44 results match your criteria whip spiders


Fine structure of the epicuticular secretion coat and associated glands of Pedipalpi and Palpigradi (Arachnida).

J Morphol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Pedipalpi Latreille, 1810 is a poorly studied clade of arachnids comprising the whip spiders (Amblypygi Thorell, 1883), short-tailed whip scorpions (Schizomida Petrunkevitch, 1945) and whip scorpions (Thelyphonida Cambridge, 1872). It has recently been shown that whip spiders coat their exoskeleton with a solid cement layer (cerotegument) that forms elaborate microstructures and turns the cuticle into a super-hydrophobic state. The amblypygid cerotegument provides taxonomic information due to its fine structural diversity, but its presence and variation in the sister groups was previously unknown. Read More

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Four new species of Phrynus, Lamarck (Arachnida: Amblypygi) from Mexico.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 19;4948(2):zootaxa.4948.2.1. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Unidad de Ecología y Sistemática (UNESIS), Laboratorio de Entomología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia. Carrera 7 N°. 40-62, Bogotá..

Mexico is the country with the largest diversity of the genus Phrynus (Amblypygi: Phrynidae); however, many species could remain hidden due to the conservative morphology of the group. Two of the Mexican species, P. operculatus, and P. Read More

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Multisensory integration supports configural learning of a home refuge in the whip spider .

J Exp Biol 2021 Feb 10;224(Pt 3). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind and Behavior, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0001, USA

Whip spiders (Amblypygi) reside in structurally complex habitats and are nocturnally active yet display notable navigational abilities. From the theory that uncertainty in sensory inputs should promote multisensory representations to guide behavior, we hypothesized that their navigation is supported by a multisensory and perhaps configural representation of navigational inputs, an ability documented in a few insects and never reported in arachnids. We trained to recognize a home shelter characterized by both discriminative olfactory and tactile stimuli. Read More

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February 2021

Systemic paralogy and function of retinal determination network homologs in arachnids.

BMC Genomics 2020 Nov 23;21(1):811. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: Arachnids are important components of cave ecosystems and display many examples of troglomorphisms, such as blindness, depigmentation, and elongate appendages. Little is known about how the eyes of arachnids are specified genetically, let alone the mechanisms for eye reduction and loss in troglomorphic arachnids. Additionally, duplication of Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) homologs in spiders has convoluted functional inferences extrapolated from single-copy homologs in pancrustacean models. Read More

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November 2020

Two new species of the whip-spider genus Heterophrynus (Arachnida: Amblypygi) with complementary information of four species.

Zootaxa 2020 Jun 25;4803(1):zootaxa.4803.1.1. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratório de Entomología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Carrera 7 N°. 40-62, Bogotá..

The family Phrynidae has been mainly recorded from America, including the Antilles, and Heterophrynus is one of its genera endemic of South America and is mainly associated with Amazonian ecosystems. Currently, the genus has 16 valid species, but many original descriptions are ambiguous or incomplete. The more complete work about this genus only includes seven of the currently valid species, and in some cases, some characters useful for the species identification, were not described. Read More

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The central nervous system of whip spiders (Amblypygi): Large mushroom bodies receive olfactory and visual input.

J Comp Neurol 2021 May 3;529(7):1642-1658. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are known for their nocturnal navigational abilities, which rely on chemosensory and tactile cues and, to a lesser degree, on vision. Unlike true spiders, the first pair of legs in whip spiders is modified into extraordinarily long sensory organs (antenniform legs) covered with thousands of mechanosensory, olfactory, and gustatory sensilla. Olfactory neurons send their axons through the leg nerve into the corresponding neuromere of the central nervous system, where they terminate on a particularly large number (about 460) of primary olfactory glomeruli, suggesting an advanced sense of smell. Read More

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Homing in the arachnid taxa Araneae and Amblypygi.

Anim Cogn 2020 Nov 7;23(6):1189-1204. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

School of Psychology, University Autónoma of Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Adequate homing is essential for the survival of any animal when it leaves its home to find prey or a mate. There are several strategies by which homing can be carried out: (a) retrace the outbound path; (b) use a 'cognitive map'; or (c) use path integration (PI). Here, I review the state of the art of research on spiders (Araneae) and whip spiders (Amblypygi) homing behaviour. Read More

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November 2020

Genomic resources and toolkits for developmental study of whip spiders (Amblypygi) provide insights into arachnid genome evolution and antenniform leg patterning.

Evodevo 2020 28;11:18. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Background: The resurgence of interest in the comparative developmental study of chelicerates has led to important insights, such as the discovery of a genome duplication shared by spiders and scorpions, inferred to have occurred in the most recent common ancestor of Arachnopulmonata (a clade comprising the five arachnid orders that bear book lungs). Nonetheless, several arachnid groups remain understudied in the context of development and genomics, such as the order Amblypygi (whip spiders). The phylogenetic position of Amblypygi in Arachnopulmonata posits them as an interesting group to test the incidence of the proposed genome duplication in the common ancestor of Arachnopulmonata, as well as the degree of retention of duplicates over 450 Myr. Read More

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Vertical-surface navigation in the Neotropical whip spider Paraphrynus laevifrons (Arachnida: Amblypygi).

Anim Cogn 2020 Nov 26;23(6):1205-1213. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind and Behavior, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA.

Studies on whip spider navigation have focused on their ability to locate goal locations in the horizontal plane (e.g., when moving along the ground). Read More

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November 2020

Cryptic diversity within three South American whip spider species (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

Zool Res 2020 Sep;41(5):595-598

Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté, Dijon 21000, France.

Cryptic diversity (CD), the presence of highly divergent phylogenetic lineages within closed morphological species, has been documented for many taxa. Great arachnid orders such as Araneae or Scorpiones are well studied and many cases of CD have been described therein; to date, however, related research on smaller arachnid orders, such as whip spiders (Amblypygi), remains lacking. In the current study, we investigated CD based on cytochrome oxidase 1 ( ) in three nominal species of the genus ( , , and ), represented by 65 specimens. Read More

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September 2020

Amblypygid-fungal interactions: The whip spider exoskeleton as a substrate for fungal growth.

Fungal Biol 2019 07 10;123(7):497-506. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia. Electronic address:

Fungi and arthropods represent some of the most diverse organisms on our planet, yet the ecological relationships between them remain largely unknown. In animals, fungal growth on body surfaces is often hazardous and is known to cause mortality. In contrast, here we report the presence of an apparently non-harmful mycobiome on the cuticle of whip spiders (Arachnida: Amblypygi). Read More

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Also looking like ? - retinula axons and visual neuropils of Amblypygi (whip spiders).

Front Zool 2018 19;15:52. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

1Bavarian State Collection of Zoology - SNSB, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 Munich, Germany.

Background: Only a few studies have examined the visual systems of Amblypygi (whip spiders) until now. To get new insights suitable for phylogenetic analysis we studied the axonal trajectories and neuropil architecture of the visual systems of several whip spider species (, , , and ) with different neuroanatomical techniques. The R-cell axon terminals were identified with Cobalt fills. Read More

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December 2018

Filling the gap of whip spider distribution in Asia: Phrynichus persicus sp.n. (Arachnida, Amblypygi), a new Phrynichidae from Iran.

Zootaxa 2018 Apr 23;4413(2):339-350. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA..

The whip spider genus Phrynichus (Phrynichidae, Amblypygi) is widely distributed in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Asia with a total of 17 species. No records, however, are known from several countries in the Middle East. Here we provide the first record of a whip spider from Iran (Ilam Province), with the description and illustration of a new species, Phrynichus persicus sp. Read More

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Cretaceous arachnid Chimerarachne yingi gen. et sp. nov. illuminates spider origins.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 04 5;2(4):614-622. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Spiders (Araneae) are a hugely successful lineage with a long history. Details of their origins remain obscure, with little knowledge of their stem group and few insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. Here, we describe Chimerarachne yingi gen. Read More

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Numerical simulation of colloidal self-assembly of super-hydrophobic arachnid cerotegument structures.

J Theor Biol 2017 10 4;430:1-8. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

Department of Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Kiel University, Am Botanischen Garten 9, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.

Certain arachnids exhibit complex coatings of their exoskeleton, consisting of globular structures with complex surface features. This, so-called, cerotegument is formed by a multi-component colloidal secretion that self-assembles and cures on the body surface, and leads to high water repellency. Previous ultrastructural studies revealed the involvement of different glandular cells that contribute different components to the secretion mixture, but the overall process of self-assembly into the complex regular structures observed remained highly unclear. Read More

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October 2017

The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders.

BMC Evol Biol 2017 04 21;17(1):105. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Department of Geology, Western Illinois University, Tillman Hall 113, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL, 61455, USA.

Background: Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. Read More

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Stygophrynus orientalis sp. nov. (Amblypygi: Charontidae) from Indonesia with the description of a remarkable spermatophore.

Zootaxa 2017 Feb 16;4232(3):zootaxa.4232.3.8. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Department of Integrative Zoology, University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Science, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria Institute of Zoology, Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor Mendel Straße 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria..

Here Stygophrynus orientalis sp. nov. is described, a new charontid whip spider from Banggai Island, Indonesia, representing the most eastern record of the genus exceeding the formerly postulated restriction of its distribution western of the Wallace Line. Read More

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February 2017

Importance of the antenniform legs, but not vision, for homing by the neotropical whip spider .

J Exp Biol 2017 03 23;220(Pt 5):885-890. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Department of Biological Sciences and J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind and Behavior, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA.

Amblypygids, or whip spiders, are nocturnal, predatory arthropods that display a robust ability to navigate to their home refuge. Prior field observations and displacement studies in amblypygids demonstrated an ability to home from distances as far away as 10 m. In the current study, micro-transmitters were used to take morning position fixes of individual following an experimental displacement of 10 m from their home refuge. Read More

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Whip spiders (Amblypygi) become water-repellent by a colloidal secretion that self-assembles into hierarchical microstructures.

Zoological Lett 2016 28;2:23. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 9, Kiel, 24098 Germany.

Background: Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of non-polar substances and complex micro- and nano-structures, usually acquired by growing processes or the deposition of powder-like materials.

Results: Here we report on a multi-phasic secretion in whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), which externally forms durable, hierarchical microstructures on the basically smooth cuticle. Read More

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November 2016

The water-repellent cerotegument of whip-spiders (Arachnida: Amblypygi).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2017 Jan 10;46(1):116-129. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 9, 24118, Kiel, Germany.

The cuticle of arthropods is usually composed of layers of a chitin-protein-microcomposite, a proteinaceous epicuticle and a thin lipid coating. However, in some instances a thick cement layer (cerotegument) covers the cuticle and may produce elaborate microstructures. This has previously been described for millipedes and mites. Read More

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January 2017

Whip spiders (Amblypygi, Arachnida) of the Western Palaearctic-a review.

Zootaxa 2016 Sep 7;4161(4):586-92. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Institute of Zoology, Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria.; Email:

All records of the two amblypygid species occurring in the Western Palaearctic are mapped and both species (Charinus ioanniticus and Musicodamon atlanteus) are discussed. Charinus ioanniticus is known from the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) from 10 localities and Musicodamon atlanteus is known from the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria) from three localities. All records are mapped. Read More

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September 2016

A new species of the South East Asian genus Sarax Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) and synonymization of Sarax mediterraneus Delle Cave, 1986.

Zootaxa 2015 Sep 4;4012(3):542-52. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Natural History Museum Vienna, 3. Zoology (Invertebrates), Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna; Austria.; Email: unknown.

A new species of the whip spider genus Sarax Simon, 1892 from Cebu Island in the Philippines is described: Sarax huberi sp. nov. With the description of this species, the diversity of the genus is increased to three species in the Philippines. Read More

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September 2015

Functional anatomy of the pretarsus in whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2015 Nov 16;44(6 Pt A):524-40. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 9, 24098 Kiel, Germany.

Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are a small, cryptic order of arachnids mainly distributed in the tropics. Some basal lineages (families Charinidae and Charontidae) have adhesive pads on the tips of their six walking legs. The present study describes the macro- and ultrastructure of these pads and investigates their contact mechanics and adhesive strength on smooth and rough substrates. Read More

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November 2015

Islands within islands: Diversification of tailless whip spiders (Amblypygi, Phrynus) in Caribbean caves.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2015 Dec 26;93:107-17. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

University of Vermont, Department of Biology, 109 Carrigan Drive, Burlington, VT 05405-0086, United States; Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, NHB-105, PO Box 37012, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012, United States. Electronic address:

Islands have played a key role in understanding species formation ever since Darwin's work on the Galapagos and Wallace's work in the Malay Archipelago. Like oceanic islands, habitat 'islands', such as mountaintops and caves similarly may drive diversification. Here we examine patterns of diversification in the tailless whip spider genus Phrynus Larmarck, 1809 (Amblypygida: Phrynidae) a system that shows evidence of diversification under the influence of 'islands within islands'. Read More

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December 2015

How to stay on mummy's back: Morphological and functional changes of the pretarsus in arachnid postembryonic stages.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2015 Jul 23;44(4):301-12. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 9, D-24098 Kiel, Germany.

A specific type of maternal care occurs in several groups of Arachnida: mothers carry their offspring on their back (pulli-carrying behaviour). In scorpions, whip scorpions and whip spiders it is the prenymphal stage that settles on the mother. The prenymph is not yet fully developed for a free life and very limited in its mobility, but its feet are equipped with special adhesive organs (arolia) that become lost at the nymphal stage. Read More

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The first troglomorphic species of the genus Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) from Mexico.

Zootaxa 2015 Feb 23;3920(3):474-82. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de São Paulo. Rua do Matão, trav. 14, n° 321, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo- SP, CEP: 05508-090; Email: unknown.

A new troglomorphic species, Phrynus perrii sp. nov., is described from two adult females from Cueva del Naranjo, Municipio Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. Read More

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February 2015

Chromosomal characteristics of a Brazilian whip spider (Amblypygi) and evolutionary relationships with other arachnid orders.

Genet Mol Res 2013 Sep 19;12(3):3726-34. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP, Brasil.

We analyzed mitotic and meiotic cells of a Brazilian amblypygid, Heterophrynus longicornis, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and FISH with rDNA probe). This is the first study that focuses solely on amblypygid chromosomes; it was undertaken to add data on cytogenetic knowledge of this group and contribute to the understanding of chromosome evolution in the Arachnida. We found 2n = 66 for male and female individuals, monocentric chromosomes, and absence of morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. Read More

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September 2013

Associative learning in a harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones).

Behav Processes 2013 Nov 7;100:64-6. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Laboratório de Ecologia Sensorial e Comportamento de Artrópodes (LESCA), Escola de Artes Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Béttio, 1000 - Ermelino Matarazzo, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Associative learning has been demonstrated in many species of invertebrates, but has not been studied in arachnids, except for some spiders and a whip-spider. Herein, we tested the ability of a Neotropical harvestman, Discocyrtus invalidus (Arachnida, Opiliones) to associate a shelter with a chemical stimulus. We used an arena with a white light at the top and two openings on the floor, one giving access to a dark shelter and the other one closed with a mesh. Read More

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November 2013

The diversity and evolution of chelicerate hemocyanins.

BMC Evol Biol 2012 Feb 14;12:19. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Institute of Zoology and Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Oxygen transport in the hemolymph of many arthropod species is facilitated by large copper-proteins referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are hexamers or oligomers of hexamers, which are characterized by a high O2 transport capacity and a high cooperativity, thereby enhancing O2 supply. Hemocyanin subunit sequences had been available from horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura) and various spiders (Araneae), but not from any other chelicerate taxon. Read More

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February 2012

Maternal care in the soft tick Antricola marginatus.

J Parasitol 2012 Aug 2;98(4):876-7. Epub 2012 Feb 2.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-270, Brazil.

Among spiders, scorpions, and whip spiders, a common type of maternal care consists of females carrying newly hatched offspring on their body for a few days until they are able to live independently. While this maternal care has been suggested to occur in different argasid tick species, it has been recorded only once, for Antricola marginatus in Cuba; however, this earlier record only superficially mentioned the occurrence of this behavior, with no further details. Here we report the occurrence of maternal care in the argasid tick A. Read More

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