4,017 results match your criteria wheat cultivars

Crop genetic erosion: understanding and responding to loss of crop diversity.

New Phytol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Federal Office for Agriculture and Food (BLE), Information and Coordination Centre for Biological Diversity (IBV), Deichmanns Aue 29, 53179, Bonn, Germany.

Crop diversity underpins the productivity, resilience, and adaptive capacity of agriculture. Loss of this diversity, termed crop genetic erosion, is therefore concerning. While alarms regarding evident declines in crop diversity have been raised for over a century, the magnitude, trajectory, drivers, and significance of these losses remain insufficiently understood. Read More

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September 2021

Construction of Consensus Genetic Map With Applications in Gene Mapping of Wheat ( L.) Using 90K SNP Array.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:727077. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide. A consensus map combines genetic information from multiple populations, providing an effective alternative to improve the genome coverage and marker density. In this study, we constructed a consensus map from three populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat using a 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Read More

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Shifts in biochemical and physiological responses by the inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Triticum aestivum growing under drought conditions.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Centro de Investigación en Micorrizas y Sustentabilidad Agroambiental, CIMYSA, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.

Background: A decrease in rainfall is one of the main constraints on wheat production, but the association of wheat with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may be an alternative for crop production under drought conditions. Here, we used three wheat cultivars (Purple, Ilustre and Maxi Baer) inoculated with two AMF strains, one obtained from the hyperarid Atacama Desert (northern Chile; Fm) and the other obtained from southern Chile (Cc). Plants were maintained under two irrigation conditions (normal irrigation and drought), and the physiological behaviour and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activities in the shoots were determined. Read More

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September 2021

[Effects of water and nitrogen source types on soil enzyme activity and nitrogen utilization efficiency of wheat].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Aug;31(8):2583-2592

National Engineering Research Center for Wheat, College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China.

To provide basis for high-yield and high-efficiency of wheat production, with two wheat cultivars, 'Zhengmai 366' (strong gluten) and 'Bainong 207' (medium gluten), we investigated the effects of four nitrogen source types, ammonium chloride (NT), calcium nitrate (NT), urea (NT) and calcium ammonium nitrate (NT), applied under two water treatments, no irrigation (W) and irrigation at jointing and heading stages (W), on soil N-supplying capacity, grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency. The results showed that content of soil ammonium and nitrate at flowering stage decreased with increasing soil depths. Compared with the corresponding value of 'Zhengmai 366' under W treatment, W treatment decreased the contents of soil ammonium and nitrate in the 0-60 cm layer, and enzymes activities of urease, invertase and catalase by 10. Read More

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Dissection of the genetic basis of genotype-by-environment interactions for grain yield and main agronomic traits in Iranian bread wheat landraces and cultivars.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 7;11(1):17742. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

Understanding the genetic basis of performance stability is essential to maintain productivity, especially under severe conditions. In the present study, 268 Iranian bread wheat landraces and cultivars were evaluated in four well-watered and two rain-fed conditions for different traits. According to breeding programs, cultivars were in a group with a high mean and stability in terms of GY, GN, and SW traits, while in terms of PH, they had a low mean and high stability. Read More

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September 2021

TaNAC100 acts as an integrator of seed protein and starch synthesis conferring pleiotropic effects on agronomic traits in wheat.

Plant J 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute of Crop Sciences, National Wheat Improvement Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major components of seed storage proteins (SSPs) and largely determine the processing properties of wheat flour. HMW-GS are encoded by the GLU-1 loci and regulated at the transcriptional level by interaction between cis-elements and transcription factors (TFs). We recently validated the function of conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) in GLU-1 promoters, but their interacting TFs remained uncharacterized. Read More

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September 2021

Understanding the Role of Gibberellic Acid and Paclobutrazol in Terminal Heat Stress Tolerance in Wheat.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:692252. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, India.

Understanding the physiological mechanism of tolerance under stress conditions is an imperative aspect of the crop improvement programme. The role of plant hormones is well-established in abiotic stress tolerance. However, the information on the role of gibberellic acid (GA) in abiotic stress tolerance in late sown wheat is still not thoroughly explored. Read More

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The Haplotype-Based Analysis of Introgression Into Hard Red Winter Wheat and Its Impact on Productivity Traits.

Front Plant Sci 2021 17;12:716955. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.

The introgression from wild relatives have a great potential to broaden the availability of beneficial allelic diversity for crop improvement in breeding programs. Here, we assessed the impact of the introgression from 21 diverse accessions of , the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, into 6 hard red winter wheat cultivars on yield and yield component traits. We used 5. Read More

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Breeding Driven Enrichment of Genetic Variation for Key Yield Components and Grain Starch Content Under Drought Stress in Winter Wheat.

Front Plant Sci 2021 16;12:684205. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Plant Breeding, Institut für Nutzpflanzenwissenschaften und Ressourcenschutz (INRES), Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, Bonn, Germany.

Drought is one of the major abiotic stress factors limiting wheat production worldwide, thus threatening food security. The dissection of the genetic footprint of drought stress response offers strong opportunities toward understanding and improving drought tolerance (DT) in wheat. In this study, we investigated the genotypic variability for drought response among 200 diverse wheat cultivars (genotypes) using agronomic, developmental, and grain quality traits (GQT), and conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to uncover the genetic architectures of these important traits. Read More

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Multi-Locus Genome-Wide Association Study of Four Yield-Related Traits in Chinese Wheat Landraces.

Front Plant Sci 2021 16;12:665122. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China, Chengdu, China.

Wheat ( L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Here, four yield-related traits, namely, spike length, spikelets number, tillers number, and thousand-kernel weight, were evaluated in 272 Chinese wheat landraces in multiple environments. Read More

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Deciphering the genetic diversity and population structure of Turkish bread wheat germplasm using iPBS-retrotransposons markers.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Sivas University of Science and Technology, Sivas, Turkey.

Background: Research activities aiming to investigate the genetic diversity are very crucial because they provide information for the breeding and germplasm conservation activities. Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops globally by feeding more than a third of the human population around the world.

Methods And Results: During present investigation, a total of 74 Turkish bread wheat accessions (54 landraces and 20 cultivars) were used as plant material and iPBS-retrotransposons marker system was used for the molecular characterization. Read More

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September 2021

Agricultural breadbaskets shift poleward given adaptive farmer behavior under climate change.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, USA.

Modern food production is spatially concentrated in global "breadbaskets". A major unresolved question is whether these peak production regions will shift poleward as the climate warms, allowing some recovery of potential climaterelated losses. While agricultural impacts studies to date have focused on currently cultivated land, the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase 2 experiment allows us to assess changes in both yields and the location of peak productivity regions under warming. Read More

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September 2021

Precise mapping of QTL for Hessian fly resistance in the hard winter wheat cultivar 'Overland'.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA.

Key Message: A major QTL for Hessian fly resistance was precisely mapped to a 2.32 Mb region on chromosome 3B of the US hard winter wheat cultivar 'Overland'. The Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is a destructive insect pest of wheat in the USA and worldwide. Read More

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September 2021

The relationship between characteristics of root morphology and grain filling in wheat under drought stress.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e12015. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops/Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture & Agri-Product Safety of the Ministry of Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Drought is a common yield limiting factor in wheat production and has become a significant threat to global food security. Root system is the organ responsible for water uptake from soil and root growth is closely associated with yield and quality of wheat. However, the relationship between morphological and structural characteristics of root growth and caryopsis enrichment in wheat under drought stress is unclear. Read More

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Assessing the correlations and selection criteria between different traits in wheat salt-tolerant genotypes.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Sep 2;28(9):5414-5427. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Salinity is one of the largest stresses blocking horizontal and vertical expansion in agricultural lands. Establishing salt-tolerant genotypes is a promising method to benefit from poor water quality and salinized lands. An integrated method was developed for accomplishing reliable and effective evaluation of traits stability of salt-tolerant wheat. Read More

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September 2021

Lead contamination affects the primary productivity traits, biosynthesis of macromolecules and distribution of metal in durum wheat ( L.).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Sep 3;28(9):4946-4956. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Lead (Pb) pollution emerged as an international issue particularly during second and third industrial revolution and is of serious global concern. Cereal crops have shown different capabilities, innate variability and mechanisms to cope with heavy metals present in their environment. Keeping in view the perspectives of food security and safety with increasing demand for L. Read More

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September 2021

First Report of Races TKTTP and TKKTP of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici with Virulence to Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Gene Sr24 in Turkey and Tunisia.

Plant Dis 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, Turkey-ICARDA Regional Cereal Rust Research Center (RCRRC), P.O. Box 35661, Menemen, Izmir, Turkey;

Severe wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. Read More

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Seed dressing with mefenpyr-diethyl as a safener for mesosulfuron-methyl application in wheat: The evaluation and mechanisms.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(8):e0256884. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences/IPM Centre of Hebei Province/Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in Northern Region of North China, Plant Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Baoding, Hebei, China.

Mesosulfuron-methyl is always applied by foliar spraying in combination with the safener mefenpyr-diethyl to avoid phytotoxicity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. However, it was observed that the tolerance of Tausch's goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii Coss. Read More

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Metabolomic analysis of the grain pearling fractions of six bread wheat varieties.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 17;369:130881. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Bread wheat is a staple food crop that is consumed worldwide. In this study, using widely targeted LC-MS/MS, we conducted a high-throughput metabolomic analysis and determined the contents and spatial distribution of metabolites in pearled fractions of the dried kernels of six representative bread wheat varieties cultivated in China. Our aim was to explore the cultivars and pearling fractions with a view toward developing functional food products. Read More

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Response of Two Different Wheat Varieties to Glow and Afterglow Oxygen Plasma.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Aug 20;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Cold plasma technology has received significant attention in agriculture due to its effect on the seeds and plants of important cultivars, such as wheat. Due to climate change, wherein increasing temperatures and droughts are frequent, it is important to consider novel approaches to agricultural production. As increased dormancy levels in wheat are correlated with high temperatures and drought, improving the germination and root growth of wheat seeds could offer new possibilities for seed sowing. Read More

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Evaluation of Three Portable Optical Sensors for Non-Destructive Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Wheat.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 19;21(16). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

The accurate estimation and timely diagnosis of crop nitrogen (N) status can facilitate in-season fertilizer management. In order to evaluate the performance of three leaf and canopy optical sensors in non-destructively diagnosing winter wheat N status, three experiments using seven wheat cultivars and multi-N-treatments (0-360 kg N ha) were conducted in the Jiangsu province of China from 2015 to 2018. Two leaf sensors (SPAD 502, Dualex 4 Scientific+) and one canopy sensor (RapidSCAN CS-45) were used to obtain leaf and canopy spectral data, respectively, during the main growth period. Read More

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Plant and Fungal Genome Editing to Enhance Plant Disease Resistance Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

Front Plant Sci 2021 10;12:700925. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Integrative Food, Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

Crop production has been substantially reduced by devastating fungal and oomycete pathogens, and these pathogens continue to threaten global food security. Although chemical and cultural controls have been used for crop protection, these involve continuous costs and time and fungicide resistance among plant pathogens has been increasingly reported. The most efficient way to protect crops from plant pathogens is cultivation of disease-resistant cultivars. Read More

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How Does Cultivar, Maturation, and Pre-Treatment Affect Nutritional, Physicochemical, and Pasting Properties of Plantain Flours?

Foods 2021 Jul 29;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

IITA, Nairobi 30772-00100, Kenya.

The effect of cultivar, ripening stage, and pre-treatment method were investigated on the nutritional, physicochemical, and pasting properties of plantain flours from two plantains and two plantain hybrids. There were significant variations ( < 0.05) in chemical composition and physical properties influenced by the interaction of cultivars, ripening stages, and pre-treatment methods. Read More

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Wheat Resistance to Stripe and Leaf Rusts Conferred by Introgression of Slow Rusting Resistance Genes.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jul 31;7(8). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr Elsheikh P.O. Box 33516, Egypt.

Twenty-three wheat genotypes were evaluated for stripe and leaf rusts, caused by f. sp. and f. Read More

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Induction of Wheat Resistance to STB by the Endophytic Fungus and .

Iran J Biotechnol 2021 Apr 1;19(2):e2762. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Professor of Department of Fundamental Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: blotch (STB) caused by fungus , is one of the important wheat ( L.) diseases difficult to control because of the lack of wheat resistant cultivars. The use of biological control agents is one possible way for triggering host plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Read More

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Symmetric response to competition in binary mixtures of cultivars associates with genetic gain in wheat yield.

Evol Appl 2021 Aug 27;14(8):2064-2078. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

South Australian Research Institute, and School of Agriculture, Food and Wine The University of Adelaide Urrbrae SA Australia.

The evolution in the definition of crop yield-from the ratio of seed harvested to seed sown to the contemporary measure of mass of seed per unit land area-has favoured less competitive phenotypes. Here we use binary mixtures of cultivars spanning five decades of selection for yield and agronomic adaptation to ask three questions. First, what is the degree of symmetry in the response of yield to neighbour; this is, if an older, more competitive cultivar increases yield by 10% with a less competitive neighbour in comparison to pure stands, would the newer, less competitive cultivar reduce yield by 10% when grown with older neighbour. Read More

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Enlisting wild grass genes to combat nitrification in wheat farming: A nature-based solution.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(35)

Crop, Livestock and Environment Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan.

Active nitrifiers and rapid nitrification are major contributing factors to nitrogen losses in global wheat production. Suppressing nitrifier activity is an effective strategy to limit losses from agriculture. Production and release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed "biological nitrification inhibition" (BNI). Read More

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Protective responses of tolerant and sensitive wheat seedlings to systemic and local zearalenone application - Electron paramagnetic resonance studies.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Aug 21;21(1):393. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Mycotoxins are among the environmental stressors whose oxidative action is currently widely studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the response of seedling leaves to zearalenone (ZEA) applied to the leaves (directly) and to the grains (indirectly) in tolerant and sensitive wheat cultivars.

Results: Biochemical analyses of antioxidant activity were performed for chloroplasts and showed a similar decrease in this activity irrespective of plant sensitivity and the way of ZEA application. Read More

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Field resistance to wheat stem rust in durum wheat accessions deposited at the USDA National Small Grains Collection.

Crop Sci 2021 Jul-Aug;61(4):2565-2578. Epub 2021 May 30.

USDA-Agricultural Research Service Cereal Disease Lab St. Paul Minnesota 55108 USA.

Wheat stem rust, caused by f. sp. , is a re-emerging disease, posing a significant threat to durum wheat production worldwide. Read More

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Greater morphological and primary metabolic adaptations in roots contribute to phosphate-deficiency tolerance in the bread wheat cultivar Kenong199.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Aug 19;21(1):381. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Background: Phosphate (Pi) deficiency severely affects crop growth and productivity, including wheat, therefore it is necessary to develop cultivars with enhanced Pi-deficiency tolerance. However, the underlying mechanism of Pi-deficiency tolerance in wheat is still elusive. Two contrasting wheat cultivars, low-Pi tolerant Kenong199 (KN199) and low-Pi sensitive Chinese Spring (CS) were used to reveal adaptations in response to Pi deficiency at the morphological, physiological, metabolic, and molecular levels. Read More

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