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Microorganisms: crucial players of smokeless tobacco for several health attributes.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Environmental Microbiology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226025, India.

Global consumption of smokeless tobacco (SLT) reached 300 million users worldwide majorly from middle-income countries. More than 4000 chemical compounds represent it as one of the noxious consumable products by humans. Besides toxicants/carcinogens, the heavy microbial load on smokeless tobacco further keeps human health at higher risk. Read More

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Evaluating the Reliability and Quality of the Upper Eyelid Blepharoplasty Videos on YouTube.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Osmaniye State Hospital, Osmaniye, Turkey.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of videos on YouTube as educational resources for patients and physicians about blepharoplastic surgery.

Methods: This study is a retrospective and cross-sectional study. A YouTube search for the term "blepharoplasty" was made and the first 210 videos were recorded (all video searches were done by clearing all search history without any user login). Read More

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Setting priorities for ageing research in Africa: A systematic mapping review of 512 studies from sub-Saharan Africa.

J Glob Health 2021 26;11:15002. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Emerging Researchers & Professionals in Ageing - African Network, Nigeria (www.erpaan.org).

Background: In 2040, the older population's growth rate in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will be faster than those experienced by developed nations since 1950. In preparation for this growth, the National Institute on Aging commissioned the National Academies' Committee on Population to organize a workshop on advancing aging research in Africa. This meeting provided a platform for discussing some areas requiring improvement in aging research in SSA regions. Read More

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SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis and SNP haplotyping of genes associating abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, rice growth and development and yield across 93 rice landraces.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Genomic Science, Central University of Kerala, Periye, Kasaragod, Kerala, 671316, India.

Background: As rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population, enhancing grain yield irrespective of the variable climatic conditions is indispensable. Many traditionally cultivated rice landraces are well adapted to severe environmental conditions and have high genetic diversity that could play an important role in crop improvement.

Methods And Results: The present study revealed a high level of genetic diversity among the unexploited rice landraces cultivated by the farmers of Kerala. Read More

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Perceptions Toward the Use of Digital Technology for Enhancing Family Planning Services: Focus Group Discussion With Beneficiaries and Key Informative Interview With Midwives.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 28;23(7):e25947. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Global Health Development | Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network, Amman, Jordan.

Background: Modern family planning (FP) methods allow married couples to discuss and determine the number of children and years of spacing between them. Despite many significant improvements in FP services in Jordan, there are still many issues related to the uptake of FP services for both host communities and Syrian refugees, due to limitations in the health care system based on public health facilities. Digital technologies can provide opportunities to address the challenges faced in the health system, thus offering the potential to improve both coverage and quality of FP services and practices. Read More

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Demonstrating the feasibility of digital health to support paediatric patients in South Africa.

Epilepsia Open 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Aparito Ltd, Wrexham, United Kingdom.

Objective: Resources for management of epilepsy in Africa are extremely limited reinforcing the need to develop innovative strategies for optimising care. Studies have shown that the prevalence of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries is substantially greater than in more resourced countries. The objective of this report was to demonstrate that mobile Health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to improve the management of epilepsy in Africa. Read More

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Responses of two dominant desert plant species to the changes in groundwater depth in hinterland natural oasis, Tarim Basin.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 16;11(14):9460-9471. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology College of Resources and Environmental Science Xinjiang University Urumqi China.

Groundwater is increasingly becoming a permanent and steady water source for the growth and reproduction of desert plant species due to the frequent channel cutoff events in arid inland river basins. Although it is widely acknowledged that the accessibility of groundwater has a significant impact on plant species maintaining their ecological function, little is known about the water use strategies of desert plant species to the groundwater availability in Daryaboyi Oasis, Central Tarim Basin. This study initially determined the desirable and stressing groundwater depths based on ecological and morphological parameters including UAV-based fractional vegetation cover (FVC) images and plant growth status. Read More

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A Kinetic Model for Blood Biomarker Levels After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Neurol 2021 6;12:668606. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Applied Computational Intelligence Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, United States.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) imposes a significant economic and social burden. The diagnosis and prognosis of mild TBI, also called concussion, is challenging. Concussions are common among contact sport athletes. Read More

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Ultrasound Acoustic Measurement of the Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Drying Process.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE, U.K.

The electrode drying process is a crucial step in the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries and can significantly affect the performance of an electrode once stacked in a cell. High drying rates may induce binder migration, which is largely governed by the temperature. Additionally, elevated drying rates will result in a heterogeneous distribution of the soluble and dispersed binder throughout the electrode, potentially accumulating at the surface. Read More

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Assessment of physical and chemical properties, health risk of trace metals and quality indices of surface waters of the rivers and lakes of the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk Region, North-West Russia).

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Northern Dvina Emb. 23, Arkhangelsk, Russia, 163000.

The pollution of waterbodies with trace metals is of concern throughout the world due to their high toxicity. One of the main anthropogenic sources of trace metals entering natural waters is the mining and processing of minerals. Intensive development of the mining industry on the Kola Peninsula (the Murmansk region, Russia), exploration and development of new mineral resources have led to a sharp deterioration in the quality of surface waters of rivers and lakes. Read More

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Pima Indian Contributions to Our Understanding of Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Diabetes 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Phoenix, AZ.

Prospective studies in informative populations are crucial to increasing our knowledge of disease. In this perspective, we describe a half century of studies in an American Indian population that transformed our understanding of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes, now recognized as the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide. Serial examinations conducted for many years that included the collection of data and samples across multiple domains captured an unprecedented volume of clinical, physiologic, morphometric, genomic, and transcriptomic data. Read More

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Machine Teaching for Human Inverse Reinforcement Learning.

Front Robot AI 2021 30;8:693050. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

As robots continue to acquire useful skills, their ability to teach their expertise will provide humans the two-fold benefit of learning from robots and collaborating fluently with them. For example, robot tutors could teach handwriting to individual students and delivery robots could convey their navigation conventions to better coordinate with nearby human workers. Because humans naturally communicate their behaviors through selective demonstrations, and comprehend others' through reasoning that resembles inverse reinforcement learning (IRL), we propose a method of teaching humans based on demonstrations that are informative for IRL. Read More

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BIOlogical Factors that Limit sustAined Remission in rhEumatoid arthritis (the BIO-FLARE study): protocol for a non-randomised longitudinal cohort study.

BMC Rheumatol 2021 Jul 19;5(1):22. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

Background: Our knowledge of immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) aetiology and pathogenesis has improved greatly over recent years, however, very little is known of the factors that trigger disease relapses (flares), converting diseases from inactive to active states. Focussing on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the challenge that we will address is why IMIDs remit and relapse. Extrapolating from pathogenetic factors involved in disease initiation, new episodes of inflammation could be triggered by recurrent systemic immune dysregulation or locally by factors within the joint, either of which could be endorsed by overarching epigenetic factors or changes in systemic or localised metabolism. Read More

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Molecular classification of blood and bleeding disorder genes.

NPJ Genom Med 2021 Jul 16;6(1):62. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Saudi Human Genome Program, National Centre for Genomic Technologies, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The advances and development of sequencing techniques and data analysis resulted in a pool of informative genetic data, that can be analyzed for informing decision making in designing national screening, prevention programs, and molecular diagnostic tests. The accumulation of molecular data from different populations widen the scope of utilization of this information. Bleeding disorders are a heterogeneous group of clinically overlapping disorders. Read More

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Thousands of induced germline mutations affecting immune cells identified by automated meiotic mapping coupled with machine learning.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

Center for the Genetics of Host Defense, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390.

Forward genetic studies use meiotic mapping to adduce evidence that a particular mutation, normally induced by a germline mutagen, is causative of a particular phenotype. Particularly in small pedigrees, cosegregation of multiple mutations, occasional unawareness of mutations, and paucity of homozygotes may lead to erroneous declarations of cause and effect. We sought to improve the identification of mutations causing immune phenotypes in mice by creating Candidate Explorer (CE), a machine-learning software program that integrates 67 features of genetic mapping data into a single numeric score, mathematically convertible to the probability of verification of any putative mutation-phenotype association. Read More

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Circulating cell-free DNA in the peripheral blood plasma of patients is an informative biomarker for multiple myeloma relapse.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy. Despite the introduction of several novel drugs, most patients relapse. Biomarkers to identify the early signs of relapse will make it possible to adjust the therapeutic strategy before the disease worsens. Read More

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Understanding Variations in the Health Consequences of Sedentary Behavior: A Taxonomy of Social Interaction, Novelty, Choice, and Cognition.

Authors:
Wendell C Taylor

J Aging Phys Act 2021 Jul 13:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

The study of sedentary behaviors requires taxonomies (classification schemes) to standardize data collection, measurements, and outcomes. Three taxonomies of sedentary behaviors have been identified, but none address an important challenge in sedentary behavior research, which is to distinguish between beneficial and detrimental health effects of various sedentary behaviors. Some sedentary behaviors (e. Read More

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Quantitative trait loci for growth-related traits in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing.

Mol Genet Genomics 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8525, Japan.

This study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for growth-related traits by constructing a genetic linkage map based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in Japanese quail. A QTL mapping population of 277 F birds was obtained from an intercross between a male of a large-sized strain and three females of a normal-sized strain. Body weight (BW) was measured weekly from hatching to 16 weeks of age. Read More

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Adults and children predict in complex and variable referential contexts.

Lang Cogn Neurosci 2021 23;36(4):474-490. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Princeton University, Department of Psychology.

Prior research suggests that prediction supports language processing and learning. However, the ecological validity of such findings is unclear because experiments usually include constrained stimuli. While theoretically suggestive, previous conclusions will be largely irrelevant if listeners cannot generate predictions in response to complex and variable perceptual input. Read More

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November 2020

Interprofessional culinary education workshops at the University of Saskatchewan.

Can Med Educ J 2021 Jun 30;12(3):159-162. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Implication Statement If you want to offer your students an enjoyable and worthwhile interprofessional activity to learn about issues in community nutrition, your university can cook up these interprofessional culinary education workshops. Start with a few enthusiastic students from various health professional programs who can organize, promote, and lead. Include faculty and/or staff to support the students and apply for internal funding. Read More

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YouTube as a source of information about COVID-19 for children: Content quality, reliability, and audience participation analysis.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Research Assistant, Istanbul University- Cerrahpasa, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Department of Pediatric Nursing, Abide-i Hürriyet Street, 34381 Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the content quality, reliability, and audience participation analysis of YouTube videos as a source of information about COVID-19 for children.

Design And Methods: This study was conducted in a descriptive design. The keywords "COVID-19, explain, children" were searched on the YouTube platform on March 17, 2021, and 294 videos were reviewed. Read More

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Comparison of three statistical approaches for feature selection for fine-scale genetic population assignment in four pig breeds.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jul 10;53(3):395. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Plant and Microbial Biotechnologies, Biodiversity, and Environment (BioBio), Mohammed V University in Rabat, 4 Ibn Battouta Avenue, B.P. 1014 RP, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: Assigning animals to their corresponding breeds through breed informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is required in many fields. For instance, it is used in the traceability and the authentication of meat and other livestock products. SNPs' information for several pork breeds are now accessible thanks to the availability of dense SNP chips. Read More

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Hypoxia-responsive nanoreactors based on self-enhanced photodynamic sensitization and triggered ferroptosis for cancer synergistic therapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jul 8;19(1):204. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, People's Republic of China.

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a typical reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent treatment with high controllability, has emerged as an alternative cancer therapy modality but its therapeutic efficacy is still unsatisfactory due to the limited light penetration and constant oxygen consumption. With the development of another ROS-dependent paradigm ferroptosis, several efforts have been made to conquer the poor efficacy by combining these two approaches; however the biocompatibility, tumor-targeting capacity and clinical translation prospect of current studies still exist great concerns. Herein, a novel hypoxia-responsive nanoreactor [email protected] with sorafenib (SRF) loaded inside, constructed by covalently connecting chlorin e6 conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA-Ce6) and ferritin through azobenzene (Azo) linker, were prepared to offer unmatched opportunities for high-efficient PDT and ferroptosis synergistic therapy. Read More

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Harsh is large: nonlinear vocal phenomena lower voice pitch and exaggerate body size.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 07 7;288(1954):20210872. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Equipe de Neuro-Ethologie Sensorielle, CNRS and University of Saint Étienne, UMR 5293, 42023 St-Étienne, France.

A lion's roar, a dog's bark, an angry yell in a pub brawl: what do these vocalizations have in common? They all sound harsh due to nonlinear vocal phenomena (NLP)-deviations from regular voice production, hypothesized to lower perceived voice pitch and thereby exaggerate the apparent body size of the vocalizer. To test this yet uncorroborated hypothesis, we synthesized human nonverbal vocalizations, such as roars, groans and screams, with and without NLP (amplitude modulation, subharmonics and chaos). We then measured their effects on nearly 700 listeners' perceptions of three psychoacoustic (pitch, timbre, roughness) and three ecological (body size, formidability, aggression) characteristics. Read More

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Single Cell Proteomics Reveals Circulating Tumor Cell Heterogeneity during Treatment.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Centre for Personalised Nanomedicine, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), The University of Queensland, Corner College and Cooper Roads (Bldg 75), Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Cancer is a dynamic disease with heterogenic molecular signatures and constantly evolves during the course of the disease. Single cell proteomic analysis could offer a suitable pathway to monitor cancer cell heterogeneity and deliver critical information for the diagnosis, recurrence, and drug-resistant mechanisms in cancer. Current standard techniques for proteomic analysis such as ELISA, mass spectrometry, and Western blots are time-consuming, expensive, and often require fluorescence labeling that fails to provide accurate information about the multiple protein expression changes at the single cell level. Read More

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The complete chloroplast genome of (fabaceae), an endemic species in China.

Authors:
Yin-Huan Wang

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 21;6(7):2095-2096. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Primary Education, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, China.

is a legume species endemic to China. The chloroplast genome (plastome) of this species was assembled in this study. The total plastome size is 173,789 bp in length, containing a large single-copy (LSC) region of 73,847 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,744 bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 40,599 bp which have expanded about 15 kb into LSC. Read More

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Landmark Series on Disparities in Surgical Oncology: Melanoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

University of Illinois Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Although the lifetime risk of melanoma is disproportionately higher in whites, blacks have a poorer overall survival with an absolute survival difference of 25%. Significant progress has been made in melanoma treatment in the past decade; however, these successes may not be available or accessible to all segments of the population.

Methods: In this review, we highlight important studies in melanoma as well as informative retrospective studies from databases and nonmelanoma cancers where appropriate. Read More

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Equity-informative methods of health services research.

J Health Organ Manag 2021 Jul;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.

Purpose: We review quantitative methods for analysing the equity impacts of health care and public health interventions: who benefits most and who bears the largest burdens (opportunity costs)? Mainstream health services research focuses on effectiveness and efficiency but decision makers also need information about equity.

Design/methodology/approach: We review equity-informative methods of quantitative data analysis in three core areas of health services research: effectiveness analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and performance measurement. An appendix includes further readings and resources. Read More

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Update of the spp. host plant database - systematic literature search up to 31 December 2020.

EFSA J 2021 Jun 23;19(6):e06674. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to create and regularly update a database of host plant species of spp. Complying with an extension of the previous mandate, which now covers the period 2021-2026, the current version of spp. host plant database updates the previous release dated April 2020. Read More

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Dynamics of rumen bacterial composition of yak () in response to dietary supplements during the cold season.

PeerJ 2021 18;9:e11520. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

This study aimed to explore the rumen bacterial community of yak in response to dietary supplements during the cold season. In addition, the rumen fermentation products were also analyzed. Twenty-one female domestic yaks were randomly divided into three groups i. Read More

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