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Multiple sclerosis is associated with higher comorbidity and healthcare resource use: a population-based, case-control study in a western Mediterranean region.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Servei de Neurología-Neuroimmunología, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been associated with worse outcomes and increased healthcare resource usage. We studied the frequency of comorbidities and adverse health behaviors (AHB) in MS patients in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia.

Methods: Population-based, case-control study using primary healthcare information covering 80% of Catalonia's population. Read More

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Gender Authorship Trends in the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Literature.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.

Purpose: Despite increasing numbers of women oculoplastic surgeons, they remain underrepresented within the subspecialty. The purpose of this study was to analyze trends in gender authorship within the field of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Methods: This retrospective observational study sampled articles published in Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS) and Orbit during the years 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015, and 2020. Read More

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Accelerated Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Patient with Acquired Lipodystrophy Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Purpose: To report a case of bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and lipemia retinalis in a patient with acquired lipodystrophy.

Methods: A retrospective case report.

Results: A 23-year-old woman with a diagnosis of acquired lipodystrophy was referred for ophthalmic evaluation. Read More

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"Under great anxiety": Pregnancy experiences of Vietnamese women with physical disabilities seen through an intersectional lens.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 15;284:114231. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute for Community Health Research, Hue University, Hue, 47000, Viet Nam; Australian Centre for Health Law Research, Faculty of Business and Law, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, 4059, Australia.

Background: There is scant research on pregnancy experiences of women with physical disabilities in low and middle-income countries. This qualitative study used an intersectional lens to explore pregnancy experiences of women with physical disabilities in northern Vietnam. Specifically, socio-cultural, economic, and environmental influences were analysed, drawing upon their lived experiences. Read More

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Factors influencing under-five mortality in rural- urban Ghana: An applied survival analysis.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 7;284:114185. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Economics, University of Ghana, Ghana. Electronic address:

Objectives: This paper uses a survival analysis technique to examine socio-economic and demographic factors that influence under-five mortality for rural and urban Ghana.

Method: The paper employs the Breslow Method for Ties for survival probability and uses data for the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Data on some 5884 children was also generated through the interview of 4086 women aged 15-49. Read More

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Cancer mortality in a population-based cohort of American Indians - The strong heart study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19;74:101978. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

MedStar Health Research Institute, 6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 700, Hyattsville, MD, 20782, USA; Georgetown, Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Washington, DC, 2000, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer mortality among American Indian (AI) people varies widely, but factors associated with cancer mortality are infrequently assessed.

Methods: Cancer deaths were identified from death certificate data for 3516 participants of the Strong Heart Study, a population-based cohort study of AI adults ages 45-74 years in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Cancer mortality was calculated by age, sex and region. Read More

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Semi-industrial development of nutritious and healthy seafood dishes from sustainable species.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 19:112431. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos S/N, 4450-208, Matosinhos, Portugal. Electronic address:

This study aimed to devise innovative, tailor-made, appealing, tasty and semi-industrialized dishes, using sustainable and under-utilized seafood species (bib, common dab, common carp, blue mussel and blue whiting), that can meet the specific nutritional and functional needs of children (8-10-years), pregnant women (20-40-years) and seniors (≥60-years). Hence, contests were organised among cooking schools from 6 European countries and the best recipes/dishes were reformulated, semi-industrially produced and chemically and microbiologically evaluated. The dishes intended for: (i) children and pregnant women had EPA + DHA and I levels that reached the target quantities, supporting the claim as "high in I"; and (ii) seniors were "high in protein" (24. Read More

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Covid-19 and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Ethnically Diverse Populations.

Chest 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA USA.

Background: Limited existing data suggest the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may increase risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) but information from large, ethnically diverse populations with appropriate controls are lacking.

Research Question: Does the rate of VTE among adults hospitalized with Covid-19 differ from matched hospitalized controls without Covid-19?

Study Design And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and hospitalized adults without evidence of Covid-19 matched on age, gender, race/ethnicity, acute illness severity, and month of hospitalization between February-August 2020 from two integrated healthcare delivery systems with 36 hospitals. Outcomes included VTE (deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism ascertained using diagnosis codes combined with validated natural language processing algorithms applied to electronic health records) and death from any cause at 30 days. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg versus 1·0 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN FORTE): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3B trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Semaglutide is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes; however, 20-30% of patients given semaglutide 1·0 mg do not reach glycaemic treatment goals. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg versus 1·0 mg in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on a stable dose of metformin with or without a sulfonylurea.

Methods: We did a 40-week, randomised, active-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, phase 3B trial (SUSTAIN FORTE) at 125 outpatient clinics in ten countries. Read More

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Exploring the association Between Cardiovascular Health measured with CANHEART model and early cognitive impairment in middle-aged population.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Jul 13:e2021044. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Both cardiovascular health (CVH) and inflammation associated with cognition, and inflammation also associated with cardiovascular health. However, related information in the Korean population is limited. The objective of our study was to confirm the influence of inflammation on the association between CVH and cognition in cross-sectional design. Read More

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HPV 16 and 18 contribute to development of anal dysplasia in HIV infection irrespective of gender and sexual orientation.

HIV Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Monza, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was too investigate prevalence and persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cytological abnormalities (CAs) in the anal swabs of people living with HIV (PLWH): men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with women (MSW) and women (W).

Methods: Between March 2010 and January 2019, an anal swab for cytological and HPV genotyping tests was offered to all PLWH attending our clinic. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of infection. Read More

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Differences between perceived age and chronological age in women: a multi-ethnic and multi-centre study.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Biosocial Science Information, Ortsstrasse 63, 2362, Biedermannsdorf, Austria.

Objective: Accuracy in assessing age from facial cues is important in social perception given reports of strong negative correlations between perceived age and assessments of health and attractiveness. In a multi-ethnic and multi-centre study, we previously documented similar patterns of female facial age assessments across ethnicities, influenced by gender and ethnicity of assessors.

Methods: Here we extend these findings by examining differences between estimated age from digital portraits and chronological age (Δ age) for 180 women from three age groups (20-34, 35-49, 50-66 years) and five ethnicities (36 images of each ethnicity, assessed for age on a continuous scale by 120 female and male raters of each ethnicity). Read More

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Understanding women's perspectives and information needs about shared follow-up care for early breast cancer: a qualitative study.

Fam Pract 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Nursing, Deakin University, Burwood Victoria, Australia.

Background: Shared breast cancer follow-up care involving a breast cancer specialist and a general practitioner (GP) has been demonstrated to be effective, yet barriers to participation in this model by women remain. This study explores the responses of women who recently finished active treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) to a proposed model of shared follow-up care to understand the type of information needed to support participation.

Methods: Qualitative study based on focus groups with women with EBC in the early stage of follow-up care from across metropolitan, regional and rural settings in Australia. Read More

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Remnant cholesterol predicts cardiovascular disease beyond LDL and ApoB: a primary prevention study.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aims: Emerging evidence suggests that remnant cholesterol (RC) promotes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We aimed to estimate RC-related risk beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in patients without known ASCVD.

Methods And Results: We pooled data from 17 532 ASCVD-free individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 9748), the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 3049), and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (n = 4735). Read More

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Tailored approach to the choice of long-term vascular access in breast cancer patients.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255004. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Vascular and Transplantation Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

This study compared the possible options for vascular access in breast cancer patients by analyzing the complications of each method. We retrospectively evaluated the vascular access procedures for intravenous chemotherapy in breast cancer patients from 2016 to 2018. A total of 300 consecutive patients were included, 100 each who received peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), arm ports, and chest ports. Read More

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12 weeks of strength training improves fluid cognition in older adults: A nonrandomized pilot trial.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255018. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Objectives: Resistance training (RT) is a promising strategy to slow or prevent fluid cognitive decline during aging. However, the effects of strength-specific RT programs have received little attention. The purpose of this single-group proof of concept clinical trial was to determine whether a 12-week strength training (ST) program could improve fluid cognition in healthy older adults 60 to 80 years of age, and to explore concomitant physiological and psychological changes. Read More

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Institutional delivery and associated factors in rural communities of Central Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255079. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Institutional delivery has been considered as one of the important strategies to improve maternal and child health and significantly reduces birth-related complications. However, it is still low in developing countries though there are some improvements. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in the study area. Read More

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Relationship between initial self-perceived depressive symptoms and disease severity in working patients with first-onset major depressive disorder.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255084. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

The severity of major depressive disorder (MDD), which is related to the depressive symptoms, is a predictor of clinical outcomes and may be used to determine the appropriate treatment. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the relationship between early depressive symptoms and MDD severity. This study aimed to clarify the association between initial depressive symptoms and MDD severity in working patients. Read More

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Asymptomatic morphometric vertebral fractures and its associated factors: A cross-sectional study among adults in a selected urban area in Selangor, Malaysia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255069. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Puchong Specialist Centre, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VF) in a selected urban population in Malaysia and to explore possible variables associated with VF in the study population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study involving community-living, healthy subjects aged between 45-90 years from the state of Selangor, Malaysia, were invited to attend a bone health check-up. Subjects with diseases known to affect bone metabolism or were on treatment for osteoporosis (OP) were excluded. Read More

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The association between elder abuse and childhood adversity: A study of older adults in Malaysia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254717. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objectives: Childhood adversity has been linked with later victimization of young and middle-aged adults, but few studies have shown persistence of this effect among elders, especially outside of North America. This research examined the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and elder abuse among older adults aged 60 years and over in Malaysia.

Design: Cross sectional data were collected via face-to-face interview from June to August 2019. Read More

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Population-based utility scores for HPV infection and cervical squamous cell carcinoma among Australian Indigenous women.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254575. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Adelaide Dental School, Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Objective: Working in partnership with Indigenous communities in South Australia, we aimed to develop, pilot test and estimate utility scores for health states relating to cervical cancer screening, precancer, and invasive cervical cancer and precancer/cancer treatment among Indigenous women.

Methods: Development and pilot testing of hypothetical cervical cancer health states, specifically through the lens of being an Indigenous Australian woman, was done with an Indigenous Reference Group in conjunction with five female Indigenous community members. Six health states were developed. Read More

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Hypertension among people living with HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: A cross-sectional analysis from Central Africa International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0253742. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Public Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States of America.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) success has led people to live longer with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and thus be exposed to increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hypertension (HTN), the biggest contributor to CVD burden, is a growing concern among PLWH. The current report describes the prevalence and predictors of HTN among PLWH in care in Cameroon. Read More

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Late onset of microbial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis surgery: case series.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 Aug;47(8):1044-1049

From the Sydney Eye Hospital (Garcerant, Cabrera-Aguas, Khoo, Watson); The University of Sydney (Cabrera-Aguas, Khoo, Watson), Save Sight Institute, Discipline of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: To report predisposing factors, clinical features, microbiology spectrum, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial therapy, and outcomes of patients with a previous laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery and diagnosed with presumed microbial keratitis.

Setting: Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Design: Retrospective case review. Read More

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Risk of Late-Onset Breast Cancer in Genetically Predisposed Women.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 22:JCO2100531. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in established breast cancer predisposition genes in women in the general population over age 65 years is not well-defined. However, testing guidelines suggest that women diagnosed with breast cancer over age 65 years might have < 2.5% likelihood of a PV in a high-penetrance gene. Read More

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Digital analysis and quantitative assessment of the cervical surface with dysplasia.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Jul;66(7):417-421

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University).

The investigation aims - a quantitative assessment of cervical surface changes with digital analysis and computer technologies in dysplasia. Colposcopy was made in 90 women from 21 to 52 years (avr. age 33,9±8,13 y. Read More

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Method Used to Identify Adenomyosis and Potentially Undiagnosed Adenomyosis in a Large, U.S. Electronic Health Record Database.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Optum, Boston, MA.

Background: The prevalence of adenomyosis is underestimated due to lack of a specific diagnostic code and diagnostic delays given most diagnoses occur at hysterectomy.

Objectives: To identify women with adenomyosis using indicators derived from natural language processing (NLP) of clinical notes in the Optum Electronic Health Record database (2014-2018), and to estimate the prevalence of potentially undiagnosed adenomyosis.

Methods: An NLP algorithm identified mentions of adenomyosis in clinical notes that were highly likely to represent a diagnosis. Read More

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Outcomes of pregnancy in simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant recipients: A single-center retrospective study.

Clin Transplant 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, London, UK.

Simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation, in uremic women with insulin-dependent diabetes, increases the chance of a successful pregnancy and minimizes the risk to infants. The aim of this study was to document pregnancy and explore the challenges in this cohort of women. Retrospective analysis of women who underwent pancreas transplantation between 01/01/1998 and 01/08/2019 was conducted. Read More

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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genotype: A Significant Risk Factor in Determining which Patients with Chronic HBV Infection should Undergo Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Hepatitis B Alaska (HEP-B-AK) Study.

Hepatology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Background And Aims: Information is limited regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and the outcome of chronic HBV (CHB) infection. We examined HBV genotype on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in Alaska Native (AN) persons with CHB where five HBV genotypes are found, A2, B6, C2, D and F1.

Approach And Results: We calculated HCC incidence per 1000 person-years of follow-up to determine which groups by age, sex, and genotype met current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases HCC surveillance criteria. Read More

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Exploring the occupational lives of Syrians under temporary protection in Turkey.

Aust Occup Ther J 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Persons who become displaced due to situations such as war and natural disasters face extreme challenges in maintaining their occupational repertoires. This study aimed to explore the occupational lives of Syrians under temporary protection in Turkey.

Methods: This mixed method study used a cross-sectional design with a predominantly qualitative focus. Read More

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Impact of Socioeconomic Factors and Gender on Refill Adherence and Persistence to Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Introduction: Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, socioeconomic factors and gender may have an impact on the adherence to and non-persistence with LLT.

Methods: This was a nationwide register-based cohort study that included 6192 individuals with T1D aged ≥ 18 years who were registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register and had initiated novel use of LLT. Read More

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