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The Health Physics Society's 'Ask-the-Expert' feature: widening public support through empathy and science.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Radian Scientific, Huntsville, Alabama, UNITED STATES.

A very large segment of the population is fearful of radiation, and sometimes rightly so. It's a word that conjures up images of something dangerous and invisible, and is often associated with the real fears of nuclear apocalypse that permeated the cold war era. TV dramas such as HBO's Chernobyl certainly fuel that fear response. Read More

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Family as a health promotion setting: A scoping review of conceptual models of the health-promoting family.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(4):e0249707. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Background: The family is a key setting for health promotion. Contemporary health promoting family models can establish scaffolds for shaping health behaviors and can be useful tools for education and health promotion.

Objectives: The objective of this scoping review is to provide details as to how conceptual and theoretical models of the health promoting potential of the family are being used in health promotion contexts. Read More

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Statistical Learning and the Effect of Starting Small in Developmental Dyslexia.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Apr 12:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

MTA-BME Momentum Language Acquisition Research Group, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), Budapest, Hungary.

Purpose Impairments in statistical learning abilities of individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) have been demonstrated in word segmentation and in visual artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, but so far, little attention has been devoted to the AGL abilities of this population in the acoustic verbal domain. This study aimed to test whether adolescents with dyslexia have difficulties in extracting abstract patterns from auditory sequences of nonsense syllables based on a finite state grammar relative to typically developing (TD) peers. We also tested whether incremental presentation of stimuli of different lengths (starting small) has a facilitating effect on learning complex structures in dyslexia (and in TD) as opposed to presenting strings in random order. Read More

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Passively-Measured Routine Home Computer Activity and Application Use Can Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment and Correlate with Important Cognitive Functions in Older Adulthood.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Minneapolis VA Healthcare System, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Computer use is a cognitively complex instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that has been linked to cognitive functioning in older adulthood, yet little work has explored its capacity to detect incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Objective: To examine whether routine home computer use (general computer use as well as use of specific applications) could effectively discriminate between older adults with and without MCI, as well as explore associations between use of common computer applications and cognitive domains known to be important for IADL performance.

Methods: A total of 60 community-dwelling older adults (39 cognitively healthy, 21 with MCI) completed a neuropsychological evaluation at study baseline and subsequently had their routine home computer use behaviors passively recorded for three months. Read More

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The language of states' COVID-19 messages: Correlates of positive and negative emotion and health outcomes.

J Prev Interv Community 2021 Apr 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Psychology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ, USA.

Crisis communication is most effective when it takes into consideration the emotional reactions of those involved. Messages pertaining to pandemic illness such as COVID-19 should thus include the most effective types of words, given the goal of crisis management. This study investigated hypothesized word categories (e. Read More

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Integrated Utilization Strategy for Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Synergically Synthesizing Biodiesel and Recovering Bioactive Compounds by a Combined Enzymatic Process and Molecular Distillation.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 27;6(13):9141-9152. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R. China.

Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) is well recognized as a good source of both biodiesel and high-value bioactive compounds of tocopherols, squalene, and phytosterols. To achieve a one-step synthesis of biodiesel and recovery of bioactive compounds from SODD, four commercial immobilized enzymes (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TLIM, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme RM) and one self-prepared immobilized lipase MAS1-H108A were compared. The results showed that immobilized lipase MAS1-H108A due to the better methanol tolerance and higher catalytic activity gave the highest biodiesel yield of 97. Read More

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Hot spots and trends in knee revision research since the 21st century: a bibliometric analysis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):388

Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: With the popularization of knee replacement surgery in the treatment of the advanced lesions of knee joint, the amount of knee revision surgery is increasing unceasingly. Meanwhile, the continuous introduction of new clinical concepts and new technology poses a challenge to researchers and surgeons. Our study aims to inform the future scientific research and clinical treatment, by investigating the hot spots and trends of the knee revision research field with the method of bibliometric analysis. Read More

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Why do we need harmonization in thoracic surgery: a view from above by the European Union of Medical Specialists.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):2021-2028

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Founded in 1958 the UEMS (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes-European Union of Medical Specialists) has become the largest European Medical organization representing over 1.5 million specialists of 43 Specialties in 39 countries. The primary goal of UEMS is to defend the interests of Specialists in the broadest sense of the word. Read More

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Accomplishment of one-step specific PCR and evaluated SELEX process by a dual-microfluidic amplified system.

Biomicrofluidics 2021 Mar 5;15(2):024107. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

One of the main obstacles for systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) failure is the generation of a non-specific product, as selection-inherent amplification procedures tend to form by-products, which prevents the enrichment of target-binding aptamers. Herein, we reported a dual-microfluidic amplified system (dual-MAS) based on the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection chip and the large volume PCR chip for one-step specific PCR and for evaluating the SELEX process. First, it is a simple method to accomplish analytical PCR and amplification PCR in one step, and the optimal number of cycles for generating the specific PCR product is the cycles when the slope of the linear amplification period of the real-time PCR curve begins to decrease. Read More

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Amantadine ER (Gocovri) Significantly Increases ON Time Without Any Dyskinesia: Pooled Analyses From Pivotal Trials in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:645706. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Adamas Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Emeryville, CA, United States.

Clinical trials for antiparkinsonian drugs aimed at managing motor complications typically use patient diaries to divide levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) into "troublesome" and "non-troublesome" categories. Yet, given the choice, most patients would prefer to live without experiencing any dyskinesia. However, the concept of evaluating time spent ON any dyskinesia as an outcome has never been tested. Read More

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Corrigendum: The Trade-Off Between Format Familiarity and Word-Segmentation Facilitation in Chinese Reading.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:665606. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences, Institute of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021. Read More

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The Home Learning Environment in the Digital Age-Associations Between Self-Reported "Analog" and "Digital" Home Learning Environment and Children's Socio-Emotional and Academic Outcomes.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:592513. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Social Monitoring and Methodology, German Youth Institute, Munich, Germany.

We analyzed the association between the analog and the digital home learning environment (HLE) in toddlers' and preschoolers' homes, and whether both aspects are associated with children's social and academic competencies. Here, we used data of the national representative sample of Growing up in Germany II, which includes 4,914 children aged 0-5 years. The HLE was assessed via parental survey that included items on the analog HLE (e. Read More

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The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Dual-Task Interference Depend on the Dual-Task Content.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 26;15:653713. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Systems Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan.

Recently, some studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reduces dual-task interference. Since there are countless combinations of dual-tasks, it remains unclear whether stable effects by tDCS can be observed on dual-task interference. An aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effects of tDCS on dual-task interference change depend on the dual-task content. Read More

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Automatic Pulse Classification for Artefact Removal Using SAX Strings, a CENTER-TBI Study.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:231-234

Brain Physics Lab, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

High-resolution, waveform-level data from bedside monitors carry important information about a patient's physiology but is also polluted with artefactual data. Manual mark-up is the standard practice for detecting and eliminating artefacts, but it is time-consuming, prone to errors, biased and not suitable for real-time processing.In this paper we present a novel automatic artefact detection technique based on a Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) technique which makes it possible to represent individual pulses as 'words'. Read More

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January 2021

Visual-spatial skills contribute to Chinese reading and arithmetic for different reasons: A three-wave longitudinal study.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Apr 7;208:105142. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Previous literature has revealed that visual-spatial processing is associated with both reading and arithmetic. Yet the strength of their relations and the reasons why visual-spatial processing contributes to reading and arithmetic remain ambiguous. The current study focused on two types of visual-spatial skills that recent evidence has suggested are crucial in children's early reading and arithmetic development: visual-perceptual and spatial visualization skills. Read More

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Animacy and animate imagery improve retention in the method of loci among novice users.

Mem Cognit 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Recently, researchers have identified word animacy as a strong predictor of recall. In contrast, the method of loci is an ancient mnemonic technique which takes advantage of highly structured encoding and recall processes alongside a strong imagery component to create easily remembered "memory palaces." The present experiments examine the combined effectiveness of these techniques: Experiment 1 (N = 154) demonstrates that the method of loci and word animacy have additive effects, while Experiment 2 (N = 200) demonstrates that the additive effect of animacy is likely related to both the animate nature of words themselves and animate imagery associated with them. Read More

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The validation of a Japanese language version of the postoperative quality of recovery scale: a prospective observational study.

JA Clin Rep 2021 Apr 9;7(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Room 214, Level 2, Alan Gilbert Building 161 Barry St, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Background: The Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PostopQRS) is a survey-based tool that measures quality of the postoperative recovery in multiple domains over multiple time periods. The purpose of this study is to validate the Japanese version of the PostopQRS.

Methods: A prospective observational study using bilingual healthy volunteers was conducted in Australia to assess equivalence of the test values between the two languages. Read More

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[Neurophysiological parameters for speech recognition in patients with cochlear implants].

Laryngorhinootologie 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Klinik für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultät der Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Germany.

Objectives:  Cochlea Implants (CI) are the preferred treatment for deaf and highly hearing imparied people. While deaf people already profit enormously from any regained hearing perception, it is not as easy to predict a profitable outcome for people with a remaining sense of hearing. To provide patients the best possible outcome in speech understanding, a lot of parameters have to be identified and adjusted. Read More

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Generalizing neural signal-to-text brain-computer interfaces.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California - Los Angeles, 7523 Boelter Hall, USA, Los Angeles, California, 90095, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) may help patients with faltering communication abilities due to neurodegenerative diseases produce text or speech by direct neural processing. However, their practical realization has proven difficult due to limitations in speed, accuracy, and generalizability of existing interfaces. The goal of this study is to evaluate the BCI performance of a robust speech decoding system that translates neural signals evoked by speech to a textual output. Read More

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Effects of concurrent action and object naming treatment on naming skills and functional brain activation patterns in primary progressive aphasia: An fMRI study with a case-series design.

Brain Lang 2021 Apr 6;218:104950. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, United States. Electronic address:

Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) exhibit differential impairment patterns in noun and verb naming, but it remains unclear whether anomia treatment results in similar improvements in noun and verb naming. Therefore, we examined the immediate and long-term (3-months post-treatment) behavioral and neural effects of an anomia treatment on object and action naming skills in PPA. A case-series design was utilized involving two individuals with PPA. Read More

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Impact of visual processing skills on reading ability in Chinese deaf children.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Apr 6;113:103953. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Research Center of Children's Reading and Learning, Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Reading activity involves visual processing in nature. Compared with hearing people, visual processing may be more critical for deaf people. However, much less research has explored the impact of visual processing on the reading ability of deaf children, and the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Read More

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What Can Network Science Tell Us About Phonology and Language Processing?

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas.

Contemporary psycholinguistic models place significant emphasis on the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition, recognition, and production of language but neglect many issues related to the representation of language-related information in the mental lexicon. In contrast, a central tenet of network science is that the structure of a network influences the processes that operate in that system, making process and representation inextricably connected. Here, we consider how the structure found across phonological networks of several languages from different language families may influence language processing as we age and experience diseases that affect cognition during the typical and atypical acquisition of new words, during typical perception and production of speech in adults, and during language change over time. Read More

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"I would sooner die than give up": Huxley and Darwin's deep disagreement.

Mary P Winsor

Hist Philos Life Sci 2021 Apr 9;43(2):53. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto, 550 Spadina Crescent, Toronto, ON, M5S 2J9, Canada.

Thomas Henry Huxley and Charles Darwin discovered in 1857 that they had a fundamental disagreement about biological classification. Darwin believed that the natural system should express genealogy while Huxley insisted that classification must stand on its own basis, independent of evolution. Darwin used human races as a model for his view. Read More

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Letter to the Editor: Not the Last Word: Predicting Chaos in the Residency Match.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

A. Aiyer, J. Geller, C. Granger, Foot & Ankle Service, Department of Orthopaedics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

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Active maintenance of musical and linguistic information as a function of musical experience.

J Gen Psychol 2021 Apr 9:1-18. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Wisconsin Oshkosh.

Recent research suggests that linguistic and musical information are processed by shared working memory resources in non-musicians. However, it is still unclear how musical information is actively maintained by those with extensive musical experience. Some evidence suggests that those with musical experience may utilize distinct processing systems for the active maintenance of linguistic and musical information. Read More

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[Cognitive and emotional disorders in patients with migraine and signs of leukoencephalopathy].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):7-12

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To identify cognitive and emotional disorders and their correlation with neuroimaging parameters in patients with chronic migraine.

Material And Methods: We examined 50 patients (8 men and 42 women, mean age 41.9±11. Read More

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The simultaneous recognition of multiple words: A process analysis.

Mem Cognit 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Engelbergerstraße 41, Freiburg, 79106, Germany.

In everyday life, recognition decisions often have to be made for multiple objects simultaneously. In contrast, research on recognition memory has predominantly relied on single-item recognition paradigms. We present a first systematic investigation into the cognitive processes that differ between single-word and paired-word tests of recognition memory. Read More

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Effects of virtual reality in post-stroke aphasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No.5 Haiyuncang, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100700, China.

Objective: To investigate whether virtual reality (VR) interventions have beneficial effects on the functional communication and language function of patients with post-stroke aphasia (PSA).

Methods: We searched nine electronic literature databases and two clinical registry platforms to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs performed up to September 2020. Screening, quality assessment, and data collection were performed by two authors independently, using standard protocols. Read More

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Expanding the Utilization of Low-Dose Computed Tomography in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Based on Validated Practices Among Surgical Specialties.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY.

Introduction: As computed tomography (CT) usage increases, so have concerns over radiation-induced malignancy. To mitigate these risks, low-dose CT (LDCT) has emerged as a versatile alternative by other specialties, although its use in plastic surgery remains sparse. This study aimed to investigate validated uses of LDCT across surgical specialties and extrapolate these insights to expand its application for plastic surgeons. Read More

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Resting-State Functional MRI for Determining Language Lateralization in Children with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

From the Neurosciences and Mental Health Program (N.L.P., A.S.S., A.R., E.W.), The Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Background And Purpose: Task-based fMRI is a noninvasive method of determining language dominance; however, not all children can complete language tasks due to age, cognitive/intellectual, or language barriers. Task-free approaches such as resting-state fMRI offer an alternative method. This study evaluated resting-state fMRI for predicting language laterality in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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