361 results match your criteria years 2015-2019


Clinical Characteristics of Children with HIV Initiated on Antiretroviral Treatment at HIV Clinics in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Int J MCH AIDS 2021 10;10(1):146-155. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, 9301, South Africa.

Background And Objective: Over the past 15 years, there have been three major updates to the South African national guidelines for the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in children. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of children who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bloemfontein, South Africa, following these national treatment guidelines.

Methods: Clinical information during initiation of ART in children aged 0-13 years was obtained from five HIV clinics in Bloemfontein from 2004 to 2019 as part of the establishment of an antiretroviral (ARV) pediatric registry at the University of the Free State. Read More

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Cannabis and Prescription Drug Use Among Older Adults With Functional Impairment.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Aug 20;61(2):246-250. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Introduction: Psychoactive substance use may be risky for adults with functional impairments. This study investigates cannabis use and prescription opioid and tranquilizer/sedative (mis)use among adults aged ≥50 years reporting functional impairments in the U.S. Read More

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Management and Microbiology of Perforated Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients: A 5-Year Retrospective Study.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, 1 Children's Place, Suite 6110-CB 8235, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Introduction: This study aims to assess the current epidemiology and microbiology of perforated appendicitis, how antibiotic choice and duration correlate with meaningful clinical outcomes, and whether serial white blood cell (WBC) counts provide clinical value.

Methods: Five-year retrospective cohort study, 2015-2019, among 333 consecutive children, ages 0-18 years, treated at St. Louis Children's Hospital for perforated appendicitis. Read More

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Respiratory Events After Intensive Care Unit Discharge in Trauma Patients: Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Risk factors.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Surgical Outcomes Research Center, Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Department of Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Respiratory complications are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. The care transition from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the acute care ward is a vulnerable time for injured patients. There is a lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of respiratory events and their outcomes during this transition. Read More

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Excess all-cause mortality and COVID-19-related mortality: a temporal analysis in 22 countries, from January until August 2020.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Israel Center of Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: This study aimed to investigate overall and sex-specific excess all-cause mortality since the inception of the COVID-19 pandemic until August 2020 among 22 countries.

Methods: Countries reported weekly or monthly all-cause mortality from January 2015 until the end of June or August 2020. Weekly or monthly COVID-19 deaths were reported for 2020. Read More

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Analysis of the Household and Health Care System Expenditures in Bulgaria.

Front Public Health 2021 2;9:675277. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Organization and Economy of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Health care systems worldwide are experiencing tremendous financial pressure because of the introduction of new targeted health technologies and medicines. This study aims to analyze and compare public and household healthcare expenditures in Bulgaria during the period 2015-2019, as well as present the major cost-containment measures implied by the government and their probable influence on the overall health care cost. Regulatory analysis of the endorsed cost-containment measures, budget analysis of public and household health care expenditures, and their extrapolations were performed. Read More

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Characteristics of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis detection in China, 2015-2019.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jul 17;10(1):99. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, China CDC, No.155 Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.

Background: The very high burden of rifampicin resistance tuberculosis (RR-TB) and the very low detection of RR-TB cases are a major challenge that China has been facing. This study analyzed the characteristics of RR-TB detection in China after the change of RR-TB detection strategy since 2015, aiming to provide reference and evidence for the development of more precise national drug resistance tuberculosis prevention and control policy.

Methods: We extracted data related to rifampicin resistance screening from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TBIMS) from 2015 to 2019, and used descriptive research methods to analyze the screening rate of presumptive RR-TB, the number and duration of RR-TB patients detected and drug resistance testing methods in each year. Read More

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Incidence of lung cancer and air pollution in boroughs of Chile: an ecological study.

Ecancermedicalscience 2021 10;15:1247. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Research, Fundación Arturo López Pérez Cancer Institute, Cano y Aponte 927, Providencia, Santiago 7500000, Chile.

Lung cancer frequency has been progressively increasing; this has been linked to the use of inhaled tobacco and air pollution. In Chile, air pollution has reached alarming levels due to motor vehicle traffic, firewood burning for heating and minerals in urban areas; for this reason, our objective was to evaluate the association between the incidence of lung cancer and the concentration of the main air pollutants monitored in the country. We carried out a cross-sectional ecological study that evaluated the association between the average incidence of lung cancer in a 5-year period (2015-2019) with the average annual concentration of six atmospheric pollutants in the 5 years prior in 14 Chilean boroughs, using the population of beneficiaries of the Fundación Arturo-López-Pérez Cancer Institute. Read More

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Impact of nonpharmacological COVID-19 interventions in hospitalizations for childhood pneumonia in Brazil.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Centro Infant, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS). Avenida Ipiranga 6690, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background And Objective: The knowledge about the impact of the nonpharmacological measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic can give insight into ways in which they can also be applied for other respiratory diseases. To assess the impact of containment measures of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumonia hospitalizations in children from 0 to 14 years of age in Brazil.

Methods: Data from hospital admissions for pneumonia were obtained from the Department of Informatics of Brazilian Public Health System database in the period of 2015-2020 and analyzed by macroregions and age groups. Read More

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Medical complications and outcome after endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Research Group of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Aim: Endovascular therapy (EVT) in acute stroke is an effective but invasive treatment which is frequently followed by various complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of medical complications and other adverse events following EVT.

Methods: Retrospective single-center study of 380 consecutive stroke patients who received EVT between the years 2015-2019. Read More

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Improving contemporary outcomes following heart transplantation for cardiac amyloidosis.

J Card Surg 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: The incidence of systemic amyloidosis is rising, and there is a concomitant rise in heart transplant for an indication of cardiac amyloidosis.

Methods: We utilized the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database to retrospectively assess survival and outcomes in adult patients undergoing heart transplant for cardiac amyloidosis from 1999 to 2019. We also compared survival among four distinct time periods: 1999-2001, 2002-2008, 2008-2015, 2016-2019. Read More

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Iran diabetes research study; knowledge discovery in diagnosis: a scoping review.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jul 6:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The rising prevalence of diabetes shows high health and socio-economic burdens. Therefore, the development and evaluation of new diagnostic methods may improve the detection of disease and its complications in the early stages. This study aimed to analyze the scope of the studies related to diabetes diagnosis. Read More

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Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients initiating biologics/apremilast for psoriatic arthritis: a nationwide cohort study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

EpiDermE, Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, F-94010, France.

Objective: Several biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). However, their comparative cardiovascular safety profiles remain unknown. We evaluated the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in PsA patients on therapy with different classes of bDMARDs and apremilast. Read More

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Adherence to Follow-up Testing Recommendations in US Veterans Screened for Lung Cancer, 2015-2019.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2116233. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Center for Healthcare Organization & Implementation Research, Bedford VA Healthcare System, Bedford, Massachusetts.

Importance: Lung cancer screening (LCS) can reduce lung cancer mortality with close follow-up and adherence to management recommendations. Little is known about factors associated with adherence to LCS in real-world practice, with data limited to case series from selected LCS programs.

Objective: To analyze adherence to follow-up based on standardized follow-up recommendations in a national cohort and to identify factors associated with delayed or absent follow-up. Read More

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Evolving outcomes of peritoneal dialysis: secular trends at a single large center over three decades.

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is improving as a renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We analyzed the main outcomes of PD over the last three decades at a single large-scale PD center with an established high-quality care system.

Methods: As a retrospective cohort study, we included participants (n = 1,203) who began PD between 1990 and 2019. Read More

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The scientific publications of AIFM members in 2015-2019: A survey of the FutuRuS working group.

Phys Med 2021 Jul 2;88:111-116. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Unit of Radiation Research, IEO European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: Within the Italian Association of Medical Physics and Health Physics (AIFM) working group "FutuRuS" we carried out a survey regarding the number of the peer-reviewed articles by AIFM members.

Methods: We surveyed papers published in the years 2015-2019. Data extracted from Scopus included information regarding authors, title, journal, impact factor (IF), leading or standard authorship by AIFM members, keywords, type of collaboration (monocentric/multicentric/international), area of interest [radiation oncology (RO), radiology (RAD), nuclear medicine (NM), radioprotection (RP) and professional issue (PI)] and topics. Read More

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Longitudinal variability in mortality predicts COVID-19 deaths.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177, Stockholm, Sweden.

Within Europe, death rates due to COVID-19 vary greatly, with some countries being severely hit while others to date are almost unaffected. This has created a heated debate in particular regarding how effective the different measures applied by the governments are in limiting the spread of the disease and ultimately deaths. It would be of considerable interest to pinpoint the factors that determine a country's susceptibility to a pandemic such as COVID-19. Read More

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Decreasing Prevalence of Benign Etiology in Resected Lung Nodules Suspicious for Lung Cancer over the Last Decade.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China; Institution of Thoracic Oncology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated treatment strategy for suspicious lung cancer with postoperatively proven benign etiology. In this retrospective study, we collected patients who underwent pulmonary resection for radiologically suspected lung cancer from 2010 to 2019 at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC). Radiological features, preoperative follow-up time, preoperative pathology and postoperative pathology of these patients were documented. Read More

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Outcomes of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Improve with Obesity: A Rural Appalachian Experience.

South Med J 2021 Jul;114(7):424-431

From the Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, the Department of Radiology, and the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Objectives: Obesity can be an independent predictor of fibrosis in tissues, including the liver, heart, and skin. We evaluated a rural Appalachian cohort of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for its relation to obesity.

Methods: Using American Thoracic Society 2018 diagnostic guidelines, an IPF cohort was systematically identified at an Appalachian academic medical center (2015-2019). Read More

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[Recent advance of novel chiral separation systems in capillary electrophoresis].

Authors:
Qi Zhang

Se Pu 2020 Sep;38(9):1028-1037

School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Chiral analysis has been an important research field in modern separation science because the enantiomers of a racemic compound often show different or even opposite bioactivities. A variety of analytical techniques have been adopted for chiral analysis over the past few decades. In comparison with conventional chromatographic methods (e. Read More

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September 2020

[An update on the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Italy 2015-2019. Data from the surveillance of acute viral hepatitis SEIEVA].

Epidemiol Prev 2021 May-Jun;45(3):173-180

Centro nazionale per la salute globale, Istituto superiore di sanità, Roma;

Background: hepatitis A is an infective disease whose global diffusion appears to be variable and strictly related to socioeconomic status, hygiene conditions, and access to potable water. During last twenty years, Italy registered a constant decrease of new cases with recurrent epidemic outbreaks.

Objectives: to outline the hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Italy in the five-year period 2015-2019. Read More

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Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogens Associated with Urinary Tract Infections among Women Attending Antenatal Care in Four South African Tertiary-Level Facilities, 2015-2019.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Private Bag X4 Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa.

In South Africa, uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs (CA-UTIs) are treated empirically; however, the extent of antibiotic resistance among these pathogens is not well known. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of women attending ANCs at four tertiary public-sector hospitals in Gauteng. Female patients aged 15-49 years, with urine cultures performed between January 2015 and December 2019, were included. Read More

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Potential Health Risk Associated with Mycotoxins in Oat Grains Consumed in Spain.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 06 13;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, 46010 Burjasot, Valencia, Spain.

Spain is a relevant producer of oats (), but to date there has been no study on the occurrence/co-occurrence of mycotoxins in oats marketed in Spain. The present study is addressed to overcome this lack of knowledge. One hundred oat kernel samples were acquired across different Spanish geographic regions during the years 2015-2019 and analyzed for mycotoxin content using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method and matrix-matched calibration. Read More

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Race/ethnicity differences in risk and protective factors for marijuana use among U.S. adolescents.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jul 1;21(1):1167. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Public Administration, Dankook University, 152 Jukjeon-ro, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

Background: Little is known about how race and ethnicity influence marijuana-specific risk and protective factors in U.S. adolescents. Read More

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Contemporary procedure characteristics and outcomes of accessory atrioventricular pathway ablations in an integrated community-based health care system using a tiered approach.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jun 30;21(1):319. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Kaiser Permanente NCAL, Kaiser Santa Clara Medical Center, 710 Lawrence Expressway, Department 342, Santa Clara, CA, 95051, USA.

Background: Since the early descriptions of large series of accessory atrioventricular pathway ablations in adults and adolescents over 20 years ago, there have been limited published reports based on more recent experiences of large referral centers. We aimed to characterize accessory pathway distribution and features in a large community-based population that influence ablation outcomes using a tiered approach to ablation.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of 289 patients (age 14-81) who underwent accessory ablation from 2015-2019 was performed. Read More

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Early Complications after Gastrectomies for Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2021 May-Jun;116(3):294-299

The post-operative results as well as the short and middle-term outcome of surgical procedures for gastric cancer depend on several general and local conditions, mainly on the stage of neoplasia. Delayed diagnosis and intervention are correlated with a high rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality. 76 consecutive patients underwent surgical treatment for gastric cancer over a time span of 5 years (2015-2019), in the 1st Surgical Department of "Dr. Read More

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Is cannabis use associated with prescription psychotropic and pain reliever medication and other substance use among individuals aged 50+ with mental illness?

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Aug 24;225:108842. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Steve Hicks School of Social Work, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78702, USA.

Background: Despite increasing rates of nonmedical and/or medical cannabis use in the 50+ age group, scant research exists on the associations between cannabis use and prescription medication use. In this study, we examined associations of use of prescription tranquilizers, sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers, tobacco products, any/binge/heavy alcohol, and illicit drugs with cannabis use and use characteristics among U.S. Read More

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Rates of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Following Implementation of a Novel Prevention Bundle.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2114140. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics (Neonatology), Kaiser Permanente Panorama City, Panorama City, California.

Importance: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) rates in the United States remain high and have changed little in the last decade.

Objective: To develop a consistent BPD prevention bundle in a systematic approach to decrease BPD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This quality improvement study included 484 infants with birth weights from 501 to 1500 g admitted to a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California system from 2009 through 2019. Read More

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