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Changes in expression of PD-L1 on peripheral T cells in patients with melanoma and lung cancer treated with PD-1 inhibitors.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15312. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Advances in cancer immunology have increased the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice, however not all patients respond, and treatment can have severe side-effects. Blood-based immunological biomarkers are an attractive method for predicting which patients will respond to therapy, however, reliable biomarkers for immune checkpoint blockade are lacking. This study aimed to identify patients before or early in treatment who would best respond to PD-1 inhibitors. Read More

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Multimodality imaging for the prevention of cardiovascular events: Coronary artery calcium and beyond.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Jun;11(3):840-858

Section of Cardiovascular Imaging, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been the leading cause of death worldwide for more than a decade. Prevention is of utmost importance to reduce related mortality. The innovations in cardiovascular imaging technology, in addition to our improved understanding of coronary atherosclerosis pathogenesis, have resulted in cardiovascular imaging becoming one of the most influential tools for diagnosis and risk stratification in ASCVD. Read More

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Contemporary review in the multi-modality imaging evaluation and management of tricuspid regurgitation.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Jun;11(3):804-817

Section of Cardiovascular Imaging, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The tricuspid valve has gained interest recently because of the poor outcomes with current treatments and advances in percutaneous valve interventions. A sound understanding of the anatomy and pathologies of the tricuspid valve is critical in its evaluation and management of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). A multi-modality imaging approach with transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging all have their individual and collective roles in the evaluation of TR and guidance of surgical and percutaneous procedures. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Simulation Model-Based Clinical Decision Tool: Identifying Patients Where 21-Gene Recurrence Score Testing May Change Decisions.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 12:JCO2100651. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC.

Purpose: There is a need for industry-independent decision tools that integrate clinicopathologic features, comorbidities, and genomic information for women with node-negative, invasive, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (early-stage) breast cancer.

Methods: We adapted an extant Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network simulation model to estimate the 10-year risk of distant recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality, and life-years gained with chemoendocrine versus endocrine therapy. We simulated outcomes for 1,512 unique patient subgroups based on all possible combinations of age, tumor size, grade, and comorbidity level; simulations were performed with and without 21-gene recurrence scores (RSs). Read More

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Initial self-blame predicts eating disorder remission after 9 years.

J Eat Disord 2021 Jul 7;9(1):81. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Research into predictors of outcome in eating disorders (ED) has shown conflicting results, with few studies of long-term predictors and the possible importance of psychological variables that may act as risk- and maintenance factors.

Aim: To identify baseline predictors of ED remission nine years after initial clinical assessment using self-report measures of ED psychopathology, psychiatric symptoms, and self-image in a sample of adult ED patients (N = 104) treated at specialist units in Stockholm, Sweden. Sixty patients participated in the follow-up, of whom 41 patients (68%) had achieved remission. Read More

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Universal influenza vaccine based on conserved antigens provides long-term durability of immune responses and durable broad protection against diverse challenge virus strains in mice.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 3;39(33):4628-4640. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Office of Tissues and Advanced Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Current influenza vaccines rely on inducing antibody responses to the rapidly evolving hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins, and thus need to be strain-matched. However, predictions of strains that will circulate are imperfect, and manufacturing of new vaccines based on them takes months. As an alternative, universal influenza vaccines target highly conserved antigens. Read More

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Invasive Hemodynamic and Metabolic Evaluation of HFpEF.

Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2021 May 26;23(5). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Section of Heart Failure and Transplantation Medicine; Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine; Miller Family Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute; Cleveland Clinic. 9500 Euclid Ave, J3-4, Cleveland, OH 44195.

Purpose Of Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex and heterogeneous condition of multiple causes, characterized by a clinical syndrome resulting from elevated left ventricular filling pressures, with an apparently unimpaired left ventricular systolic function. Although HFpEF has been long recognized as a distinct entity with significant morbidity for patients, its diagnosis remains challenging to this day. In recent years, few diagnostic algorithms have been postulated to aid in the identification of this condition. Read More

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The stem cell revolution: on the role of CD164 as a human stem cell marker.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Jun 8;6(1):33. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Myeloma Research Laboratory, Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Accurately defining hierarchical relationships between human stem cells and their progeny, and using this knowledge for new cellular therapies, will undoubtedly lead to further successful treatments for life threatening and chronic diseases, which represent substantial burdens on patient quality of life and to healthcare systems globally. Clinical translation relies in part on appropriate biomarker, in vitro manipulation and transplantation strategies. CD164 has recently been cited as an important biomarker for enriching both human haematopoietic and skeletal stem cells, yet a thorough description of extant human CD164 monoclonal antibody (Mab) characteristics, which are critical for identifying and purifying these stem cells, was not discussed in these articles. Read More

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A Critical Theoretical Approach to Cancer Disparities: Breast Cancer and the Social Determinants of Health.

Front Public Health 2021 21;9:674736. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States.

Breast cancer is the most commonly experienced cancer among women. Its high rates of incidence and survival mean that a number of women will live it for periods of their lifetimes. Group differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality occur by race and ethnicity. Read More

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A retrospective analysis of cardiovascular adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Cardiooncology 2021 May 28;7(1):19. Epub 2021 May 28.

Genomic Medicine Institute, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Background: Modern therapies in oncology have increased cancer survivorship, as well as the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events. While immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant clinical impact in several cancer types, the incidence of immune-related cardiovascular (CV) adverse events poses an additional health concern and has been reported.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System data of suspect product reports for immunotherapy and classical chemotherapy from January 2010-March 2020. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intentions among mothers of children aged 9 to 12 years: a survey of the All Our Families cohort.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E548-E555. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Hetherington), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health (Hetherington), McGill University, Montréal, Que.; Department of Community Health Sciences (Edwards, Tough), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; Department of Pediatrics (MacDonald, McDonald, Tough), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; Faculty of Nursing (MacDonald), University of Alberta; Department of Psychology (Racine, Madigan, Tough), University of Calgary; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (Racine, Madigan), Calgary, Alta.

Background: Acceptance of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is critical to achieving high levels of immunization. The objectives of this study were to understand mothers' SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions to explore reasons for and against SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

Methods: Participants from the All Our Families pregnancy longitudinal cohort whose children had reached ages 9-12 years were invited in May-June 2020 to complete a survey on the impact of COVID-19. Read More

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Examination of referral source and discharge outcomes among women in residential substance use disorder treatment.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 06 4;125:108319. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, United States of America; Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Court-mandated substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, compared to nonmandated treatment, has been associated with increased retention and completion. However, due to limitations of previous studies, whether child protective services (CPS) and criminal justice (CJ) mandated treatment improve treatment completion and retention among women in residential treatment remains unclear.

Purpose: This study investigated differences in treatment completion and progress based on three clinical discharge outcomes (i. Read More

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Nutritional immunity: the impact of metals on lung immune cells and the airway microbiome during chronic respiratory disease.

Respir Res 2021 Apr 29;22(1):133. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Nutritional immunity is the sequestration of bioavailable trace metals such as iron, zinc and copper by the host to limit pathogenicity by invading microorganisms. As one of the most conserved activities of the innate immune system, limiting the availability of free trace metals by cells of the immune system serves not only to conceal these vital nutrients from invading bacteria but also operates to tightly regulate host immune cell responses and function. In the setting of chronic lung disease, the regulation of trace metals by the host is often disrupted, leading to the altered availability of these nutrients to commensal and invading opportunistic pathogenic microbes. Read More

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Psychosocial issues in isolated and confined extreme environments.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 07 6;126:413-429. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

PALINKAS, L.A., and P. Read More

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Examination of referral source and discharge outcomes among women in residential substance use disorder treatment.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 06 4;125. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine and Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199.

Background: Court-mandated substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, compared to nonmandated treatment, has been associated with increased retention and completion. However, due to limitations of previous studies, whether child protective services (CPS) and criminal justice (CJ) mandated treatment improve treatment completion and retention among women in residential treatment remains unclear.

Purpose: This study investigated differences in treatment completion and progress based on three clinical discharge outcomes (i. Read More

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Effect of an Adenovirus-Vectored Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine on Pulmonary Pathophysiology in a Mouse Model.

J Virol 2021 04 12;95(9). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Office of Tissues and Advanced Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA

Current influenza vaccines, live attenuated or inactivated, do not protect against antigenically novel influenza A viruses (IAVs) of pandemic potential, which has driven interest in the development of universal influenza vaccines. Universal influenza vaccine candidates targeting highly conserved antigens of IAV nucleoprotein (NP) are promising as vaccines that induce T cell immunity, but concerns have been raised about the safety of inducing robust CD8 T cell responses in the lungs. Using a mouse model, we systematically evaluated effects of recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) expressing IAV NP (A/NP-rAd) or influenza B virus (IBV) NP (B/NP-rAd) on pulmonary inflammation and function after vaccination and following live IAV challenge. Read More

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Short and long versions of a 12-week netball specific neuromuscular warm-up improves landing technique in youth netballers.

Phys Ther Sport 2021 May 2;49:31-36. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, School of Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of two 'NetballSmart', netball specific warm-ups in improving landing technique measures in New Zealand secondary school netball players.

Design: Multi-site cluster experimental trial.

Participants: 77 youth participants, mean ± SD age = 15. Read More

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Accelerating the conceptual use of behavioral health research in juvenile court decision-making: study protocol.

Implement Sci Commun 2021 Feb 5;2(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Children, Youth and Families, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, 669 W. 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90089-0411, USA.

Background: The youth criminal-legal system is under heavy political scrutiny with multiple calls for significant transformation. Leaders within the system are faced with rethinking traditional models and are likely to benefit from behavioral health research evidence as they redesign systems. Little is known about how juvenile court systems access and use behavioral health research evidence; further, the field lacks a validated survey measure of behavioral health research use that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of evidence dissemination interventions for policy and system leaders. Read More

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February 2021

Pump It Up! A randomized clinical trial to optimize insulin pump self-management behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 03 11;102:106279. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

University of Florida, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, 1225 Center Dr., Gainesville, FL 32610, United States; University of Florida Diabetes Institute, College of Medicine, 1275 Center Dr., Gainesville, FL 32610, United States. Electronic address:

Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) must engage in a variety of complex and burdensome self-management behaviors daily to maintain near normal blood glucose levels and prevent complications. There is a need for interventions to improve use of sophisticated diabetes technologies, such as insulin pumps, during adolescence - a very high-risk developmental period for individuals with T1D. All diabetes devices, including insulin pumps, store large amounts of behavioral data that can be downloaded and analyzed to evaluate adherence to recommended T1D self-management behaviors. Read More

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Looking beyond the Lamppost: Population-Level Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 24;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Implementation Science Center for Cancer Control and Prevention Research Center, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Although innovative and impactful interventions are necessary for the primary prevention of breast cancer, the factors influencing program adoption, implementation, and sustainment are key, yet remain poorly understood. Insufficient attention has been paid to the primary prevention of breast cancer in state and national cancer plans, limiting the impact of evidence-based interventions on population health. This commentary highlights the state of primary prevention of breast cancer and gaps in the current literature. Read More

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November 2020

Kleefstra syndrome: Impact on parents.

Disabil Health J 2021 Apr 5;14(2):101018. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Biomedical Research, 2109, Adelbert Rd Building, 6th FL, Cleveland, OH, USA; Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Ave #1500, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Kleefstra syndrome (KS) is associated with developmental delay, autism, intellectual disability, psychosis, and regression. Research has not been conducted to assess the impact of KS on parents.

Objective/hypothesis: A mixed-method study was conducted to assess the impact on parental well-being by evaluating parents' well-being, identifying factors of parental experience predicting well-being, and exploring the parental experience. Read More

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Framework for a Community Health Observing System for the Gulf of Mexico Region: Preparing for Future Disasters.

Front Public Health 2020 15;8:578463. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Environmental Health Science and Practice, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region is prone to disasters, including recurrent oil spills, hurricanes, floods, industrial accidents, harmful algal blooms, and the current COVID-19 pandemic. The GoM and other regions of the U.S. Read More

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Population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir in Covid-19 patients.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Mar 13;77(3):389-397. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

APHM, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Hop Sainte Marguerite, Service de Pharmacologie clinique, CAP-TV, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Objective: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lopinavir boosted by ritonavir in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients.

Methods: Concentrations of lopinavir/ritonavir were assayed by an accredited LC-MS/MS method. The population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir was described using non-linear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM version 7. Read More

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Comparing rates and characteristics of emergency department presentations related to pharmaceutical opioid poisoning in Australia: a study protocol for a retrospective observational study.

BMJ Open 2020 09 29;10(9):e038979. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Monash Addiction Research Centre, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia

Introduction And Aims: Pharmaceutical opioids are an important contributor to the global 'opioid crisis', and are implicated in 70% of Australia's opioid-related mortality. However, there have been few studies which consider the relative contribution of different pharmaceutical opioids to harm.We aim to compare commonly used pharmaceutical opioids in terms of (1) rates of harm, and (2) demographic and clinical characteristics associated with that harm. Read More

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September 2020

Protocol for comparing two training approaches for primary care professionals implementing the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model.

Implement Sci Commun 2020 22;1:78. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Division of Child Protection, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 520 W. Lombard St, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.

Background: Child maltreatment (CM) is a major public health problem, affecting many lives, in the short and long term, and costing individuals, families, and society dearly. There is a need for broad implementation of evidence-based preventive interventions, such as the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model, developed for pediatric primary care. Primary care offers an excellent opportunity to help address prevalent psychosocial problems (e. Read More

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September 2020

Statistical Guideline #6. Indicate magnitude and precision in your estimation and use "new statistics".

Int J Behav Med 2020 Oct;27(5):487-489

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, and also to serve as an independent resource. Read More

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October 2020

Open-label, multicentre, single-arm trial of monthly injections of depot buprenorphine in people with opioid dependence: protocol for the CoLAB study.

BMJ Open 2020 07 31;10(7):e034389. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Introduction: Opioid agonist treatment is effective for opioid dependence and newer extended-release buprenorphine (BUP-XR) injections represent a significant development. The Community Long-Acting Buprenorphine (CoLAB) study aims to evaluate client outcomes among people with opioid dependence receiving 48 weeks of BUP-XR treatment, and examines the implementation of BUP-XR in diverse community healthcare settings in Australia.

Methods And Analysis: The CoLAB study is a prospective single-arm, multicentre, open-label trial of monthly BUP-XR injections in people with opioid dependence. Read More

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Social and medical risk factors associated with supportive needs in the first year following localized prostate cancer treatment.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 Feb 18;15(1):110-118. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Ave, Philadelphia, PA, 19111, USA.

Purpose: Individuals who completed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) often report poor coping and practical concerns when adapting to new roles in their lives-and strong patient-provider communication is critical for this period. However, there is limited research identifying factors associated with supportive needs after the completion of PCa treatment. This study aimed to identify the social and medical risk factors associated with supportive needs for adapting among individuals who completed treatment for localized PCa. Read More

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February 2021

Fine particulate matter exposure during childhood relates to hemispheric-specific differences in brain structure.

Environ Int 2020 10 10;143:105933. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90063, USA; Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging findings have increased concern that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM) may be neurotoxic, even at lower levels of exposure. Yet, additional studies are needed to determine if exposure to current PM levels may be linked to hemispheric and regional patterns of brain development in children across the United States. Read More

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October 2020