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Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):145-149

1Tbilisi State Medical University, Iovel Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry, Tbilisi, Georgia; 2Laboratoire LASEVE, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des Sciences Fondamentales, Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada.

The aim of the study was to determine the stable diagnostic traits of a Caucasian endemic plant Daphne axilliflora (Keissl.) Pobed. and study its phytochemical composition. Read More

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The Impact of Surgeon Experience on Script Concordance Test Scoring.

J Surg Res 2021 May 5;265:265-271. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Innovation in Medical Education (DIME), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The Script Concordance Test (SCT) is a test of clinical decision-making that relies on an expert panel to create its scoring key. Existing literature demonstrates the value of specialty-specific experts, but the effect of experience among the expert panel is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of surgeon experience in SCT scoring. Read More

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Efficient conversion of hemicellulose sugars from spent sulfite liquor into optically pure L-lactic acid by Enterococcus mundtii.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 27;333:125215. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Spent sulfite liquor (SSL), a waste stream from wood pulp production, has great potential as carbon source for future industrial fermentations. In the present study, SSL was separated into a hemicellulose derived sugar syrup (HDSS) and a lignosulfonic fraction by simulated moving bed chromatography. The recovery of SSL sugars in the HDSS was 89% and the fermentation inhibitors furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid were removed by 98. Read More

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Biological effects of combustion-derived particles from different biomass sources on human bronchial epithelial cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 May 5:105190. Epub 2021 May 5.

Section of Pollution and Noise, Department of Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Combustion-derived particles (CDPs), in particular from traffic, are regarded as a central contributor for adverse health effects linked to air pollution. Recently, also biomass burning has been recognized as an important source for CDPs. Here, the effects of CDPs (PM) originating from burning of pellet, charcoal and wood on key processes associated to lung carcinogenesis were explored. Read More

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Gene Flow Increases Phylogenetic Structure and Inflates Cryptic Species Estimations: A Case Study on Widespread Philippine Puddle Frogs (Occidozyga laevis).

Syst Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Biodiversity Institute and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.

In cryptic amphibian complexes, there is a growing trend to equate high levels of genetic structure with hidden cryptic species diversity. Typically, phylogenetic structure and distance-based approaches are used to demonstrate the distinctness of clades and justify the recognition of new cryptic species. However, this approach does not account for gene flow, spatial, and environmental processes that can obfuscate phylogenetic inference and bias species delimitation. Read More

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Racial differences in the response to multiple sclerosis therapy.

Heather Wood

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Nature Reviews Neurology, .

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The role of endoscopy and findings in COVID-19 patients, an early North American Cohort.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 7;21(1):205. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Background And Aims: Gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are common but the role of endoscopy in this patient population remains unclear. We investigated the need for endoscopic procedures, their findings, and impact on patient care in a systematic and geographically diverse sample of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: As part of the North American Alliance for the Study of Digestive Manifestations of COVID-19, we identified consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at 36 medical centers in the USA and Canada. Read More

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Maths, Physics and Clinical Measurement for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

Anesth Analg 2020 Oct;131(4):e182-e183

Department of Anaesthesia, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand,

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October 2020

Adenosine Kinase: An Epigenetic Modulator in Development and Disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 4:105054. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Department of Neurosurgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102; Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Electronic address:

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the key regulator of adenosine and catalyzes the metabolism of adenosine to 5'-adenosine monophosphate. The enzyme exists in two isoforms: a long isoform (ADK-long, ADK-L) and a short isoform (ADK-short, ADK-S). The two isoforms are developmentally regulated and are differentially expressed in distinct subcellular compartments with ADK-L localized in the nucleus and ADK-S localized in the cytoplasm. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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A randomised evaluation of low-dose cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) plus tosedostat versus low-dose ara-C in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: results of the LI-1 trial.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Haematology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK.

Older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) account for nearly half of those with the disease. Because they are perceived to be unfit for, unwilling to receive, or unlikely to benefit from conventional chemotherapy they represent an important unmet need. Tosedostat is a selective oral aminopeptidase inhibitor, which in phase I/II trials showed acceptable toxicity and encouraging efficacy. Read More

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Emergency surgery workforce and its inverse relationship with multidimensional poverty in Colombia.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia.

Purpose: General surgeons, anesthesiologists, obstetricians and gynecologists (ob-gyns), and orthopedic surgeons are the vital disciplines to provide emergency surgery within a healthcare system. This paper aims to examine the relationship (if any) between multidimensional poverty (MDP) and GDP per-capita with the emergency surgery workforce density in Colombia.

Methods: We performed an ecological study, where the observation units were the 32 Colombian departments. Read More

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Malignancies diagnosed before and after anal squamous cell carcinomas: A SEER registry analysis.

Cancer Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Background: Increased risk of a second primary malignancy (SPM) before or after diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) has been reported in a previous single-institution study. We hypothesize that patients diagnosed with ASCC are at increased risk for developing SPMs before or after the diagnosis of ASCC. The primary objective of this study was to identify the diagnoses of cancer most likely to occur as SPMs before or after ASCC. Read More

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Validity of claims-based algorithms for selected cancers in Japan: Results from the VALIDATE-J study.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Treatment Science, Rutgers Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

Purpose: Real-world data from large administrative claims databases in Japan have recently become available, but limited evidence exists to support their validity. VALIDATE-J validated claims-based algorithms for selected cancers in Japan.

Methods: VALIDATE-J was a multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Read More

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Sympatric cases of squirrelpox in red and grey squirrels.

Vet Rec 2021 May;188(9):358

APHA Shrewsbury, Veterinary Investigation Centre, Harlescott, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, SY1 4HD.

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High light-induced photoinhibition is not limiting seedling establishment at abrupt treeline ecotones in New Zealand.

Tree Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Science, Auckland University of Technology, 46 Wakefield St, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand.

•Seedlings of New Zealand's treeline forming Fuscospora cliffortioides (Hook.f.) perform poorly beyond the established canopy, limiting treeline advance. Read More

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Stimulant-Induced Pituitary Failure and Reversible Azoospermia.

Cureus 2021 Apr 3;13(4):e14269. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, IVFMD, Cooper City, USA.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed disorder that is managed with stimulant medications, which function by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain. Excess dopamine has been known to affect several body systems, including the endocrine system. This case presents male factor infertility caused by a negative interaction between excess dopamine and the endocrine system, inducing pituitary failure, which led to azoospermia. Read More

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Effect of urea concentration on properties of peanut protein isolate, arachin and conarachin-based adhesives during urea-epichlorohydrin modification.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 31;8(3):202227. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, 100, Lianhua Street, High-tech, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, People's Republic of China.

To lay a theoretical basis for the preparation of peanut protein-based adhesives and promote the sustainable development of the adhesive industry, properties of peanut protein isolate (PPI), arachin and conarachin-based adhesives modified by urea and epichlorohydrin (ECH) were investigated under different urea concentrations. When the urea concentration was 2 mol l, the wet shear strength of the PPI-based adhesive was 1.24 MPa with the best water resistance. Read More

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Evaluation of the Microba Community Profiler for Taxonomic Profiling of Metagenomic Datasets From the Human Gut Microbiome.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:643682. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Microba Life Sciences Limited, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

A fundamental goal of microbial ecology is to accurately determine the species composition in a given microbial ecosystem. In the context of the human microbiome, this is important for establishing links between microbial species and disease states. Here we benchmark the Microba Community Profiler (MCP) against other metagenomic classifiers using 140 moderate to complex microbial communities and a standardized reference genome database. Read More

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Impairment of Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in Patients With Severe and Milder Forms of Sickle Cell Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:645205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Location AMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), cerebral blood flow (CBF) is elevated to counteract anemia and maintain oxygen supply to the brain. This may exhaust the vasodilating capacity of the vessels, possibly increasing the risk of silent cerebral infarctions (SCI). To further investigate cerebrovascular hemodynamics in SCD patients, we assessed CBF, arterial transit time (ATT), cerebrovascular reactivity of CBF and ATT (CVR and CVR ) and oxygen delivery in patients with different forms of SCD and matched healthy controls. Read More

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Phylogeny and diversity of (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), including four new species from South America and Asia.

MycoKeys 2021 26;79:149-172. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China Beijing Forestry University Beijing China.

Four new species of , viz. , , , and , are described from tropical America and Asia. is characterised by dark grey to black pore surface, a monomitic hyphal system, hyaline to yellowish-brown generative hyphae, and ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 3. Read More

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Clear phylogeographic pattern and genetic structure of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9680. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Toruń, Poland.

The wild boar Sus scrofa is one of the widely spread ungulate species in Europe, yet the origin and genetic structure of the population inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe are not well recognized. We analysed 101 newly obtained sequences of complete mtDNA genomes and 548 D-loop sequences of the species and combined them with previously published data. We identified five phylogenetic clades in Europe with clear phylogeographic pattern. Read More

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Wellness Program Implementation in an Academic Radiology Department: Determination of Need, Organizational Buy-in, and Outcomes.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5):663-668

Vice Chair for Faculty Affairs, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Objective: To implement a multifaceted wellness program in an academic radiology department to prevent burnout and to assess initial outcomes with special focus on the challenges related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: A wellness program was established to address institutional and personal factors of burnout. The program focused on interventions to improve efficiency of practice, provide personal and career support, and create a culture of wellness. Read More

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A Rare Case of Periprosthetic Joint Infection Caused by a Periodontal Pathogen, Slackia exigua: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 02 22;11(1). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Case: A 72-year-old woman with a history of right total hip arthroplasty and subsequent revision 18 years ago developed right hip periprosthetic joint infection with significant bone destruction caused by Slackia exigua. She underwent a dental cavity filling without prophylactic antibiotics before presentation that may have contributed to development of the infection. The patient required total hip revision and prolonged antibiotic therapy to eradicate the bacteria. Read More

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February 2021

Maximizing success in single-session EUS-directed transgastric ERCP: a retrospective cohort study to identify predictive factors of stent migration.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.

Background And Aims: EUS-directed transgastric ERCP (the EDGE procedure) is a simplified method of performing ERCP in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients. [1] The EDGE procedure involves placement of a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) into the excluded stomach to serve as a conduit for passage of the duodenoscope for pancreatobiliary intervention. Originally a multistep process, urgent indications for ERCP have led to the development of single-session EDGE (SS-EDGE) with LAMS placement and ERCP performed in the same session. Read More

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Psychological Traits and the Persuasiveness of Lung Cancer Screening Health Messages.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

Background: Lung cancer screening remains underutilized despite its proven mortality benefit. Health systems have attempted to increase screening awareness through advertising. Psychological theories suggest that construal level (a personal orientation towards the big picture or the details) and regulatory focus (goals emphasizing acquisition of a good, or avoidance of a bad outcome) play a key role in health advertising effectiveness. Read More

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Comparative macrolide use in humans and animals: should macrolides be moved off the World Health Organisation's critically important antimicrobial list?

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, Zoetis, Inc, Kalamazoo, MI, USA.

Macrolide antibiotics are categorized by the WHO as Highest Priority, Critically Important Antimicrobials due to their recommendation as treatment for severe cases of campylobacteriosis in humans; a self-limiting, rarely life-threatening, zoonotic foodborne infection. Low rates of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and the availability of alternative treatments have prompted some regulatory schemes to assign macrolides to a lower importance category. Apart from rare, specific infections, macrolides largely play a supportive role to other drug classes in human medicine. Read More

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Colonization with Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacterales Decreases the Effectiveness of Fluoroquinolone Prophylaxis in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Transplantation-Oncology Infectious Diseases Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Levofloxacin prophylaxis is recommended to prevent Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with prolonged chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, increasing fluoroquinolone resistance may decrease the effectiveness of this approach.

Methods: We assessed the prevalence of colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacterales (FQRE) among patients admitted for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from November 2016-August 2019 and compared the risk of Gram-negative BSI between FQRE-colonized and non-colonized patients. Read More

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Not all symptoms of alcohol dependence are developmentally equivalent: Implications for the false-positives problem.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

Objective: Recent studies have examined the extent to which alcohol dependence (AD) criteria prospectively predict the course of AD. Critically, these studies have lacked a developmental perspective. However, the differential performance of criteria by age might indicate overendorsement in younger individuals. Read More

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3D bioprinting of cardiac tissue: current challenges and perspectives.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 May 6;32(5):54. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Translational Research, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Demand for donor hearts has increased globally due to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has been aimed at creating clinically viable cardiac constructs for the management of myocardial infarction (MI) and associated complications. Advances in 3D bioprinting show promise in aiding cardiac tissue repair following injury/infarction and offer an alternative to organ transplantation. Read More

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