19,164 results match your criteria xylem


The influence of transpiration on foliar accumulation of salt and nutrients under salinity in poplar (Populus × canescens).

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0253228. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Increasing salinity is one of the major drawbacks for plant growth. Besides the ion itself being toxic to plant cells, it greatly interferes with the supply of other macronutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium. However, little is known about how sodium affects the translocation of these nutrients from the root to the shoot. Read More

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Trophic differences regulate grassland food webs: herbivores track food quality and predators select for habitat volume.

Ecology 2021 Jun 24:e03453. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Geographical Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019, USA.

The impacts of altered biogeochemical cycles on ecological systems are likely to vary with trophic level. Predicting how these changes will affect ecological food webs is further complicated by human activities which are simultaneously altering the availability of macronutrients like nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and micronutrients such as sodium (Na). Here we contrast three hypotheses that predict how increasing nutrient availability will shape grassland food webs. Read More

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Linking xylem network failure with leaf tissue death.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Purdue Center for Plant Biology, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 47907, USA.

Global warming is expected to dramatically accelerate forest mortality as temperature and drought intensity increase. Predicting the magnitude of this impact urgently requires an understanding of the process connecting atmospheric drying to plant tissue damage. Recent episodes of forest mortality worldwide have been widely attributed to dry conditions causing acute damage to plant vascular systems. Read More

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A User Manual to Measure Gas Diffusion Kinetics in Plants: Pneumatron Construction, Operation, and Data Analysis.

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:633595. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Systematic Botany and Ecology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

The Pneumatron device measures gas diffusion kinetics in the xylem of plants. The device provides an easy, low-cost, and powerful tool for research on plant water relations and gas exchange. Here, we describe in detail how to construct and operate this device to estimate embolism resistance of angiosperm xylem, and how to analyse pneumatic data. Read More

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Do woody vines use gelatinous fibers to climb?

New Phytol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Many plant movements are facilitated by contractile cells called gelatinous fibers (G-fibers), but how G-fibers function in the climbing movements of woody vines remains underexplored. In this Insight, we compare the presence and distribution of G-fibers in the stems of stem-twiners, which wrap around supports, to non-stem-twiners that attach to supports via tendrils or adventitious roots. An examination of 164 species spanning the vascular plant phylogeny reveals that G-fibers are common in stem-twiners but scarce in non-stem-twiners, suggesting that G-fibers are preferentially formed in the organ responsible for movement. Read More

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First Report of Sea buckthorn Stem Wilt Caused by Fusarium sporotrichioides in Gansu, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, College of Plant Protection, Shenyang, China;

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an important deciduous shrub for fruit and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions of China. Twelve Chinese and Russian cultivars (cv. Shenqiuhong, eshi01, . Read More

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Photosynthesis-independent production of reactive oxygen species in the rice bundle sheath during high light is mediated by NADPH oxidase.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(25)

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom;

When exposed to high light, plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In , local stress such as excess heat or light initiates a systemic ROS wave in phloem and xylem cells dependent on NADPH oxidase/respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH) proteins. In the case of excess light, although the initial local accumulation of ROS preferentially takes place in bundle-sheath strands, little is known about how this response takes place. Read More

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How Do Trees Grow in Girth? Controversy on the Role of Cellular Events in the Vascular Cambium.

Acta Biotheor 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Botany, Hamdard University, Tughlaqabad, New Delhi, 110 062, India.

Radial growth has long been a subject of interest in tree biology research. Recent studies have brought a significant change in the understanding of some basic processes characteristic to the vascular cambium, a meristem that produces secondary vascular tissues (phloem and xylem) in woody plants. A new hypothesis regarding the mechanism of intrusive growth of the cambial initials, which has been ratified by studies of the arrangement of cambial cells, negates the influence of this apical cell growth on the expansion of the cambial circumference. Read More

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A Small Guanosine Triphosphate Binding Protein Promotes Xylem Development in Poplar.

Front Plant Sci 2021 4;12:686024. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

Rab GTPases are the subfamily of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins which participated in the regulation of various biological processes. Recent studies have found that plant Rabs play some specific functions. However, the functions of in xylem development in trees remain unclear. Read More

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Genome-wide identification of AUX/IAA in radish and functional characterization of RsIAA33 gene during taproot thickening.

Gene 2021 Jun 16:145782. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Genetic Improvement (East China) of MOA, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short lived nuclear proteins that cooperated with auxin or auxin response factor (ARF), which are involved in plant growth and developmental processes. However, it's still ambiguous how the Aux/IAA genes regulate the process governing taproot thickening in radish. Herein, 65 Aux/IAA genes were identified from the radish genome. Read More

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Oryza sativa, C4HC3-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING), OsRFPv6, is a positive regulator in response to salt stress by regulating Na absorption.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Plant Genomics Laboratory, Interdisciplinary Program in Smart Agriculture, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Salinity negatively affects plant growth, productivity, and metabolism. Therefore, plants have evolved diverse strategies to survive in saline environments. To identify such strategies involving the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system, we characterized molecular functions of a rice C4HC3 RING-type E3-ubiquitin ligase gene. Read More

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Cadmium uptake via apoplastic bypass flow in Oryza sativa.

J Plant Res 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan.

It is known that rice roots take up cadmium (Cd) via the symplastic route mediated by membrane-bound mineral transporters. Here we provide evidence that apoplastic bypass flow is another Cd uptake route in rice. High concentrations of Cd rendered apoplastic bypass flow rate increased in rice seedlings. Read More

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Targeted mutation of transcription factor genes alters metaxylem vessel size and number in rice roots.

Plant Direct 2021 Jun 15;5(6):e00328. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Plant Science The Pennsylvania State University University Park PA USA.

Root metaxylem vessels are responsible for axial water transport and contribute to hydraulic architecture. Variation in metaxylem vessel size and number can impact drought tolerance in crop plants, including rice, a crop that is particularly sensitive to drought. Identifying and validating candidate genes for metaxylem development would aid breeding efforts for improved varieties for drought tolerance. Read More

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Effect of colloid-size copper-based pesticides and wood-preservatives against microbial activities of Gram-positive Bacillus species using five-day biochemical oxygen demand test.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jul 14;105:71-80. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Solution and Emergency Response, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA.

Copper-based pesticides and wood preservatives could end up in the environment during production, use, and end-of-life via different pathways that could cause unintended ecological and adverse health effects. This paper provides the effect of colloid-size Cu-based pesticides (CuPRO and Kocide), micronized Cu azole (MCA-1 and MCA-2) and alkaline Cu quaternary (ACQ) treated woods, Cu, Cu spiked untreated wood (UTW), and CuCO solutions against Gram-positive Bacillus species using five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) standard test. The total Cu leached from MCA-1, MCA-2, and ACQ in Milli-Q water after 5 days were ~0. Read More

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Ammonium-nitrogen addition at the seedling stage does not reduce grain cadmium concentration in two common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 11;286:117575. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

High cadmium (Cd) concentration in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains poses potential health risks. Several management strategies have been used to reduce grain Cd concentration. Read More

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Triggering Bimodal Radial Stem Growth in at a Drought-Prone Site by Manipulating Stem Carbon Availability.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:674438. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Botany, Leopold-Franzens-University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

A bimodal radial growth (RG) pattern, i.e., growth peaks in spring and autumn, was repeatedly found in trees in the Mediterranean regions, where summer drought causes reduction or cessation of cambial activity. Read More

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PSDX: A Comprehensive Multi-Omics Association Database of With a Focus on the Secondary Growth in Response to Stresses.

Front Plant Sci 2021 20;12:655565. Epub 2021 May 20.

Basic Forestry and Proteomics Research Center, College of Forestry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

() is a model tree for the investigation of wood formation. In recent years, researchers have generated a large number of high-throughput sequencing data in . However, no comprehensive database that provides multi-omics associations for the investigation of secondary growth in response to diverse stresses has been reported. Read More

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Acoustic Vulnerability, Hydraulic Capacitance, and Xylem Anatomy Determine Drought Response of Small Grain Cereals.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:599824. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Selection of high-yielding traits in cereal plants led to a continuous increase in productivity. However, less effort was made to select on adaptive traits, favorable in adverse and harsh environments. Under current climate change conditions and the knowledge that cereals are staple foods for people worldwide, it is highly important to shift focus to the selection of traits related to drought tolerance, and to evaluate new tools for efficient selection. Read More

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Targeted Drug Delivery for Sustainable Crop Protection: Transport and Stability of Polymeric Nanocarriers in Plants.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 19;8(11):e2100067. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, Mainz, 55128, Germany.

Spraying of agrochemicals (pesticides, fertilizers) causes environmental pollution on a million-ton scale. A sustainable alternative is target-specific, on-demand drug delivery by polymeric nanocarriers. Trunk injections of aqueous nanocarrier dispersions can overcome the biological size barriers of roots and leaves and allow distributing the nanocarriers through the plant. Read More

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The dynamics of stem water storage in the tops of Earth's largest trees-Sequoiadendron giganteum.

Tree Physiol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

Water stored in tree stems (i.e., trunks and branches) is an important contributor to transpiration that can improve photosynthetic carbon gain and reduce the probability of cavitation. Read More

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PtrMYB120 functions as a positive regulator of both anthocyanin and lignin biosynthetic pathway in a hybrid poplar.

Tree Physiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Plant & Environmental New Resources, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.

Both anthocyanins and lignins are essential secondary metabolites in plant growth and development. Their biosynthesis is metabolically interconnected and diverges in the central metabolite 4-coumaroyl CoA of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Considerable progress has been made in understanding transcriptional regulation of genes involved in lignin and anthocyanin synthesis pathways, but the concerted regulation of these pathways is not yet fully understood. Read More

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Radial and axial water movement in adult trees recorded by stable isotope tracing.

Tree Physiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Richmond, Australia.

The capacity of trees to release water from storage compartments into the transpiration stream can mitigate damage to hydraulic functioning. However, the location of these 'transient' water sources, and also the pathways of water movement other than vertical through tree stems still remains poorly understood. We conducted an experiment on two tree species in a common garden in eastern Australia that naturally grow in regions of high (Eucalyptus tereticornis, 'Red Gum') and low (Eucalyptus sideroxylon, 'Ironbark') annual precipitation rates. Read More

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Nitrate Transport and Distribution in Soybean Plants With Dual-Root Systems.

Front Plant Sci 2021 20;12:661054. Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Nitrate absorbed by soybean ( L. Merr.) roots from the soil can promote plant growth, while nitrate transported to nodules inhibits nodulation and nodule nitrogen fixation activity. Read More

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Floodwater Depth Causes Different Physiological Responses During Post-flooding in Willows.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:575090. Epub 2021 May 21.

Instituto de Fisiología Vegetal (INFIVE), UNLP-CONICET, La Plata, Argentina.

Willows are widely planted in areas under risk of flooding. The physiological responses of willows to flooding have been characterized, but little is known about their responses during the post-flooding period. After the end of the stress episode, plants may modify some traits to compensate for the biomass loss during flooding. Read More

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A minimally disruptive method for measuring water potential in planta using hydrogel nanoreporters.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(23)

Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;

Leaf water potential is a critical indicator of plant water status, integrating soil moisture status, plant physiology, and environmental conditions. There are few tools for measuring plant water status (water potential) in situ, presenting a critical barrier for developing appropriate phenotyping (measurement) methods for crop development and modeling efforts aimed at understanding water transport in plants. Here, we present the development of an in situ, minimally disruptive hydrogel nanoreporter (AquaDust) for measuring leaf water potential. Read More

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Progress towards Sustainable Control of subsp. in Olive Groves of Salento (Apulia, Italy).

Pathogens 2021 May 29;10(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, 73100 Monteroni-Lecce, Italy.

subsp. is the causal agent of "olive quick decline syndrome" in Salento (Apulia, Italy). On April 2015, we started interdisciplinary studies to provide a sustainable control strategy for this pathogen that threatens the multi-millennial olive agroecosystem of Salento. Read More

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Molecular and Histologic Adaptation of Horned Gall Induced by the Aphid (Pemphigidae).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 13;22(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650224, China.

Chinese galls are the result of hyperplasia in host plants induced by aphids. The metabolism and gene expression of these galls are modified to accommodate the aphids. Here, we highlight the molecular and histologic features of horned galls according to transcriptome and anatomical structures. Read More

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Differences in Leaf Morphological Parameters of Pear ( L.) Based on Their Susceptibility to European Pear Rust Caused by (Dicks.) Oerst.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, LV-3701 Dobele, Latvia.

European pear rust is an important disease; however, the relationship between its causal pathogen (Dicks.) Oerst. and host L. Read More

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Arsenic behavior in soil-plant system and its detoxification mechanisms in plants: A review.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 21;286:117389. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic and cancer-causing metals which is generally entered the food chain via intake of As contaminated water or food and harmed the life of living things especially human beings. Therefore, the reduction of As content in the food could be of great importance for healthy life. To reduce As contamination in the soil and food, the evaluation of plant-based As uptake and transportation mechanisms is critically needed. Read More

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Intensive cycling of nickel in a New Caledonian forest dominated by hyperaccumulator trees.

Plant J 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The hyperaccumulator Pycnandra acuminata is a New Caledonian rainforest tree known to have the highest concentration of nickel in any living organism with 25 wt% in its latex. All trees (with diameter >10 cm) and soil profiles in a 0.25-hectare permanent plot were sampled to assess the biogeochemical compartmentalisation of nickel in a dense stand of Pycnandra acuminata trees. Read More

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