State of the Science Review.

Authors:
Vanessa R Garcia

J Midwifery Womens Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Women's Services, Enloe Medical Center, Chico, California.

Since the implementation of screening and prophylaxis guidelines for group B streptococcus (GBS) in the early 1990s there has been considerable advancement in scientific knowledge about the gut microbiome and its role in both health and disease processes. Research assessing early influences during the development of the infant gut microbiome has advanced considerably in the last 15 years. It is now widely accepted that early introduction of antibiotics in infancy is associated with increased risk for illness later in life. Read More

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Practicing Hope: Enhancing Empowerment in Primary Health Care through Community-based Participatory Research.

Am J Community Psychol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Declaration of Alma Ata in 1978 made Primary Health Care (PHC) the official health policy of all WHO member countries, stressing the importance of multisectoral collaboration and community empowerment as critical for delivering quality primary healthcare and public health services to achieve social justice and health equity. Over forty years later, a divide remains between seeing individual patients in the traditional biomedical model and addressing population-level social determinants of health. One promising approach for the intentional and active integration of multi-sectoral partnering practices and community empowerment into Primary Health Care is the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Read More

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Trends and patterns of thoracic intervertebral disc degeneration in symptomatic subjects: a magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

Eur Spine J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 San Pablo St, HC4 - #5400A, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Purpose: This study aimed to analyse the trends and patterns of IVD degeneration in different age groups at each level of the thoracic spine.

Methods: This cross-sectional MRI study included 1000 symptomatic patients who had undergone upright thoracic spine MRI. A total of 13,000 thoracic IVDs from C7/T1 to T12/L1 were classified into five grades using Pfirrmann classification. Read More

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Performance and outcomes of transvenous rotational lead extraction: Results from a prospective, monitored, international clinical study.

Heart Rhythm O2 2021 Apr 2;2(2):113-121. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, German Heart Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) plays a critical role in managing patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. Mechanical TLE tools, including rotational sheaths, are used to overcome fibrosis and calcification surrounding leads. Prospective clinical data are limited regarding the safety and effectiveness of use of mechanical TLE devices, especially rotational tools. Read More

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Catheter ablation and healthcare utilization and cost among patients with paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation.

Heart Rhythm O2 2021 Feb 15;2(1):28-36. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Electrophysiology Section, Duke University Hospital & Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Ablation reduces atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and improves health-related quality of life. The relationship between ablation, healthcare utilization, and AF type (paroxysmal AF [PAF] vs persistent AF [PsAF]) remains unclear.

Objective: To compare changes in AF-related healthcare utilization and costs from preablation to postablation among patients with PAF and PsAF. Read More

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February 2021

Bariatric surgery to aLleviate OCcurrence of Atrial Fibrillation Hospitalization-BLOC-AF.

Heart Rhythm O2 2020 Jun 12;1(2):96-102. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Background: Obesity is associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Weight reduction improves outcomes in patients known to have AF.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of heart failure (HF) or first-time AF hospitalization in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BAS) vs other abdominal surgeries. Read More

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