623 results match your criteria wood blocks


Preparation and Characterization of Biobased Lignin-Co-Polyester/Amide Thermoplastics.

Molecules 2021 Apr 22;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.

More than 23 million tonnes of lignin are produced annually in the US from wood pulping and 98% of this lignin is burnt. Therefore, creating products from lignin, such as plastics, offers an approach for obtaining sustainable materials in a circular economy. Lignin-based copolymers were synthesized using a single pot, solvent free, melt condensation reaction. Read More

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SOD1 regulates ribosome biogenesis in KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2259. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

SOD1 is known as the major cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and an anticancer target. However, the role of SOD1 in cancer is not fully understood. Herein we describe the generation of an inducible Sod1 knockout in KRAS-driven NSCLC mouse model. Read More

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Pharmaceutically relevant (hetero)cyclic compounds and natural products from lignin-derived monomers: Present and perspectives.

iScience 2021 Mar 20;24(3):102211. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Stratingh Institute for Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, the Netherlands.

Lignin, the richest source of renewable aromatics on the planet, is an intriguing raw material for the construction of value-added aromatics. In the past decade, much progress has been made regarding the development of efficient lignin depolymerization methods, able to produce specific monophenol derivatives in high-enough selectivity and yields. This now serves as an excellent basis for developing powerful downstream conversion strategies toward a wide range of products, including fine chemical building blocks. Read More

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Growth of cumaru (Amburana cearensis) seedlings irrigated with industrial effluent.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Technology and Society, Federal University of the Semiarid - UFERSA, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN, CEP 59.625-900, Brazil.

In view of the need to implement programs to recompose vegetation cover, urban afforestation, charcoal production, firewood production, and other wood or non-wood purposes, it is necessary to use alternatives and techniques that facilitate the production of seedlings in order to meet these demands, where water reuse is a promising alternative to ensure production at a reduced cost, without compromising the use of drinking water, without generating waste, potentiating the production process and promoting social and environmental benefits. Thus, it is necessary to adopt strategies to improve the efficiency of wastewater reuse for the production of forest species seedlings without compromising the initial growth of species. In this sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of Amburana cearensis plants in different substrates irrigated with industrial effluent. Read More

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Mitochondrial uncoupler MB1-47 is efficacious in treating hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer in murine tumor transplantation models.

Oncogene 2021 Mar 1;40(12):2285-2295. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is aggressive cancer characterized by rapid progression, metastatic recurrence, and highly resistant to treatment. PDA cells exhibit aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect, which reduces the flux of pyruvate into mitochondria. As a result, more glycolytic metabolites are shunted to pathways for the production of building blocks (e. Read More

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The mTORC1-mediated activation of ATF4 promotes protein and glutathione synthesis downstream of growth signals.

Elife 2021 Mar 1;10. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Molecular Metabolism, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, United States.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates a coordinated anabolic program in response to growth-promoting signals. Paradoxically, recent studies indicate that mTORC1 can activate the transcription factor ATF4 through mechanisms distinct from its canonical induction by the integrated stress response (ISR). However, its broader roles as a downstream target of mTORC1 are unknown. Read More

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De Novo Designed Peptide and Protein Hairpins Self-Assemble into Sheets and Nanoparticles.

Small 2021 Mar 15;17(10):e2100472. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.

The design and assembly of peptide-based materials has advanced considerably, leading to a variety of fibrous, sheet, and nanoparticle structures. A remaining challenge is to account for and control different possible supramolecular outcomes accessible to the same or similar peptide building blocks. Here a de novo peptide system is presented that forms nanoparticles or sheets depending on the strategic placement of a "disulfide pin" between two elements of secondary structure that drive self-assembly. Read More

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Wooden hoof blocks: are we using the right wood?

N Z Vet J 2021 May 15;69(3):158-164. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camden, Australia.

Aims: To investigate the association between the density of wooden hoof blocks and resistance to wear in pasture-based dairy herds, and to assess the density of commercially available wooden hoof blocks.

Methods: Three types of wooden hoof blocks with different densities (low, medium and high) were attached to 36 lactating dairy cows with parity ≤2 and sound locomotion (score ≤2 on a scale of 1-4). The height of wooden blocks was measured in three different regions, front, abaxial and caudal on Days 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 and 28 after application. Read More

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Visual teaching aids improve patient understanding and reduce anxiety prior to a colectomy.

Am J Surg 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Informed consent forms consist of large blocks of written information that may be difficult for patients to understand. Visual teaching aids are promising, however, they have not been studied as a pre-operative educational tool for common surgical procedures. We pilot tested the use of a visual teaching aid during the informed consent process for a colectomy. Read More

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January 2021

The Impacts of Temporal Variation and Individual Differences in Driver Cognitive Workload on ECG-Based Detection.

Hum Factors 2021 Feb 4:18720821990484. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Volvo Trucks Australia, Brisbane, Australia.

Objective: This paper aimed to investigate the robustness of driver cognitive workload detection based on electrocardiogram (ECG) when considering temporal variation and individual differences in cognitive workload.

Background: Cognitive workload is a critical component to be monitored for error prevention in human-machine systems. It may fluctuate instantaneously over time even in the same tasks and differ across individuals. Read More

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February 2021

Developing fibrillated cellulose as a sustainable technological material.

Nature 2021 02 3;590(7844):47-56. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, found in trees, waste from agricultural crops and other biomass. The fibres that comprise cellulose can be broken down into building blocks, known as fibrillated cellulose, of varying, controllable dimensions that extend to the nanoscale. Fibrillated cellulose is harvested from renewable resources, so its sustainability potential combined with its other functional properties (mechanical, optical, thermal and fluidic, for example) gives this nanomaterial unique technological appeal. Read More

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February 2021

Resistance to Growth of Molds for Wood Modified with Hydrophobic Hybrid Silica Gel Containing Copper Amine Complexes.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 26;14(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Key Laboratory for Biobased Materials and Energy of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Complexation copper with amine provides an effective strategy for fixation copper in wood, while hydrophobic modification improves the dimensional stability of wood. Thus, a combination of complexation and hydrophobization is expected to enhance the efficiency of copper-based biocides. In this study, hydrophobic hybrid silica gel containing copper amine complexes (MACu) was prepared through an in situ sol-gel process in wood using methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), 3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and copper chloride. Read More

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January 2021

Characterizing Fungal Decay of Beech Wood: Potential for Biotechnological Applications.

Microorganisms 2021 Jan 26;9(2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Laboratory for Cellulose & Wood Materials, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland.

The biotechnological potential of nine decay fungi collected from stored beech logs at a pulp and paper factory yard in Northern Iran was investigated. Beech blocks exposed to the fungi in a laboratory decay test were used to study changes in cell wall chemistry using both wet chemistry and spectroscopic methods. , , and caused greater lignin breakdown compared to other white-rot fungi, which led to a 28% reduction in refining energy. Read More

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January 2021

Toughening of a Soft Polar Polythiophene through Copolymerization with Hard Urethane Segments.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jan 11;8(2):2002778. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg 41296 Sweden.

Polar polythiophenes with oligoethylene glycol side chains are exceedingly soft materials. A low glass transition temperature and low degree of crystallinity prevents their use as a bulk material. The synthesis of a copolymer comprising 1) soft polythiophene blocks with tetraethylene glycol side chains, and 2) hard urethane segments is reported. Read More

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January 2021

Inventory review and environmental evaluation of first- and second-generation sugars through life cycle assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, CRETUS Institute, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

In recent years, there has been a great movement towards the generation of knowledge related to the biorefinery concept. First-generation biorefineries bear the stigma of using arable land and edible crops for fuel instead of as sources of food and feed. However, second-generation biorefineries have not reached the level of full technical feasibility. Read More

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January 2021

Haplotype- and SNP-Based GWAS for Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Trees under Arid Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 13;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Talca, 1 Poniente 1141, Talca 3460000, Chile.

The agricultural and forestry productivity of Mediterranean ecosystems is strongly threatened by the adverse effects of climate change, including an increase in severe droughts and changes in rainfall distribution. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype blocks associated with the growth and wood quality of , a tree species suitable for low-rainfall sites. The study was conducted in a progeny-provenance trial established in an arid site with Mediterranean patterns located in the southern Atacama Desert, Chile. Read More

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January 2021

Comparative Analysis of the Ecological Succession of Microbial Communities on Two Artificial Reef Materials.

Microorganisms 2021 Jan 6;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai 264209, China.

Concrete and wood are commonly used to manufacture artificial reefs (ARs) worldwide for marine resource enhancement and habitat restoration. Although microbial biofilms play an important role in marine ecosystems, the microbial communities that colonize concrete and wooden ARs and their temporal succession have rarely been studied. In this study, the temporal succession of the microbial communities on concrete and wooden AR blocks and the driving factors were investigated. Read More

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January 2021

Mechanically Strong, Scalable, Mesoporous Xerogels of Nanocellulose Featuring Light Permeability, Thermal Insulation, and Flame Self-Extinction.

ACS Nano 2021 Jan 6;15(1):1436-1444. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biomaterial Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

Scalability is a common challenge in the structuring of nanoscale particle dispersions, particularly in the drying of these dispersions for producing functional, porous structures such as aerogels. Aerogel production relies on supercritical drying, which exhibits poor scalability. A solution to this scalability limitation is the use of evaporative drying under ambient pressure. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of wood resource size and decomposition on hyphal outgrowth of a cord-forming basidiomycete, Phanerochaete velutina.

Sci Rep 2020 12 14;10(1):21936. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 232-3 Yomogida, Naruko, Osaki, Miyagi, 989-6711, Japan.

To assess the relationship between resource use and hyphal growth in a cord-forming basidiomycete, Phanerochaete velutina, soil microcosm experiments were conducted using wood blocks of three different sizes in three different soil quantities, thereby simulating the different amounts of available nutrients. The highest percentage weight loss was observed in the smallest wood blocks after a 27-d incubation period in soil microcosms, although the percentage weight loss over the 2-month pure culture colonization prior to inoculation was not significantly different among various block sizes. The greatest hyphal outgrowth was also observed in the smallest wood blocks and was positively associated with wood decay. Read More

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December 2020

Biomacromolecular-Assembled Nanoclusters: Key Aspects for Robust Colloidal SERS Sensing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 11;12(51):57302-57313. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Institute of Physical Chemistry and Polymer Physics, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

Superstructures of gold nanospheres offer augmented surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities beyond the limits of their individual building blocks. However, for application as reliable and quantitative colloidal SERS probes, some key aspects need to be considered to combine efficiency and robustness with respect to hotspot excitation, analyte adsorption, signal stability, and colloidal stability. For this purpose, we studied core/satellite superstructures with spherical cores as a simple optically isotropic model system. Read More

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December 2020

Data on making uniform lignin building blocks via in-situ real-time monitoring of hydroxyethyl modification.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 10;33:106512. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Wood Science, The University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

In this work, a lab-designed apparatus was developed to collect and record the CO amount during the hydroxyethyl modification of lignin. We presented the CO volume amount and the production rate under different reaction conditions (80 - 120 °C and 2 - 6 hrs). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to analyze the chemical structure of the hydroxyethyl lignin corresponding with different amounts of CO that evolved during the reaction. Read More

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December 2020

Comparison of Primary Stability of Implants Installed by Two Different Methods in D3 and D4 Bone Types: An Study.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2020 Sep-Oct;10(5):620-626. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, St. Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, 534004, India.

Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the method of implant insertion in D3 and D4 bones and influence of insertion torque for achieving better primary implant stability.

Materials And Methods: A total of 32 specimens (wood blocks) simulating D4 and D3 bone were grouped into 1, 2, 3, and 4. In groups 1 and 3, the implant and abutment were placed by manual method while in groups 2 and 4 by motor-driven method. Read More

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September 2020

Deconvoluting the biology and druggability of protein lipidation using chemical proteomics.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2021 Feb 20;60:97-112. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Chemistry, Molecular Sciences Research Hub, White City Campus, Wood Lane, London, W12 0BZ, UK. Electronic address:

Lipids are indispensable cellular building blocks, and their post-translational attachment to proteins makes them important regulators of many biological processes. Dysfunction of protein lipidation is also implicated in many pathological states, yet its systematic analysis presents significant challenges. Thanks to innovations in chemical proteomics, lipidation can now be readily studied by metabolic tagging using functionalized lipid analogs, enabling global profiling of lipidated substrates using mass spectrometry. Read More

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February 2021

The Effect of Glue Cohesive Stiffness on the Elastic Performance of Bent Wood-CFRP Beams.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 11;13(22). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

This paper presents experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of wood-CFRP beams bonded with polyurethane (PUR) adhesive. The analyses include two types of CFRP (carbon fibre-reinforced polymer) strengthening configurations and pure glue laminated timber beams as a reference. Through detailed analyses of a double-lap connection on blocks with and without CFRP strips, the authors state that neglecting the cohesive stiffness of adhesive layers may lead to an overestimation of an overall beam's stiffness. Read More

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November 2020

Combination Lower Extremity Nerve Blocks and Their Effect on Postoperative Pain and Opioid Consumption: A Systematic Review.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Jan-Feb;60(1):121-131. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Orthopaedic Surgeon, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Foot and Ankle Service, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital and Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Boston, MA.

The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature examining postoperative outcomes following single site and combined peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs), including (1) sciatic and femoral nerve, (2) popliteal and saphenous nerve, and (3) popliteal and ankle nerve, during elective foot and ankle surgery. We hypothesized that combination blocks would decrease postoperative narcotic consumption and afford more effective postoperative pain control as compared to general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, or single site PNBs. A review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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September 2020

Building community resilience to prevent and mitigate community impact of gun violence: conceptual framework and intervention design.

BMJ Open 2020 10 10;10(10):e040277. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: The USA has the highest rate of community gun violence of any developed democracy. There is an urgent need to develop feasible, scalable and community-led interventions that mitigate incident gun violence and its associated health impacts. Our community-academic research team received National Institutes of Health funding to design a community-led intervention that mitigates the health impacts of living in communities with high rates of gun violence. Read More

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October 2020

Gas-sieving zeolitic membranes fabricated by condensation of precursor nanosheets.

Nat Mater 2021 Mar 5;20(3):362-369. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Laboratory of Advanced Separations (LAS), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Sion, Switzerland.

The synthesis of molecular-sieving zeolitic membranes by the assembly of building blocks, avoiding the hydrothermal treatment, is highly desired to improve reproducibility and scalability. Here we report exfoliation of the sodalite precursor RUB-15 into crystalline 0.8-nm-thick nanosheets, that host hydrogen-sieving six-membered rings (6-MRs) of SiO tetrahedra. Read More

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Exploring design variations of the Titian Stradivari violin using a finite element model.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 Sep;148(3):1496

Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados-Unidad Monterrey; Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, Alianza Norte 202, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600, Mexico.

Because violins are traditionally hand-crafted using wood, each one is unique. This makes the design of repeatable experiments studying some aspects of its dynamic behavior unfeasible. To tackle this problem, an adjustable finite element (FE) model of a violin soundbox using the geometry and behavior of the "Titian" Stradivari was developed in this paper. Read More

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September 2020

Self-Assembled Bioinspired Nanocomposites.

Acc Chem Res 2020 11 29;53(11):2622-2635. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

A3BMS Lab-Active, Adaptive and Autonomous Bioinspired Materials, Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Straße 31, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Bioinspired materials engineering impacts the design of advanced functional materials across many domains of sciences from wetting behavior to optical and mechanical materials. In all cases, the advances in understanding how biology uses hierarchical design to create failure and defect-tolerant materials with emergent properties lays the groundwork for engaging into these topics. Biological mechanical materials are particularly inspiring for their unique combinations of stiffness, strength, and toughness together with lightweightness, as assembled and grown in water from a limited set of building blocks at room temperature. Read More

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November 2020

Characterization of Clinical Cases of Malignant PEComa via Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of DNA and RNA.

Oncology 2020 23;98(12):905-912. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA,

Purpose: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal soft tissue neoplasm often linked to mTOR pathway activation via TSC2 mutation. We analyzed a series of 31 consecutive metastatic PEComa (mPEComa) cases using a combined DNA/RNA hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) assay to assess the genomic landscape of mPEComa.

Patients And Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks or slides were obtained from tumors from 31 unique patients with mPEC-oma. Read More

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December 2020