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The duration of antibiotic treatment is associated with carriage of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of Clostridioides difficile in dogs.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0245949. Epub 2021 May 12.

Veterinary Pathology, Public Health and Disease Investigation, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Clostridioides difficile is a leading cause of human antibiotic-associated diarrhoeal disease globally. Zoonotic reservoirs of infection are increasingly suspected to play a role in the emergence of this disease in the community and dogs are considered as one potential source. Here we use a canine case-control study at a referral veterinary hospital in Scotland to assess: i) the risk factors associated with carriage of C. Read More

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Determinants of pregnancy-induced hypertension on maternal and foetal outcomes in Hossana town administration, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia: Unmatched case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250548. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Globally, 292,982 women die due to the complications of pregnancy and childbirth per year, out of those deaths 85% occurs in Sub Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, pre-eclampsia accounts for 11% of direct maternal deaths.

Objective: To determine maternal and foetal outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension among women who gave birth at health facilities in Hossana town administration. Read More

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Vitamin D status of children with Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS).

Br J Nutr 2021 May 12:1-26. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of General Paediatrics, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused mild illness in children, until the emergence of the novel hyperinflammatory condition PIMS-TS: Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). PIMS-TS is thought to be a post- SARS-CoV-2 immune dysregulation with excessive inflammatory cytokine release. We studied 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in children with PIMS-TS, admitted to a tertiary paediatric hospital in the United Kingdom (U. Read More

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Identifying contextual determinants of problems in tuberculosis care provision in South Africa: a theory-generating case study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 May 10;10(1):67. Epub 2021 May 10.

King's Global Health Institute, King's College London, London, SE1 9NH, UK.

Background: Despite progress towards End TB Strategy targets for reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths by 2035, South Africa remains among the top ten high-burden tuberculosis countries globally. A large challenge lies in how policies to improve detection, diagnosis and treatment completion interact with social and structural drivers of TB. Detailed understanding and theoretical development of the contextual determinants of problems in TB care is required for developing effective interventions. Read More

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Accessing routinely collected health data to improve clinical trials: recent experience of access.

Trials 2021 May 10;22(1):340. Epub 2021 May 10.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, UCL, London, WC1V 6LJ, UK.

Background: Routinely collected electronic health records (EHRs) have the potential to enhance randomised controlled trials (RCTs) by facilitating recruitment and follow-up. Despite this, current EHR use is minimal in UK RCTs, in part due to ongoing concerns about the utility (reliability, completeness, accuracy) and accessibility of the data. The aim of this manuscript is to document the process, timelines and challenges of the application process to help improve the service both for the applicants and data holders. Read More

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Quantification of training load distribution in mixed martial arts athletes: A lack of periodisation and load management.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251266. Epub 2021 May 10.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to quantify typical training load and periodisation practices of MMA athletes. MMA competitors (n = 14; age = 22.4 ± 4. Read More

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Localised release of matrix metallopeptidase 8 in fatal cerebral malaria.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 29;10(4):e1263. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious Disease Section of Paediatric Infectious Disease Imperial College London London UK.

Objective: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a complication of malaria, in which progressive brain swelling is associated with sequestration of parasites and impaired barrier function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. To test the hypothesis that localised release of matrix metallopeptidase 8 (MMP8) within the retina is implicated in microvascular leak in CM, we examined its expression and association with extravascular fibrinogen leak in a case-control study of post-mortem retinal samples from 13 Malawian children who met the clinical case definition of CM during life. Cases were seven children who were found on post-mortem examination to have 'true-CM' (parasite sequestration in brain blood vessels), whilst controls were six children who had alternative causes of death ('faux-CM', no parasite sequestration in blood vessels). Read More

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Temporal trends in the incidence and prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Northwest of Spain.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 24;52:102979. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Neurology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706, Santiago de Compostela, (A Coruña), Spain.

Background: During the last decades, the frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, the higher sensibility of the new diagnostic criteria obscures the comparison between studies performed in different decades.

Methods: The evolution of the frequency of MS in Santiago de Compostela (North-West of Spain) between 2003 and 2015 was analyzed using Poisson regression. Read More

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Regulatory T-cells and transplantation tolerance: Emerging from the darkness?

Authors:
Herman Waldmann

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX13RE, UK.

The field of tissue transplantation has revolutionised the treatment of patients with failing organs. Its success, thus far, has depended on combinations of immunosuppressive drugs that damp host immunity, whilst also imposing numerous unwanted side effects. There is a longstanding recognition that better treatment outcomes, will come from replacing these drugs, fully or in part, by taking advantage of tractable physiological mechanisms of self-tolerance. Read More

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Short- and long-term outcomes of aortic root-sparing repair and replacement in acute type A aortic dissection repair.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2021 May 4:2184923211015087. Epub 2021 May 4.

Aortovascular Surgery, Barts Heart Centre, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK.

Acute type A aortic dissection is a surgical emergency with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Management of the aortic root in this setting constitutes an intricate decision-making framework, further complicated by the emergent nature of the dissection. There exists much controversy regarding pursuit of the aggressive aortic root replacement versus a conservative root-sparing repair, alongside considerations for valve-sparing root replacement. Read More

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Challenges in the Diagnostic Performance of Parasitological and Molecular Tests in the Surveillance of African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 30;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Public Health Medical and Veterinary Services, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4814, Australia.

African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) control programs rely on active case detection through the screening of animals reared in disease endemic areas. This study compared the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy in the detection of trypanosomes in cattle blood in Mambwe, a rural district in eastern Zambia Blood samples were collected from 227 cattle and tested for infection with trypanosomes using microscopy and Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS)-PCR. Microscopy on the buffy coat detected 17 cases, whilst thin and thick smears detected 26 cases and 28 cases, respectively. Read More

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Progress Towards Using Linked Population-Based Data For Geohealth Research: Comparisons Of Aotearoa New Zealand And The United Kingdom.

Appl Spat Anal Policy 2021 Apr 29:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Geospatial Research Institute, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand.

Globally, geospatial concepts are becoming increasingly important in epidemiological and public health research. Individual level linked population-based data afford researchers with opportunities to undertake complex analyses unrivalled by other sources. However, there are significant challenges associated with using such data for impactful geohealth research. Read More

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Locus of Control and Negative Cognitive Styles in Adolescence as Risk Factors for Depression Onset in Young Adulthood: Findings From a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:599240. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for Academic Mental Health at the University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Whilst previous observational studies have linked negative thought processes such as an external locus of control and holding negative cognitive styles with depression, the directionality of these associations and the potential role that these factors play in the transition to adulthood and parenthood has not yet been investigated. This study examined the association between locus of control and negative cognitive styles in adolescence and probable depression in young adulthood and whether parenthood moderated these associations. Using a UK prospective population-based birth cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined the association between external locus of control and negative cognitive styles in adolescence with odds of depression in 4,301 young adults using logistic regression models unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Read More

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Public health crises compounded: A high school equivalency context in the time of a pandemic.

Int Rev Educ 2021 Apr 27:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Rutgers University-Camden, Camden, NJ USA.

High school equivalency (HSE) is a recognised alternative to a high school diploma in the United States. It offers an opportunity to a range of disadvantaged adult learners such as school dropouts, refugees etc. to attain an educational certificate enabling them to move on in their life. Read More

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Expression Profile of Stemness Markers CD138, Nestin and Alpha-SMA in Ameloblastic Tumours.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 8;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Melbourne Dental School, University of Melbourne, 720 Swanston Street, Carton, VIC 3053, Australia.

Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm with a poor prognosis. It can arise de novo or from a pre-existing ameloblastoma. Research into stemness marker expression in ameloblastic tumours is lacking. Read More

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Reducing Financial Barriers for Households Due to COVID-19: The Case in India.

Health Syst Reform 2021 01;7(1):e1897323

National Health Authority, Delhi, India.

As countries all over the world grapple with containing the COVID-19 outbreak, Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) are particularly hard-pressed because on the one hand, the pandemic has created unforeseen high demand for health services which requires increased spending. On the other hand, the contagion and the public health measures taken to curb it have disrupted economies whilst creating additional spending pressures as well. This constrains the policy options available for LMICs to ensure an adequate and sustainable financing for the health sector's COVID-19 response whilst maintaining routine supply of essential health services. Read More

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January 2021

Estimation of the serial interval and proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission events of COVID- 19 in Ireland using contact tracing data.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 27;21(1):805. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Background: The serial interval is the period of time between the onset of symptoms in an infector and an infectee and is an important parameter which can impact on the estimation of the reproduction number. Whilst several parameters influencing infection transmission are expected to be consistent across populations, the serial interval can vary across and within populations over time. Therefore, local estimates are preferable for use in epidemiological models developed at a regional level. Read More

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Investigating the utility of COVID-19 antibody testing in end-stage renal disease patients receiving haemodialysis: a cohort study in the United Kingdom.

BMC Nephrol 2021 04 27;22(1):154. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, M6 8HD, UK.

Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) are a vulnerable group of patients with increased mortality from COVID-19. Despite improved understanding, the duration of host immunity following COVID-19 infection and role of serological testing alone or in addition to real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing in the HD population is not fully understood, which this study aimed to investigate.

Methods: There were two parts to this study. Read More

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Cultural adaptation of two school-based smoking prevention programs in Bogotá, Colombia.

Transl Behav Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

Smoking prevention among adolescents is a public health challenge that is even more significant in low- and middle-income countries where local evidence is limited and smoking rates remain high. Evidence-based interventions could be transferred to low- and middle-income country settings but only after appropriate cultural adaptation. This paper aims to describe the process of the cultural adaptation of two school-based smoking prevention interventions, A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial and Dead Cool, to be implemented in Bogotá, Colombia. Read More

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Use of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse: A Retrospective Study.

Acta Med Port 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Serviço de Neonatologia. Departamento de Pediatria. Hospital de Santa Maria. Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte. Lisboa. Clínica Universitária de Pediatria. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: Sudden and unexpected postnatal collapse is a rare event with potentially dramatic consequences. Intervention approaches are limited, but hypothermia has been considered after postnatal collapse. The aim of this study was to analyse sudden and unexpected postnatal collapse cases that underwent therapeutic hypothermia in the five Portuguese hypothermia centres. Read More

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September 2020

Rehabilitation of Patients with Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome in COVID-19 Pneumonia: Two Case Reports.

J Rehabil Med Clin Commun 2020 20;3:1000044. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, characterized by dyspnoea and arterial desaturation while upright, is a rare complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report here 2 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were diagnosed with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome during commencement of rehabilitation, 18 and 9 days respectively after admission to the intensive care unit. Both patients presented with normocapnic hypoxaemia. Read More

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November 2020

Scottish rheumatology sonography course: five-year experience of delivering a mentorship-model rheumatology ultrasound training programme accredited by the consortium for the accreditation of sonographic education.

Scott Med J 2021 May;66(2):51-57

Senior Lecturer in Diagnostic Imaging, Glasgow Caledonian University, School of Health and Life Sciences, UK.

Background And Aims: Ultrasound training for rheumatology practice in the UK is variable. Currently, there is no agreed minimum standard for training in ultrasound applied to rheumatology patient management. We present our experiences of implementing a competency driven ultrasound training, focused on hands and feet. Read More

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Towards personalised medicine in autoimmune hepatitis: Measurement of thiopurine metabolites results in higher biochemical response rates compared to standard weight-based dosing of thiopurine therapy.

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, London, SE5 9RS, UK; School of Transplantation, Immunology and Mucosal Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK; European Reference Network - Hepatological Diseases (ERN RARE-LIVER).

Background: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) usually receive maintenance therapy with thiopurines, such as azathioprine (AZA) or mercaptopurine (MP). Genetic polymorphisms in AZA metabolism can lead to variations in thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (MMP), both of which can cause adverse drug reactions (ADR). In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a therapeutic TGN range (225-450 pmol/8x10 erythrocytes) has been identified to optimise effectiveness. Read More

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When Maintaining Relationships and Social Connectivity Matter: The Case of New Zealand Midwives and COVID-19.

Front Sociol 2021 16;6:614017. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Wellington School of Business and Government, Te Herenga Waka Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

New Zealand's response to COVID-19 was go hard and go early into Level 4 lockdown on 25 March 2020. This rapid response has resulted in low rates of infection and deaths. For New Zealand midwives, the sudden changes to how they work with women and families during pregnancy, birth and postnatally, especially in the community, required unprecedented innovation and adaptation. Read More

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Ancestral sequence reconstruction - An underused approach to understand the evolution of gene function in plants?

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 16;19:1579-1594. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology (MPI-MP), 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

Whilst substantial research effort has been placed on understanding the interactions of plant proteins with their molecular partners, relatively few studies in plants - by contrast to work in other organisms - address how these interactions evolve. It is thought that ancestral proteins were more promiscuous than modern proteins and that specificity often evolved following gene duplication and subsequent functional refining. However, ancestral protein resurrection studies have found that some modern proteins have evolved from ancestors lacking those functions. Read More

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Lower limb reconstruction involving osteosynthesis material: A retrospective study on propeller flaps outcomes.

Injury 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Reconstruction of soft tissue defects in lower limb fractures requiring internal fixation remains a challenging scenario with the optimal surgical treatment still debated. This study aims to recommend, and eventually redefine, surgical indications for propeller flaps reconstruction in the distal lower limb, with a particular focus on the presence or not of metalwork.

Methods: A retrospective study of lower limb soft tissue reconstructions performed between January 2015 and July 2018 was carried out including all patients treated with a propeller perforator flap (PPF) with at least 6-month follow-up. Read More

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Cushing's disease: Does low-dose pasireotide offer a comparable efficacy and safety to high-dose?

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Feb 26;2021. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Townsville University Hospital, Queensland, Australia.

Summary: Whilst literature is expanding on pasireotide use in the management of Cushing's disease (CD), there is still currently much unknown about long-term and low-dose pasireotide use in CD. We present a 60-year-old female with residual CD after transphenoidal surgery (TSS), being successfully managed with S.C. Read More

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February 2021

Antibacterial functionalization of cotton and cotton/polyester fabrics applying hybrid coating of copper/chitosan nanocomposites loaded polymer blends via gamma irradiation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 13;183:23-34. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ein Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present work, copper/chitosan nanocomposites (Cu/CS) were prepared in an aqueous solution in the presence of CS as stabilizer and CuSO·5HO precursor. The Cu/CS NPs formation was proved through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and XRD diffraction. Cotton and cotton/polyester fabrics were gamma-radiation grafted by padding to pickup of 100%, in nanocomposites based on Cu/CS NPs loaded in polymer blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and plasticized starch (PLST). Read More

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Hepatic encephalopathy induced by Lenvatinib and anti-PD-1 mAb in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 1;14(6):110. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250117, P.R. China.

Previous studies have reported that the combinational therapy of Lenvatinib and anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced a longer overall survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current case report presented a a patient with HCC who had hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following treatment with Lenvatinib and anti-PD-1 mAb. The 42-year-old patient was diagnosed with stage IVa HCC accompanied with cirrhosis and Child-Pugh C. Read More

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