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No association of both serum pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and BDNF concentrations with depressive state in community-dwelling elderly people.

Psychogeriatrics 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in emotional and cognitive function. Low-BDNF levels occur in patients with depression, while proBDNF, a precursor of BDNF with the opposite physiological function, increases in major depression. However, it is unclear whether BDNF and proBDNF are associated with depression in the elderly. Read More

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Concentrations of nine endogenous steroid hormones in 70-year old men and women.

Endocr Connect 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

T Naessen, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: Circulating concentrations of endogenous steroids have systemic implications for health in elderly. However, population-based age- and ethnicity-specific data are scarce. The aim was to report sex-specific plasma concentrations of endogenous sex- and adrenal steroids in elderly Swedish Caucasians, to examine the impact of BMI, and to present concentrations in apparently healthy subjects. Read More

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Associations of urinary bisphenol A and its alternatives bisphenol S and F concentrations with depressive symptoms among adults.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 14;279:130573. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The College of Public Health of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, China; Municipal Centre of Disease Control and Prevention of Qingdao, Qingdao Institute of Prevention Medicine, Qingdao, Shandong, 266034, China. Electronic address:

Background: Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), are synthetic compounds detected increasingly frequently in plastics and resins. BPA, BPS, and BPF are endocrine disruptors with unclear effects on depressive symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the effects of these compounds on depressive symptoms in adults. Read More

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Oxytocin and social anxiety: Interactions with sex hormones.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 17;128:105224. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Oxytocin has been associated with anxiolytic and stress reducing effects in a number of studies. Less is known about the associations of endogenous oxytocin concentrations and their interaction with other hormones such as sex hormones in relation to self-reported anxiety levels. In this study, endogenous oxytocin and sex hormone levels were analyzed in 99 high (51 women) and 100 low (50 women) socially anxious individuals. Read More

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Epidemiological and Clinical Presentations of Hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Libya: an initial report from Africa.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17:102064. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya. Electronic address:

Background: The first case of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Libya was diagnosed in March 2020. We aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 in Libya.

Method: In this retrospective descriptive study, we analyzed the demographics, initial clinical presentation, history, comorbidities, laboratory findings, complications, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at several centers in the Western part of Libya between March 24, 2020, and December 3, 2020. Read More

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Natural Course of the Diffusion Capacity for Carbon Monoxide in COPD: Importance of Sex.

Chest 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Department, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The value of the single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) relates to outcomes in COPD patients. However, little is known about the natural course of DLco over time, the intersubject variability and the factors that may influence DLco progression.

Research Question: What is the natural course of DLco in COPD patients over time, and which other factors, including sex differences could influence this progression?

Study Design And Methods: We phenotyped 602 smokers (33% women) of which 506 (84%) had COPD and 96 (16%) had no airflow limitation. Read More

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Polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive health of women: a curious association.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Reproductive health is a broad concept that encompasses mortality, morbidity, and quality of life associated with the reproductive system, mechanism, and incidents encountered at all ages by men and women. Orthodox Indian society finds the conversation on reproductive health to be a taboo and discourages open conversations about it. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive-age metabolic endocrine disorder found in females. Read More

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A Survivorship-Period-Cohort Model for Cancer Survival: Application to Liver Cancer in Taiwan, 1997-2016.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Monitoring survival in cancer is a common concern for patients, physicians, and public health researchers. The traditional cohort approach for monitoring cancer prognosis has a timeliness problem. In this paper, we propose a survivorship-period-cohort (SPC) model for examining the effects of survivorship, period, and year-of-diagnosis cohort on cancer prognosis and to predict future trends in cancer survival. Read More

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NAFLD and liver fibrosis are not associated with reduced femoral bone mineral density in the general US population.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine and Rehabilitation, Policlinico di Monza.

Context: It is still debated whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and it is not known whether liver fibrosis, which is the major predictor of future development of liver-related events in patients with NAFLD, has an influence on BMD.

Objective: To assess whether liver steatosis and fibrosis are associated with reduced BMD in the general US population.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis of the population-based 2017-2018 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), in which vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the femoral neck were simultaneously available. Read More

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Etiologies of genital inflammation and ulceration in symptomatic Rwandan men and women responding to radio promotions of free screening and treatment services.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250044. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Project San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Introduction: The longstanding inadequacies of syndromic management for genital ulceration and inflammation are well-described. The Rwanda National Guidelines for sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management are not yet informed by the local prevalence and correlates of STI etiologies, a component World Health Organization guidelines stress as critical to optimize locally relevant algorithms.

Methods: Radio announcements and pharmacists recruited symptomatic patients to seek free STI services in Kigali. Read More

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Sleep, dreams, nightmares, and sex-related differences: a narrative review.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(7):3054-3065

University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Objective: The aim of this study was to review the available findings on sex-related differences for sleep disorders, dreams and nightmares.

Materials And Methods: We explored the PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar electronic databases, with regards to the searching terms 'sleep', 'dreams', and 'nightmares' associated with 'sex' and/or 'gender'. Moreover, other supplementary terms for the searching strategy were 'chronobiology', and 'circadian rhythm'. Read More

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Pesticide exposure and gender discrepancy in breast cancer.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(7):2898-2915

Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Objective: It is biologically plausible that occupational and environmental pesticide exposure may contribute to breast cancer risk. Persistent chemical compounds, such as pesticides, tend to be lipophilic and are detected in human breast milk and adipose tissue. Therefore, the present systematic review aims to clarify the gender difference in breast cancer concerning pesticide exposure. Read More

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Trans-isthmic pars interarticularis screw fixation under CT and fluoroscopic guidance: technical success and clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic low-grade lumbar isthmic lysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology Unit, Grenoble University Hospital, Boulevard du Grésivaudan, 38000, Grenoble, France.

Objectives: To assess the technical success of trans-isthmic screw fixation with simultaneous CT and fluoroscopic guidance in patients with symptomatic low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

Methods: Fifty patients (28 women and 22 men; mean age ± standard deviation: 50 years ± 18.9) presenting with symptomatic low back pain with isthmic spondylolisthesis refractory to medical management were treated by means of trans-isthmic pars interarticularis percutaneous screw fixation. Read More

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Variation in rates of self-harm hospital admission and re-admission by ethnicity in London: a population cohort study.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, PO Box 84, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Purpose: To compare sex-specific rates of hospital admission and repeat admission following self-harm between ethnic groups in London and test whether differences persist after adjustment for socio-economic deprivation.

Methods: A population-based cohort of all individuals aged over 11 admitted to a general hospital for physical health treatment following self-harm between 2008 and 2018, using administrative Hospital Episode Statistics for all people living in Greater London.

Results: There were 59,510 individuals admitted to the hospital following self-harm in the 10 year study period, ethnicity data were available for 94% of individuals. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose of Turmeric Curcuminoids Depends on Formulation: Results of a Human Crossover Study.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Background: Curcuminoids from turmeric rhizome have significant health benefits but low bioavailability.

Objectives: To assess the pharmacokinetics of a novel natural turmeric dried colloidal suspension compared with 4 other turmeric formulations (including a standardized extract) at their respective recommended dosages.

Methods: Thirty healthy men and women (18 to 45 y old) were enrolled in a randomized, open-labeled, crossover trial, and sequentially consumed single oral doses of standard turmeric extract (1500 mg), liquid micellar preparation (1000 mg), piperine-curcuminoid combination (1515 mg), phytosome formulation (1000 mg), or the dried colloidal suspension (300 mg). Read More

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Clinician Burnout Associated With Sex, Clinician Type, Work Culture, and Use of Electronic Health Records.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215686. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Duke University Health System, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Electronic health records (EHRs) are considered a potentially significant contributor to clinician burnout.

Objective: To describe the association of EHR usage, sex, and work culture with burnout for 3 types of clinicians at an academic medical institution.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study of 1310 clinicians at a large tertiary care academic medical center analyzed EHR usage metrics for the month of April 2019 with results from a well-being survey from May 2019. Read More

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Intestinal microbiota fingerprint in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome responders to a low FODMAP diet.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 19;12(7):3206-3218. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Unidad de Vinculación Científica, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM en el Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City, Mexico.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. IBS patients report that FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diet induce or exacerbate their symptoms. It has been reported that low-FODMAP diet (LFD) improves the symptoms in 50%-80% of IBS patients. Read More

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Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune-inflammation index in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia.

Gac Med Mex 2020 ;156(6):527-531

Clinical Laboratory, Zone 24 General Hospital, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Veracruz. Mexico.

Introduction: There are hematological parameters that correlate severity and predict mortality mainly in septic and inflammatory states.

Objective: To correlate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SIII) with COVID-19 severity.

Method: Descriptive, analytical, retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, in whom NLR, PLR and SIII were analyzed. Read More

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January 2020

Internet Study about Risk Factors Associated with HIV among Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico.

P R Health Sci J 2021 Mar;40(1):26-32

University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Objective: Heterosexual intercourse is the main mode of HIV transmission among heterosexual women in Puerto Rico and the third for men. We conducted an Internetbased study of heterosexual young adults in Puerto Rico to explore their sexual practices, beliefs and decision-making skills for HIV prevention. Data presented in this study will help to understand the factors that contribute to the sexual transmission of HIV among heterosexuals within the Puerto Rican context. Read More

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Association between cardiovascular diseases and depressive symptoms in adults. A pooled analysis of population-based surveys WOBASZ, NATPOL2011 and WOBASZ II.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Introduction: Psychosocial risk factors play an important role in the origins of cardiovascular risk.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) in relation to some socio-demographic characteristics and selected cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and to assess the relationship between self-reported CVD and severity of DS.

Patients And Methods: Three cross-sectional population-based surveys: WOBASZ (2003-2005), NATPOL2011 (2011) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014) covered a total sample of 20,514 participants (9,614 men and 10,900 women), aged 20 - 74 years, who all completed a Beck Depression Inventory. Read More

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Androgen receptor activation decreases proliferation in thyroid cancer cells.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA.

The American Cancer Society predicted more than 52 000 new cases of thyroid cancer in 2020, making it the most prevalent endocrine malignancy. Due to the approximately threefold higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women, we hypothesize that androgens and/or androgen receptors play a protective role and that thyroid cancer in men represents an escape from androgen-mediated cell regulation. The analysis of androgen receptor (AR) expression in patient tissue samples identified a 2. Read More

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Race/Ethnic Differences in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Patients with Hypertension: Analysis from 143 primary care clinics.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Enterprise Population Health, Advocate Aurora Health, Downers Grove, IL, USA.

Background: While it is known that sex and race/ethnic disparities persist for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), disparities in risk factor control have not been well-described in primary care where ASCVD can be prevented.

Methods: Adult patients with a hypertension diagnosis without ASCVD were included in this analysis of electronic health records from a large US healthcare system from 2018. Patients were categorized based on risk factor control defined as blood pressure <130/80 mmHg; statin prescription among patients with indications, HbA1c of <7%, and not smoking. Read More

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Impact of prenatal maternal cytokine exposure on sex differences in brain circuitry regulating stress in offspring 45 years later.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032.

Stress is associated with numerous chronic diseases, beginning in fetal development with in utero exposures (prenatal stress) impacting offspring's risk for disorders later in life. In previous studies, we demonstrated adverse maternal in utero immune activity on sex differences in offspring neurodevelopment at age seven and adult risk for major depression and psychoses. Here, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to maternal proinflammatory cytokines has sex-dependent effects on specific brain circuitry regulating stress and immune function in the offspring that are retained across the lifespan. Read More

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The relationship between religiosity/spirituality and quality of life among female Eritrean refugees living in Norwegian asylum centres.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20:207640211010207. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.

Background: Women are more vulnerable to mental health problems than men after migration, but little is known about the influence of religiosity/spirituality on their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore religiosity/spirituality, in relationships with various domains of quality of life, among female Eritrean refugees staying in Norwegian asylum centres.

Method: A questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics was used together with the World Health OrganizationQuality of Life - Spirituality, Religiosity and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB) questionnaire, which assesses religiosity/spirituality and domains of quality of life. Read More

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Weight Goals, Disordered Eating Behaviors, and BMI Trajectories in US Young Adults.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Community sample data indicate that weight control efforts in young adulthood may have associations with greater increases in body mass index (BMI) over time.

Objective: To determine the prospective associations between weight goals and behaviors in young adults and BMI trajectories over 15-year follow-up using a nationally representative sample.

Design: Longitudinal cohort data collected from 2001 to 2018 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Read More

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Sleep arousal burden is associated with long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 8001 community-dwelling older men and women.

Eur Heart J 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Aims : To quantify the arousal burden (AB) across large cohort studies and determine its association with long-term cardiovascular (CV) and overall mortality in men and women.

Methods And Results : We measured the AB on overnight polysomnograms of 2782 men in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) Sleep study, 424 women in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) and 2221 men and 2574 women in the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). During 11. Read More

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The Effects of Exercise During a 10-Week Basic Military Training Program on the Physical Fitness and the Body Composition of the Greek Naval Cadets.

Mil Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Applied Mechanics and Naval Materials, Hellenic Naval Academy, Piraeus, Athens 185 39, Greece.

Introduction: The period of basic military training (BMT) is a sudden change in the individual habits of the trainees and is characterized by significant improvements in body composition such as the percentage of body fat (%BF) and lean body mass (BM). Research has shown that physical activity during the period of BMT lasting 7-10 weeks has positive effects on the physical condition and BM of cadets. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training combining cardiovascular conditioning, circuit strength training, swimming, team sports, and obstacle course on physical fitness and body composition during a 10-week BMT period over 4 years in the Hellenic Naval Academy (HNA). Read More

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Novel approaches to target the microenvironment of bone metastasis.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Tumor Biology, Center of Experimental Medicine, University Cancer Center Hamburg (UCCH), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Bone metastases are a frequent and severe complication of advanced-stage cancers. Breast and prostate cancers, the most common malignancies in women and men, respectively, have a particularly high propensity to metastasize to bone. Conceptually, circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow provide a snapshot of the dissemination and colonization process en route to clinically apparent bone metastases. Read More

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