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Knowledge user survey and Delphi process to inform development of a new risk of bias tool to assess systematic reviews with network meta-analysis (RoB NMA tool).

BMJ Evid Based Med 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Knowledge Translation Program, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Network meta-analysis (NMA) is increasingly used in guideline development and other aspects of evidence-based decision-making. We aimed to develop a risk of bias (RoB) tool to assess NMAs (RoB NMA tool). An international steering committee recommended that the RoB NMA tool to be used in combination with the Risk of Bias in Systematic reviews (ROBIS) tool (i. Read More

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Rationale and design of a randomised trial of intravenous iron in patients with heart failure.

Heart 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

Objectives: For patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and iron deficiency, administration of intravenous iron improves symptoms, exercise capacity and may in the following 12 months, reduce hospitalisations for heart failure. The Effectiveness of ntavenous ir treatent versus standard care in ptiets with heart failure and iron deficiency (IRONMAN) trial evaluated whether the benefits of intravenous iron persist in the longer term and impact on morbidity and mortality.

Methods: IRONMAN is a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) event-driven trial. Read More

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Wars and sweets: microbes, medicines and other moderns in and beyond the(ir) antibiotic era.

Authors:
Coll Hutchison

Med Humanit 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London, UK

Once upon a time, many of us moderns dreamt that our future was bright, squeaky clean, germ-free. Now, we increasingly fear that bacterial resistance movements and hordes of viruses are cancelling our medicated performances, and threatening life as many of us have come to know it. In order for our modern antibiotic theatre of war to go on, we pray for salvation through our intensive surveillance of microbes, crusades for more rational antibiotic wars, increased recruitment of resistance fighters and development of antibiotic armaments through greater investment in our medical-industrial-war complex. Read More

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Air pollution as an early determinant of COPD.

Eur Respir Rev 2022 Sep 10;31(165). Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, Creteil, France

COPD is a progressive and debilitating disease often diagnosed after 50 years of age, but more recent evidence suggests that its onset could originate very early on in life. In this context, exposure to air pollution appears to be a potential contributor. Although the potential role of air pollution as an early determinant of COPD is emerging, knowledge gaps still remain, including an accurate qualification of air pollutants (number of pollutants quantified and exact composition) or the "one exposure-one disease" concept, which might limit the current understanding. Read More

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September 2022

Analyses and identification of ICD codes for dementias in the research based on the NHIRD: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2022 Aug 10;12(8):e062654. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Social Science Research Unit (SSRU), Institue of Education, University College London, London, UK

Introduction: Studies based on health claims data (HCD) have been increasingly adopted in medical research for their strengths in large sample size and abundant information, and the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) has been widely used in medical research across disciplines, including dementia. How the diagnostic codes are applied to define the diseases/conditions of interest is pivotal in HCD-related research, but the consensus on the issue that diagnostic codes most appropriately define dementias in the NHIRD is lacking. The objectives of this scoping review are (1) to investigate the relevant characteristics in the published reports targeting dementias based on the NHIRD, and (2) to address the diversity by a case study. Read More

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COCOS trial: rticosteroids for VID-19-induced loss of mell-protocol for a single-centred, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Aug 10;12(8):e060416. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Hyposmia and anosmia are common in COVID-19. Most patients regain normal smell within 4 weeks, but severe loss of smell persists roughly in 20% after 2 months and may last up to a year or longer. These persistent smell disorders greatly influence daily life. Read More

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rTMS for poststroke pusher syndrome: study protocol for a randomised, patient-blinded controlled clinical trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Aug 10;12(8):e064905. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Rehabilitation Medicine Center, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Introduction: Poststroke pusher syndrome (PS) prevalence is high. Patients with PS require longer rehabilitation with prolonged length of stay. Effective treatment of PS remains a challenge for rehabilitation professionals. Read More

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Time-efficient physical activity intervention for older adolescents with disability: rationale and study protocol for the Burn 2 Learn adapted (B2La) cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Aug 10;12(8):e065321. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

School of Education, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

Introduction: Physical activity declines during adolescence, with the lowest levels of activity observed among those with disability. Schools are ideal settings to address this issue; however, few school-based interventions have been specifically designed for older adolescents with disability. Our aim is to investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity programme, involving high-intensity interval training (HIIT), on physical, mental and cognitive health in older adolescents with disability. Read More

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Financial interventions for family caregivers of individuals with chronic illness: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2022 Aug 10;12(8):e061667. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver-Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Introduction: There are 53 million caregivers in the USA providing informal care for individuals with chronic illnesses. These caregivers contribute significantly to the healthcare system, yet they may experience adverse consequences due to caregiving, including financial burden. The purpose of this scoping review is to fill a research gap on understanding the nature and effect of financial interventions for family caregivers. Read More

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A Protocol to Assess Adult Outcomes at 30 Years Following Preterm Birth.

Nurs Res 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

University of Rhode Island College of Nursing, Providence, RI.

Background: Among the most intense adversity experiences for infants is premature birth. Early birth marks the beginning of a life course that broadly affects families, health care, education, social systems, and the survivors themselves. For many, the transition to adulthood is challenging and often hampered by cognitive, physical and mental health, and motor and independence difficulties. Read More

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Study Protocol: Sleep Effects on Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Study.

Nurs Res 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

SUNY Upstate Medical University, College of Health Professions, Department of Physical Therapy, Syracuse, NY.

Background: A range of sleep disturbances and disorders are problematic in people following stroke; they interfere with recovery of function during post-stroke rehabilitation. However, studies to date have focused primarily on the effects of one sleep disorder-Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)-on stroke recovery.

Objectives: The study protocol for the SLEep Effects on Post-Stroke Rehabilitation (SLEEPR) Study is presented with aims of characterizing proportion of non-OSA sleep disorders in the first 90 days following stroke, evaluating the effect of non-OSA sleep disorders on post-stroke recovery, and exploring the complex relationships between stroke, sleep, and recovery in the community setting. Read More

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Free-Text Computerized Provider Order Entry Orders Used as Workaround for Communicating Medication Information.

J Patient Saf 2022 Aug 17;18(5):430-434. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

University of Minnesota School of Nursing, Minneapolis, MN.

Objectives: Medication information is frequently communicated via free-text computerized provider order entry (CPOE) orders in electronic health records. When such information is transmitted separately from a structured CPOE medication order, there is a significant risk of medication error. Although prior studies have described the frequency of using free-text CPOE orders for communicating medication information, there is a gap in understanding the nature of the medication information contained in the free-text CPOE orders. Read More

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Adipocyte-based high throughput screening for anti-obesity drug discovery: current status and future perspectives.

Authors:
Leo Tsui

SLAS Discov 2022 Aug 7. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Drug discovery for obesity treatment, particularly bodily slimming, is a topic of timely importance that requires continued investigation, as the current therapies have limited efficacy with many adverse effects. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue expansion, where the size and number of adipocytes increase. Over the past few decades, high-throughput/content screening (HTS/HCS) has been carried out on morphological changes in adipose tissues and adipocytes for the development of anti-obesity therapies. Read More

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The Fish Oil to Reduce Tobacco Use iN Expectant Mothers (FORTUNE) Feasibility Trial.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2022 Aug 7:100707. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Division of General Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University Medicine Center, Nashville, TN; GRECC, Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN; Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Background: Three small clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) found in fish oils may reduce nicotine cravings and at higher doses reduce cigarette consumption. Pregnant women who smoke have fewer pharmacological options to aide them with smoking cessation. Although n-3 LCPUFA supplementation has been studied in pregnancy few studies have evaluated doses 4 grams/day or higher and no prior studies have selectively enrolled pregnant women who smoke. Read More

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Gut bacteria, bacteriophages, and probiotics: Tripartite mutualism to quench the SARS-CoV2 storm.

Microb Pathog 2022 Aug 7:105704. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; GI Cancer Screening and Prevention Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Caspian Digestive Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Electronic address:

Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, exhibit various clinical manifestations and severity including respiratory and enteric involvements. One of the main reasons for death among covid-19 patients is excessive immune responses directed toward cytokine storm with a low chance of recovery. Since the balanced gut microbiota could prepare health benefits by protecting against pathogens and regulating immune homeostasis, dysbiosis or disruption of gut microbiota could promote severe complications including autoimmune disorders; we surveyed the association between the imbalanced gut bacteria and the development of cytokine storm among COVID-19 patients, also the impact of probiotics and bacteriophages on the gut bacteria community to alleviate cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Structural connectivity of the ANT region based on human ex-vivo and HCP data. Relevance for DBS in ANT for epilepsy.

Neuroimage 2022 Aug 7:119551. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

MRX-Brain GmbH, Moritz-Sommer-Str. 4., 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany; Department of Neuroanatomy, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus (ANT) has been shown to be a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with Drug-Resitant focal Epilepsy (DRE). The ANT has been selected frequently in open and controlled studies for bilateral DBS. There is a substantial variability in ANT-DBS outcomes which is not fully understood. Read More

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Predicting Topographic Disease Progression and Treatment Response of Pegcetacoplan in Geographic Atrophy Quantified by Deep Learning.

Ophthalmol Retina 2022 Aug 7. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify disease activity and effects of intravitreal pegcetacoplan treatment on the topographic progression of geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) quantified in SD-OCT images by automated deep learning assessment.

Design: Retrospective analysis of a phase 2 clinical trial study evaluating pegcetacoplan in patients with GA (FILLY, NCT02503332).

Subjects: SD-OCT scans of 57 eyes with monthly, 46 eyes with every-other-month (EOM) treatment and 53 eyes with sham (SM) injection from baseline and 12 month follow up were included, in total 312 scans. Read More

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Glutaminyl cyclases, the potential targets of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Aug 7:175178. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, China; Innovation Platform of Marine Drug Screening & Evaluation, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong, 266100, China. Electronic address:

Glutaminyl cyclases (QC) catalyze the cyclization of proteins and turn N-terminal glutamine or glutamic acid into N-terminal pyroglutamate, resulting in protection of proteins from aminopeptidases and an increase of their stabilities. The aberrant N-terminal pyroglutamate has been found in various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and cancer. Two kinds of human QC, the secretory sQC and the Golgi resident gQC, are identified to date. Read More

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Effects of different substrates on the adsorption behavior of supported-adsorbents: A case study of MoS for Ag adsorption.

Environ Res 2022 Aug 7:113969. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Heavy Metals Pollutants Control and Resource Utilization, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang, 330063, PR China; Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang, 330063, PR China. Electronic address:

Supported-adsorbents growing on the substrate in situ are equipped with the advantages of high adsorption capacity, excellent regeneration performance, and adaptability to complex wastewater. However, the effects of substrate on the adsorption properties of supported-adsorbent are rarely considered, which will hinder its development and scale-up applications. In this study, the influences of different substrates (Ti, Mo, W, CC) on the Ag adsorption behavior of supported-MoS adsorbents were investigated. Read More

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Effectiveness assessment of reservoir projects for flash flood control, water supply and irrigation in Wangmo Basin, China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 7:157918. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute of Changjiang River ResourcesCommission,Wuhan 430010, China.

Most flash floods in countries around the world occur in poor rural mountainous areas and typically cause more casualties and economic losses due to monitoring challenges and early warning difficulties. In mountainous regions, reservoir projects are a very effective measure for mitigating the risk of flash floods and can also be used for water supplies and irrigation, but there is a lack of research on the comprehensive benefit assessments of reservoirs. In this paper, we simulate the inundation extents of flash floods for the Wangmo Basin in China, where flash floods frequently occur, under different return periods using the HEC-HMS (HEC-Hydrologic Modelling System) model and FLO-2D model and compare the resulting housing losses with and without reservoirs. Read More

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Contrasting water sources used by a coniferous forest in the high-altitude, southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 7:157913. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Forest trees use various water sources to adapt to environmental conditions in mountainous regions. However, water resources variances along elevational gradients are not clearly understood. This limits the assessment of the ecosystem responses to climate change. Read More

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Modulation of autophagy by melatonin via sirtuins in stroke: From mechanisms to therapies.

Life Sci 2022 Aug 7:120870. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Sirtuins perform an important effect on the neural cell fate following stroke. Several mechanisms that have been correlated with stroke are oxidative stress, apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Autophagy is usually regarded as unitary of the neural cell survival mechanisms. Read More

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Versatilely Manipulating the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites by Incorporating Porous Fillers: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

Langmuir 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been attracting myriad scientific and technological attention due to their promising mechanical and functional properties. However, there remains a need for an efficient method that can further strengthen the mechanical performance of PNCs. Here, we propose a strategy to design and fabricate novel PNCs by incorporating porous fillers (PFs) such as metal-organic frameworks with ultrahigh specific surface areas and tunable nanospaces to polymer matrices via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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Health impacts of artificial turf: Toxicity studies, challenges, and future directions.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 7:119841. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Many communities around the country are undergoing contentious battles over the installation of artificial turf. Opponents are concerned about exposure to hazardous chemicals leaching from the crumb rubber cushioning fill made of recycled tires, the plastic carpet, and other synthetic components. Numerous studies have shown that chemicals identified in artificial turf, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), are known carcinogens, neurotoxicants, mutagens, and endocrine disruptors. Read More

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Regional Variations in Clinical Trial Outcomes in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2022 Aug;20(8):879-886.e2

2Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: It is unknown how often regional differences in oncology trials are observed. Based on our study findings, we quantified regional variation in registration studies in oncology and developed a question guide to help clinicians evaluate regional differences.

Methods: Using FDA archives, we identified registration studies in solid tumor malignancies from 2010 to 2020. Read More

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Interstitial fluid streaming in deep tissue induced by ultrasound momentum transfer for accelerating nanoagent transport and controlling its distribution.

Authors:
Baohong Yuan

Phys Med Biol 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, 500 UTA BLVD, Arlington, TX 76010, USA, Arlington, 76010, UNITED STATES.

Objective: This study aims to theoretically investigate the dynamics of ultrasound-induced interstitial fluid streaming and tissue recovery after ultrasound exposure for potentially accelerating nanoagent transport and controlling its distribution in tissue.

Approach: Starting from fundamental equations, the dynamics of ultrasound-induced interstitial fluid streaming and tissue relaxation after ultrasound exposure were modeled, derived and simulated. Also, both ultrasound-induced mechanical and thermal effects were considered in the models. Read More

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Standing on the shoulders of mice.

Immunity 2022 Aug;55(8):1343-1353

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. Electronic address:

While inbred mice have informed most of what we know about the immune system in the modern era, they have clear limitations with respect to their ability to be informative regarding genetic heterogeneity or microbial influences. They have also not been very predictive as models of human disease or vaccination results. Although there are concerted attempts to compensate for these flaws, the rapid rise of human studies, driven by both technical and conceptual advances, promises to fill in these gaps, as well as provide direct information about human diseases and vaccination responses. Read More

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Scalable batch-correction approach for integrating large-scale single-cell transcriptomes.

Brief Bioinform 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Tianjin Cancer Institute, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Integration of accumulative large-scale single-cell transcriptomes requires scalable batch-correction approaches. Here we propose Fugue, a simple and efficient batch-correction method that is scalable for integrating super large-scale single-cell transcriptomes from diverse sources. The core idea of the method is to encode batch information as trainable parameters and add it to single-cell expression profile; subsequently, a contrastive learning approach is used to learn feature representation of the additive expression profile. Read More

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Klebsiella pneumoniae hijacks the Toll-IL-1R protein SARM1 in a type I IFN-dependent manner to antagonize host immunity.

Cell Rep 2022 Aug;40(6):111167

Wellcome-Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, UK. Electronic address:

Many bacterial pathogens antagonize host defense responses by translocating effector proteins into cells. It remains an open question how those pathogens not encoding effectors counteract anti-bacterial immunity. Here, we show that Klebsiella pneumoniae exploits the evolutionary conserved innate protein SARM1 to regulate negatively MyD88- and TRIF-governed inflammation, and the activation of the MAP kinases ERK and JNK. Read More

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