65,610 results match your criteria white matter


Structural connectivity predicts sequential processing differences in music perception ability.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Language Literacy and Music Laboratory, National Brain Research Centre (Deemed University), Manesar, India.

To relate individual differences in music perception ability with whole brain white matter connectivity, we scanned a group of twenty-seven individuals with varying degrees of musical training and assessed musical ability in sensory and sequential music perception domains using the Profile of Music Perception Skills-Short version (PROMS-S). Sequential processing ability was estimated by combining performance on tasks for Melody, Standard Rhythm, Embedded Rhythm, and Accent sub-scores while sensory processing ability was ascertained via tasks of Tempo, Pitch, Timbre and Tuning. Controlling for musical training, gender and years of training, Network Based Statistics revealed positive linear associations between total PROMS-S scores and increased inter-hemispheric fronto-temporal and parieto-frontal white matter connectivity, suggesting a distinct segregated structural network for music perception. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of dietary protein, energy and β-mannanase on laying performance, egg quality, and ileal amino acid digestibility in laying hens.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 5;100(9):101312. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

β-mannan is a nonstarch polysaccharide found in hulled and dehulled soybeans that can survive drying-toasting phase of processing soybeans and have antinutritive effects in poultry. β-mannanase is an active enzyme (endohydrolase) that can hydrolyze β-mannan to reduce its antinutritional effects. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of β-mannanase supplementation in low energy/protein diets on egg production, egg quality, and apparent ileal digestibility of the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and amino acids in 21-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line W-36). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In vivo assessment of anisotropy of apparent magnetic susceptibility in white matter from a single orientation acquisition.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 30:118442. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Philosophenweg 3, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Multiple studies have reported a significant dependence of the effective transverse relaxation rate constant (R) and the phase of gradient-echo based (GRE) signal on the orientation of white matter fibres in the human brain. It has also been hypothesized that magnetic susceptibility, as obtained by single-orientation quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), exhibits such a dependence. In this study, we investigated this hypothesized relationship in a cohort of healthy volunteers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune environment of the brain in schizophrenia and during the psychotic episode: a human post-mortem study.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Clinical Neurosciences, Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

A causal relationship between immune dysregulation and schizophrenia has been supported by genome-wide association studies and epidemiological evidence. It remains unclear to what extent the brain immune environment is implicated in this hypothesis. We investigated the immunophenotype of microglia and the presence of perivascular macrophages and T lymphocytes in post-mortem brain tissue. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Visual Information Routes in the Posterior Dorsal and Ventral Face Network Studied with Intracranial Neurophysiology and White Matter Tract Endpoints.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institut du Cerveau-Paris Brain Institute, ICM, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Université, Centre de Neuroimagerie de Recherche, CENIR, Centre MEG-EEG and STIM Platform, Paris F-75013, France.

Occipitotemporal regions within the face network process perceptual and socioemotional information, but the dynamics and information flow between different nodes of this network are still debated. Here, we analyzed intracerebral EEG from 11 epileptic patients viewing a stimulus sequence beginning with a neutral face with direct gaze. The gaze could avert or remain direct, while the emotion changed to fearful or happy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Associations of tobacco use and consumption with rurality among patients with psychiatric disorders: Does smoke-free policy matter?

J Rural Health 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Purpose: People with psychiatric disorders (PDs) have high risks for tobacco use and associated health effects; however, little is known about differences in tobacco use status and consumption by urban or rural residence. Among patients with PDs, we examined the association of smoke-free policy on tobacco use by rural/urban residence METHOD: A cross-sectional retrospective study (N = 2060) among patients in a psychiatric facility was conducted. Multi-logistic and multilinear regression analyses assessed differences in outcomes stratified by rural/urban status. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association and epistatic analysis of white matter related genes across the continuum schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders: The joint effect of NRG1-ErbB genes.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 Aug 2:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that share clinical, cognitive, and genetic characteristics, as well as particular white matter (WM) abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of a set of oligodendrocyte/myelin-related (OMR) genes and their epistatic effect on the risk for SSD and ASD.

Methods: We examined 108 SNPs in a set of 22 OMR genes in 1749 subjects divided into three independent samples (187 SSD trios, 915 SSD cases/control, and 91 ASD trios). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cerebral microbleed distribution following cardiac surgery can mimic cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

BMJ Neurol Open 2021 13;3(2):e000166. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Neurology & Stroke, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background And Aims: Having anecdotally noted a high frequency of lobar-restricted cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) mimicking cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in patients with previous cardiac surgery (especially valve replacement) presenting to our transient ischaemic attack (TIA) clinic, we set out to objectively determine the frequency and distribution of microbleeds in this population.

Methods: We performed a retrospective comparative cohort study in consecutive patients presenting to two TIA clinics with either: (1) previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n=41); (2) previous valve replacement (n=41) or (3) probable CAA (n=41), as per the Modified Boston Criteria, without prior cardiac surgery. Microbleed number and distribution was determined and compared. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How to Minimize Light-Organic Matter Interactions for All-Optical Sub-Cutaneous Temperature Sensing.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 16;6(29):18860-18867. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Penetration and emanation of light into tissue are limited by the strong interaction of light with the tissue components, especially oxygenated hemoglobin and white adipose tissue. This limits the possibilities for all-optical minimal invasive sensing. In order to minimize the optical losses of light in and out of the tissue, only a narrow optical window between 630 and 900 nm is available. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hippocampal subfield imaging and fractional anisotropy show parallel changes in Alzheimer's disease tau progression using simultaneous tau-PET/MRI at 3T.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 28;13(1):e12218. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Radiology Stanford University Stanford California USA.

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized primarily by abnormal aggregation of two proteins, tau and amyloid beta. We assessed tau pathology and white matter connectivity changes in subfields of the hippocampus simultaneously in vivo in AD.

Methods: Twenty-four subjects were scanned using simultaneous time-of-flight F-PI-2620 tau positron emission tomography/3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and automated segmentation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health-Promoting Constituents and Selected Quality Parameters of Different Types of Kimchi: Fermented Plant Products.

Int J Food Sci 2021 21;2021:9925344. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Carbohydrate Technology and Cereal Processing, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Kraków, Poland.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and health-promoting constituents of several variants of kimchi obtained from Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, white radish, and cucumbers. The level of dry matter, total soluble solids, ash, total acidity, pH, dietary fiber, and vitamins C, B, and B, as well as total polyphenols (TP) and antioxidant activity AA (ABTS, DPPH) in kimchi, were determined. In addition, color parameters were determined (∗, ∗, ∗, ∗, and ). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Longitudinal Evaluation of Cerebellar Signs of H-ABC Tubulinopathy in a Patient and in the Model.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:702039. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Chemical, Electronic and Biomedical Engineering, Division of Sciences and Engineering, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) is a central neurodegenerative disease due to mutations in the tubulin beta-4A (TUBB4A) gene, characterized by motor development delay, abnormal movements, ataxia, spasticity, dysarthria, and cognitive deficits. Diagnosis is made by integrating clinical data and radiological signs. Differences in MRIs have been reported in patients that carry the same mutation; however, a quantitative study has not been performed so far. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sodium Intensity Changes Differ Between Relaxation- and Density-Weighted MRI in Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:693447. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

The source of Tissue Sodium Concentration (TSC) increase in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, and could be attributed to altered intracellular sodium concentration or tissue microstructure. This paper investigates sodium in MS using three new MRI sequences. Three sodium scans were acquired at 4. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Secondary White Matter Injury and Therapeutic Targets After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Neurol 2021 15;12:659740. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the special stroke subtypes with high mortality and mobility. Although the mortality of SAH has decreased by 50% over the past two decades due to advances in neurosurgery and management of neurocritical care, more than 70% of survivors suffer from varying degrees of neurological deficits and cognitive impairments, leaving a heavy burden on individuals, families, and the society. Recent studies have shown that white matter is vulnerable to SAH, and white matter injuries may be one of the causes of long-term neurological deficits caused by SAH. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regional Difference in Myelination in Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Deficiency: Case Reports and Literature Review of Cases in Japan.

Front Neurol 2021 15;12:657820. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.

Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter protein. MCT8 deficiency induces severe X-linked psychomotor retardation. Previous reports have documented delayed myelination in the central white matter (WM) in these patients; however, the regional pattern of myelination has not been fully elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cortical Thickness and Hippocampal Volume in Vascular and Non-vascular Depressed Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:697489. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, United States.

Reduced cortical thickness and hippocampal volume are prevalent markers of late life depression as well as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but are conspicuously absent in the vascular depression (VD) literature. The present study aimed to determine differences in cortical thickness and hippocampal volume between VD and non-VD patients. Participants were enrolled in an 8-week open treatment antidepressant trial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Effect of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease on the Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Psychiatry 2021 16;12:685965. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is the most common vascular cause of dementia, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between dementia and normal cognitive aging. The present study investigated the main imaging features of CSVD on different MCI subtypes in memory clinics. A total of 236 patients with MCI and 85 healthy controls were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in the connection network of whole-brain fiber tracts in patients with Alzheimer's disease have a tendency of lateralization.

Neuroreport 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Science, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi National Engineering Research Center for Healthcare Devices. Guangzhou, Guangdong The Key Laboratory of Neuro-informatics and Rehabilitation Engineering of Ministry of Civil Affairs, Xi'an, Shaanxi Department of Neurology, The Second Medical Centre, National Clinical Research Centre for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Alzheimer's disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to explore structural integrity and to describe white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Previous research has indicated that the change of connections between white matter fiber tracts is very important for investigating the brain function of Alzheimer's disease patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Trajectory of the incidence of brushes on preterm electroencephalogram and its association with neurodevelopment in extremely low birth weight infants.

Brain Dev 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Neonatology, Center for Maternal-Neonatal Care, Nagoya University Hospital, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Brush or delta brush is a well-known characteristic waveform in preterm electroencephalograms. However, the longitudinal trajectory of brushes and its association with neurodevelopment remain uncertain.

Methods: We analyzed the longitudinal incidence of brushes in 36 extremely low birth weight infants without severe brain lesions and its association with neurodevelopment and white matter abnormality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Global fractional anisotropy predicts transition to psychosis after 12 months in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, CINS, and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, CNSR, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark.

Objective: Psychosis spectrum disorders are associated with cerebral changes, but the prognostic value and clinical utility of these findings is unclear. Here we applied a multivariate statistical model to examine the predictive accuracy of global white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) for transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR).

Methods: 110 UHR-individuals underwent 3 Tesla diffusion weighted imaging and clinical assessments at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Herpes simplex virus, early neuroimaging markers and incidence of Alzheimer's disease.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 07 31;11(1):414. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

University of Bordeaux, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, UMR U1219, F-33000, Bordeaux, France.

While previous studies suggest the implication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), no study has investigated its association with early neuroimaging markers of AD. In the Three-City and the AMI cohorts, the associations between HSV infection and (i) hippocampal volume (n = 349), (ii) white matter alterations in the parahippocampal cingulum and fornix using diffusion tensor imaging (n = 260), and (iii) incidence of AD (n = 1599) were assessed according to APOE4 status. Regardless of APOE4 status, infected subjects presented (i) significantly more microstructural alterations of the parahippocampal cingulum and fornix, (ii) lower hippocampal volumes only when their anti-HSV IgG level was in the highest tercile-reflecting possibly more frequent reactivations of the virus (p = 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanisms underlying the health effects of desert sand dust.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 29;157:106790. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Environmental Exposures and Health, School of Public Health, Sir Michael Uren Building, Imperial College London, White City Campus, 80-92 Wood Lane, London W12 0BZ, United Kingdom.

Desertification and climate change indicate a future expansion of the global area of dry land and an increase in the risk of drought. Humans may therefore be at an ever-increasing risk of frequent exposure to, and resultant adverse health effects of desert sand dust. This review appraises a total of 52 experimental studies that have sought to identify mechanisms and intermediate endpoints underlying epidemiological evidence of an impact of desert dust on cardiovascular and respiratory health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Automated multiclass tissue segmentation of clinical brain MRIs with lesions.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102769. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

University of California, San Francisco, United States.

Delineation and quantification of normal and abnormal brain tissues on Magnetic Resonance Images is fundamental to the diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of neurological diseases. Here we sought to develop a convolutional neural network for automated multiclass tissue segmentation of brain MRIs that was robust at typical clinical resolutions and in the presence of a variety of lesions. We trained a 3D U-Net for full brain multiclass tissue segmentation from a prior atlas-based segmentation method on an internal dataset that consisted of 558 clinical T1-weighted brain MRIs (453/52/53; training/validation/test) of patients with one of 50 different diagnostic entities (n = 362) or with a normal brain MRI (n = 196). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantitative MR relaxation using MR fingerprinting with fractional-order signal evolution.

J Magn Reson 2021 Jul 22;330:107042. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Paul C. Lauterbur Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China; Shenzhen College of Advanced Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

The fractional-order Bloch equations have been shown to describe a wider range of experimental situations involving heterogeneous, porous, or composite materials. This paper introduces a novel dictionary of quantitative MR fingerprinting generated by signal evolution model with fractional-order Bloch equations to describe magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation. Here, the fractional-order relaxation models are implemented into Bloch equations through phase transitions using EPG simulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Geodesic fiber tracking in white matter using activation function.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 22;208:106283. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Masaryk University, Czechia. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The geodesic ray-tracing method has shown its effectiveness for the reconstruction of fibers in white matter structure. Based on reasonable metrics on the spaces of the diffusion tensors, it can provide multiple solutions and get robust to noise and curvatures of fibers. The choice of the metric on the spaces of diffusion tensors has a significant impact on the outcome of this method. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

T cells direct microglial repair of white matter after stroke.

Trends Neurosci 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

A recent paper by Shi et al. defines the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in white matter recovery after ischemic stroke. This study elucidates the mechanisms by which Tregs direct microglia to alter their phenotype to support oligodendrogenesis, thereby improving white matter integrity and functional recovery after stroke in mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Re-analysis of whole-exome sequencing data reveals a novel splicing variant in the SLC2A1 in a patient with GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome 1 accompanied by hemangioma: a case report.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Jul 31;14(1):197. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Program, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome 1 (GLUT1DS1) is a neurological disorder caused by either heterozygous or homozygous mutations in the Solute Carrier Family 2, Member 1 (SLC2A1) gene. SLC2A1 encodes Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) protein, which is the primary glucose transporter at the blood-brain barrier. A ketogenic diet (KD) provides an alternative fuel for brain metabolism to treat impaired glucose transport. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

White matter microstructural associates of apathy-avolition in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jul 22;142:110-116. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Research Program, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Apathy is present at the onset in nearly half the patients with schizophrenia. Current therapies lack the efficiency to improve apathy in patients. The presence of apathy is also associated with poorer outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Greenness, air pollution, and mortality risk: A U.S. cohort study of cancer patients and survivors.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 29;157:106797. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Economics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Several studies suggest that living in areas of high surrounding greenness may be associated with a lower cardiopulmonary mortality risk. However, associations of greenness with specific causes of death in cancer patients and survivors has not been examined and it is unknown whether this relationship is affected by area levels of fine particulate matter air pollution (PM). This study evaluated associations between greenness and PM on causes of death in a large, U. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Age affects white matter microstructure and episodic memory across the older adult lifespan.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 4;106:282-291. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

Diffusion imaging studies have observed age-related degradation of white matter that contributes to cognitive deficits separately in younger-old (ages 65-89) and oldest-old (ages 90+) adults. But it remains unclear whether these age effects are magnified in advanced age groups, which may reflect disease-related pathology. Here, we tested whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure followed linear or nonlinear patterns across the entire older adult lifespan (65-98 years), these patterns were influenced by oldest-old adults at increased risk of dementia (cognitive impairment no dementia, CIND), and they explained age effects on episodic memory. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF