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Effects of probiotics on digestive enzymes of fish (finfish and shellfish); status and prospects: A mini review.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 31:110653. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Biosciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Electronic address:

Digestive enzymes are enzymes found in the digestive tract of animals functioning by assisting in the breakdown of larger food molecules into more easily absorbed particles that can then be used by the body. The ability of fish to break down a diet is highly dependent on the availability of suitable digestive enzymes which mediate specific degradation pathways and on both the physical and chemical nature of food. Probiotics are known to produce helpful enzymes that aid in digestion and protect the GIT of animals (Sumon et al. Read More

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Apoptosis regulation at the mitochondria membrane level.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jul 31:183716. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute for Genetics, CECAD Research Center, University of Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a key checkpoint in apoptosis that activates the caspase cascade and irreversibly causes the majority of cells to die. The proteins of the Bcl-2 family are master regulators of apoptosis that form a complex interaction network within the mitochondrial membrane that determines the induction of MOMP. This culminates in the activation of the effector members Bax and Bak, which permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate MOMP. Read More

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Nanomessenger-Mediated Signaling Cascade for Antitumor Immunotherapy.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro & Nano Materials Interface Science, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, People's Republic of China.

Chemical messengers have been recognized as signaling molecules involved in regulating various physiological and metabolic activities. Nevertheless, they usually show limited regulatory efficiency due to the complexity of biological processes. Especially for tumor cells, antideath pathways and tumor metastasis are readily activated to resist chemical messenger regulation, further impairing antitumor outcomes. Read More

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A newly characterized malaria antigen on erythrocyte and merozoite surfaces induces parasite inhibitory antibodies.

J Exp Med 2021 Sep 3;218(9). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI.

We previously identified a Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) protein of unknown function encoded by a single-copy gene, PF3D7_1134300, as a target of antibodies in plasma of Tanzanian children in a whole-proteome differential screen. Here we characterize this protein as a blood-stage antigen that localizes to the surface membranes of both parasitized erythrocytes and merozoites, hence its designation as Pf erythrocyte membrane and merozoite antigen 1 (PfEMMA1). Mouse anti-PfEMMA1 antisera and affinity-purified human anti-PfEMMA1 antibodies inhibited growth of P. Read More

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September 2021

Sono-Fenton Chemistry Converts Phenol- and Phenyl-Derivatives into Polyphenols for Engineering Surface Coatings.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Shandong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, CHINA.

Polyphenol-based supramolecular assembly has attracted interest for engineering a range of functional surface coatings. Herein, we report a sono-Fenton strategy to mediate the supramolecular assembly of metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) as substrate-independent coatings using phenol and phenyl derivatives as building blocks. The assembly process is initiated from the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) using high-frequency ultrasound (412 kHz), while the metal ions synergistically participate in the production of additional •OH for hydroxylation/phenolation of phenol and phenyl derivatives via the Fenton reaction and also coordinate with the phenolic compounds for film formation. Read More

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STING1 is essential for an RNA-virus triggered autophagy.

Autophagy 2021 Aug 2:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of preventive veterinary medicine, College of Life Science & Technology, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

While the functions of STING1 (stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1) during DNA virus infection had been well documented, the roles STING1 plays during RNA viruses infection is obscure. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a well-known picornavirus, induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and autophagy. Here, we found that the FMDV-induced integrated stress response originates from the cellular pattern recognition receptor DDX58/RIG-I (DExD/H-box helicase 58). Read More

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Release and Actions of Inflammatory Exosomes in Pulmonary Emphysema: Potential Therapeutic Target of Acupuncture.

J Inflamm Res 2021 24;14:3501-3521. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.

Background: Exosomes have been reported to mediate activation of the inflammatory response by secretion of inflammasome products such as IL-1β or IL-18 and that changes in exosomes production or secretion may be a therapeutic target for treatment of a variety of different chronic diseases. The present study tested the hypothesis that exosome-mediated release of NLRP3 inflammasome products instigates the inflammatory response in the lung during emphysema, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and that electroacupuncture (EA) may attenuate emphysema by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent inflammation.

Methods: The COPD mice model was developed by injecting porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) via puncture tracheotomy and instillation. Read More

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Polymeric nanoparticle mediated inhibition of miR-21 with enhanced miR-124 expression for combinatorial glioblastoma therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 20;276:121036. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Henan-Macquarie University Joint Centre for Biomedical Innovation, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Brain Targeted Bio-nanomedicine, School of Life Sciences & School of Pharmacy, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, China; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal form of malignant brain tumor. Despite intensive effort, there is still no effective GBM treatment. Therefore, novel and more effective GBM therapeutic approaches are highly desired. Read More

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The conductivity and redox properties of pyrolyzed carbon mediate methanogenesis in paddy soils with ethanol as substrate.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 7;795:148906. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

Pyrolyzed carbon such as biochar and activated carbon could influence the methanogenesis in paddy soil, which is an important process controlling methane emission. Different electrochemical properties of pyrolyzed carbon may be involved in methanogenesis, such as conductivity and redox activity. However, their different roles have not been thoroughly illustrated before. Read More

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Association between Clinical Vision Measures and Visual Perception and Soccer Referees' On-field Performance.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Jul;98(7):789-801

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom.

Significance: The decisions taken by soccer officials are critically important to game management. Understanding the underlying processes that mediate expert performance in soccer refereeing may lead to a better standard of officiating. Vision is the dominant source of incoming information upon which officials rely to make their on-field decisions. Read More

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Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):713-719

Kutafin Moscow State Law University, 125993, Moscow, Russia.

The objectives of this research are to explore foreign experience of interaction of various levels of public authority in federal states in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, to determine the prospects for the development and improvement of the activities of the public authority system in Russia in this part.

Materials And Methods: The regulatory legal acts and the practice of interaction of various levels of public authority during the COVID-19 pandemic in federations (Australia, India, Canada, USA) were research.

Results: It has been established that a dual federal system with strict rules for the distribution of powers and responsibilities between the federation and its regions impedes a coordinated national response in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, while various forms of executive federalism serve as the key to successfully countering this threat. Read More

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NIR-triggered intracellular H+ transients for lamellipodia-collapsed antimetastasis and enhanced chemodynamic therapy.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Fudan University, Department of Materials Science, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China, 200433, Shanghai, CHINA.

In solid tumours, tumour invasion and metastasis account for 90% of cancer-related deaths. Cell migration is steered by the lamellipodia formed at the leading edge. These lamellipodia can drive the cell body forward via its mechanical deformation regulated by cofilin. Read More

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The molecular underpinnings of fertility: Genetic approaches in .

Adv Genet (Hoboken) 2021 Mar 30;2(1). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Genetics, Waksman Institute, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey.

The study of mutations that impact fertility has a catch-22. Fertility mutants are often lost since they cannot simply be propagated and maintained. This has hindered progress in understanding the genetics of fertility. Read More

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Psychological stress drives progression of malignant tumors via DRD2/HIF-1α signaling.

Cancer Res 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University

Although it is established that the sustained psychological stress conditions under which tumor patients often reside accelerates malignant progression of tumors, the molecular mechanism behind this association is unclear. In this work, the effect of psychological stress on tumor progression was verified using a stress-stimulated tumor-bearing mouse model (Str-tumor). Both D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) were highly expressed in the nucleus of stress-stimulated tumors. Read More

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Direct and indirect freedom in addiction: Folk free will and blame judgments are sensitive to the choice history of drug users.

Conscious Cogn 2021 Jul 25;94:103170. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

School of Psychology, Speech, and Hearing, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

People view addiction as a source of diminished free will and moral responsibility. Yet, people are also sensitive to the personal histories of moral actors, including, perhaps, the way by which people became addicted. Across two studies (N = 806), we compare people's moral intuitions about cases in which the actor becomes addicted by force or by choice. Read More

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A System for the Evolution of Protein-Protein Interaction Inducers.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60615, United States.

Molecules that induce interactions between proteins, often referred to as "molecular glues", are increasingly recognized as important therapeutic modalities and as entry points for rewiring cellular signaling networks. Here, we report a new PACE-based method to rapidly select and evolve molecules that mediate interactions between otherwise noninteracting proteins: rapid evolution of protein-protein interaction glues (rePPI-G). By leveraging proximity-dependent split RNA polymerase-based biosensors, we developed -based detection and selection systems that drive gene expression outputs only when interactions between target proteins are induced. Read More

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Independent variations in genome-wide expression, alternative splicing, and DNA methylation in brain tissues among castes of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris.

J Genet Genomics 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, PR China; CAS Centre for Excellence in Biotic Interactions, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Caste differentiation in social hymenopterans is an intriguing example of phenotypic plasticity. However, the co-ordination among gene regulatory factors to mediate caste differentiation remains inconclusive. In this study, we determined the role of gene regulation and related epigenetic processes in pre-imaginal caste differentiation in the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Read More

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Negotiating Time and Space When Working From Home: Experiences During COVID-19.

OTJR (Thorofare N J) 2021 Jul 27:15394492211033830. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.

Stay-at-home mandates following the COVID-19 pandemic increased work from home (WFH). While WFH offers many benefits, navigating work in nontraditional contexts can be a challenge. The objective of this study was to explore the benefits and challenges of WFH during COVID-19 to identify supports and resources necessary. Read More

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Density-dependent microbial calcium carbonate precipitation by drinking water bacteria via amino acid metabolism and biosorption.

Water Res 2021 Jul 18;202:117444. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Diagnostic and Research Center for Molecular BioMedicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; School of Health Sciences & Social Work, Biomedical Sciences, Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Klagenfurt, Austria.

Drinking water plumbing systems appear to be a unique environment for microorganisms as they contain few nutrients but a high mineral concentration. Interactions between mineral content and bacteria, such as microbial calcium carbonate precipitation (MCP) however, has not yet attracted too much attention in drinking water sector. This study aims to carefully examine MCP behavior of two drinking water bacteria species, which may potentially link scaling and biofouling processes in drinking water distribution systems. Read More

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The sugar transporter system of strawberry: genome-wide identification and expression correlation with fruit soluble sugar-related traits in a Fragaria × ananassa germplasm collection.

Hortic Res 2020 Jul 27;7(1):132. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Forestry and Fruit Tree Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (SAAS), Shanghai, 201403, China.

Sugar from plant photosynthesis is a basic requirement for life activities. Sugar transporters are the proteins that mediate sugar allocation among or within source/sink organs. The transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) targeting carbohydrates represent the largest family of sugar transporters in many plants. Read More

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Insect Gut Regeneration.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

In adult insects, as in vertebrates, the gut epithelium is a highly regenerative tissue that can renew itself rapidly in response to changing inputs from nutrition, the gut microbiota, ingested toxins, and signals from other organs. Because of its cellular and genetic similarities to the mammalian intestine, and its relevance as a target for the control of insect pests and disease vectors, many researchers have used insect intestines to address fundamental questions about stem cell functions during tissue maintenance and regeneration. In , where most of the experimental work has been performed, not only are intestinal cell types and behaviors well characterized, but numerous cell signaling interactions have been detailed that mediate gut epithelial regeneration. Read More

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Self-supervised deep learning model for COVID-19 lung CT image segmentation highlighting putative causal relationship among age, underlying disease and COVID-19.

J Transl Med 2021 07 26;19(1):318. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Computer Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is very contagious. Cases appear faster than the available Polymerase Chain Reaction test kits in many countries. Recently, lung computerized tomography (CT) has been used as an auxiliary COVID-19 testing approach. Read More

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RAD51 paralog function in replicative DNA damage and tolerance.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Jul 23;71:86-91. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Natural and Social Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, UK. Electronic address:

RAD51 paralog gene mutations are observed in both hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Classically, defects in RAD51 paralog function are associated with homologous recombination (HR) deficiency and increased genomic instability. Several recent investigative advances have enabled characterization of non-canonical RAD51 paralog function during DNA replication. Read More

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Cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanisms mediate in part the anti-dilatory effects of perivascular adipose tissue in uterine arteries from pregnant rats.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jul 23:105788. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Physiology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Uterine perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes to uterine blood flow regulation in pregnancy, at least in part, due to its effects on uterine artery reactivity. We tested the hypothesis that uterine PVAT modulates the balance between the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent pathways to acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation in isolated uterine arteries. Concentration-response curves to ACh (1nM - 30µM) were performed on uterine arteries from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Read More

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Does life history mediate discharge as a driver of multi-decadal changes in populations of freshwater fish?

Ecol Appl 2021 Jul 26:e02430. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, 123 Brown Street, Heidelberg Victoria, 3084, Australia.

Understanding how and why the size of populations varies is critical knowledge for conservation and management. While considerable work has explored how different demographic parameters affect population growth, less is known the drivers of variability in these parameters. Long-term time series tracking population size that are coupled with empirical data to examine the relative importance of different drivers are rare, especially in freshwater systems. Read More

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Circulating Hedgehog: a fresh view of a classic morphogen.

Development 2020 Dec 21;147(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, INSERM, iBV, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France.

Members of the Hedgehog family of morphogens mediate the intercellular communication necessary for the organisation and development of many animal tissues. They are modified by various lipid adducts, rendering them insoluble in hydrophilic environments and leading to the contentious question of how these molecules travel in the aqueous extracellular space. Seminal work carried out by Suzanne Eaton and her colleagues has shed light on how these morphogens can spread over long distances through their association with lipoprotein particles. Read More

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December 2020

Malectin/Malectin-like domain-containing proteins: A repertoire of cell surface molecules with broad functional potential.

Cell Surf 2021 Dec 24;7:100056. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, USA.

Cell walls are at the front line of interactions between walled-organisms and their environment. They support cell expansion, ensure cell integrity and, for multicellular organisms such as plants, they provide cell adherence, support cell shape morphogenesis and mediate cell-cell communication. Wall-sensing, detecting perturbations in the wall and signaling the cell to respond accordingly, is crucial for growth and survival. Read More

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December 2021

Relevance Between COVID-19 and Host Genetics of Immune Response.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman 15462, Kuwait.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was caused by the newly emerged corona virus (2019-nCoV SARS-CoV-2) that resembles the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan (China) has spread globally, resulting in a high mortality worldwide reaching ∼4 million deaths to date. As of first week of July 2021, ∼181 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported. Read More

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Walking energetics and fatigue are associated with physical activity in people with knee osteoarthritis.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Jul 17;88:105427. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 W. Taylor St., 650 AHSB, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Background: Aberrant biomechanics may influence osteoarthritis-associated physical activity limitations. Our purpose was to evaluate the association of walking energetics, fatigue, and fatigability on physical activity in people with knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that using increased energy for walking, experiencing more fatigue, or being more fatigable are associated with less activity, and that fatigue and fatigability mediate the relationships between walking energetics and physical activity. Read More

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Malnutrition and the microbiome as modifiers of early neurodevelopment.

Trends Neurosci 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Malnutrition refers to a dearth, excess, or altered differential ratios of calories, macronutrients, or micronutrients. Malnutrition, particularly during early life, is a pressing global health and socioeconomic burden that is increasingly associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. Understanding how perinatal malnutrition influences brain development is crucial to uncovering fundamental mechanisms for establishing behavioral neurocircuits, with the potential to inform public policy and clinical interventions for neurodevelopmental conditions. Read More

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