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Awake Self-Prone Positioning: Implementation During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Crit Care Nurse 2021 Apr 13:e1-e11. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Maureen A. Seckel is a critical care clinical nurse specialist and sepsis coordinator, Christiana Hospital.

Background: Prone positioning is a well-known beneficial intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, hospitals rapidly adapted prone positioning for acutely ill patients into a new process: awake self-prone positioning. Could a large health care system safely and rapidly implement awake self-prone positioning in COVID-19 units to prevent respiratory failure from progressing among a surge of inpatients?

Review Of Evidence: The team extensively reviewed the literature. Read More

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Comparing general and specialized word embeddings for biomedical named entity recognition.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 18;7:e384. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Increased interest in the use of word embeddings, such as word representation, for biomedical named entity recognition (BioNER) has highlighted the need for evaluations that aid in selecting the best word embedding to be used. One common criterion for selecting a word embedding is the type of source from which it is generated; that is, general (e.g. Read More

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February 2021

Improved Estimation of Trends in U.S. Ozone Concentrations Adjusted for Interannual Variability in Meteorological Conditions.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2021 Mar;248

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Daily maximum 8-hour average (MDA8) ozone (O) concentrations are well-known to be influenced by local meteorological conditions, which vary across both daily and seasonal temporal scales. Previous studies have adjusted long-term trends in O concentrations for meteorological effects using various statistical and mathematical methods in order to get a better estimate of the long-term changes in O concentrations due to changes in precursor emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this work, the authors present improvements to the current method used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to adjust O trends for meteorological influences by making refinements to the input data sources and by allowing the underlying statistical model to vary locally using a variable selection procedure. Read More

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Enhanced Nontarget Screening Algorithm Reveals Highly Abundant Chlorinated Azo Dye Compounds in House Dust.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St George Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Humans spend 90% of their time indoors, but the majority of indoor pollutants remain unknown. In this study, a nontarget screening algorithm with reduced false discovery rates was developed to screen indoor pollutants using the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) database. First, a putative lock mass algorithm was developed for post-acquisition calibration of Orbitrap mass spectra to sub-ppm mass accuracy. Read More

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On-Farm Trials Reveal Significant but Uncertain Control of by and Potassium Bicarbonate in Organic Grapevines.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:620786. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

, a fungal pathogen that causes gray mold on grapes, can decrease yield, substantially reduce wine quality, and therefore cause significant economic losses. In a context of increasing awareness of environmental and human health, biopesticides are a potential alternative to synthetic chemical treatments to produce grapes and wine in compliance with high food standards. However, the effectiveness of biopesticides is not well known and more research is needed to help winegrowers assess their ability to control wine diseases. Read More

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February 2021

Global identification and quantitative analysis of representative components of Xin-Nao-Kang Capsule, a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UHPLC-TQ-MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 May 3;198:114002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Xin-Nao-Kang Capsule (XNKC), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely used for the treatment of angina pectoris, cerebral arteriosclerosis and coronary artery disease in China. However, the chemical components have not been holistically explored. In this study, a total of 173 chemical components including 48 flavonoids, 8 lactones, 35 acids, 12 phenanthraquinones, 8 monoterpene glycosides, 32 triterpenoids and 30 other compounds were identified, among which 37 were unambiguously characterized in comparison with their corresponding authentic standards using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Read More

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Accuracy and reliability of injury coding in the national Dutch Trauma Registry.

Int J Qual Health Care 2021 Mar;33(1)

Department of Trauma Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Injury coding is well known for lack of completeness and accuracy. The objective of this study was to perform a nationwide assessment of accuracy and reliability on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) coding by Dutch Trauma Registry (DTR) coders and to determine the effect on Injury Severity Score (ISS). Additionally, the coders' characteristics were surveyed. Read More

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Comparison of Huggins Coefficients and Osmotic Second Virial Coefficients of Buffered Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Material Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

The Huggins coefficient is a well-known metric for quantifying the increase in solution viscosity arising from intermolecular interactions in relatively dilute macromolecular solutions, and there has been much interest in this solution property in connection with developing improved antibody therapeutics. While numerous measurements have been reported for select monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) solutions, there has been limited study of in terms of the fundamental molecular interactions that determine this property. In this paper, we compare measurements of the osmotic second virial coefficient , a common metric of intermolecular and interparticle interaction strength, to measurements of for model antibody solutions. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluating the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Officially Recommended in China for COVID-19 Using Ontology-Based Side-Effect Prediction Framework (OSPF) and Deep Learning.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 22;272:113957. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Information and Software Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan has imposed a huge influence in terms of public health and economy on society. However, no effective drugs or vaccines have been developed so far. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been considered as a promising supplementary treatment of this disease due to its clinically proven performance in many severe diseases, like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Read More

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Comparison of surgical smoke between open surgery and laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease in the COVID-19 era.

Surg Endosc 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Shumoku, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 950-1197, Japan.

Background: Surgical smoke during operation is a well-known health hazard for medical staff. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of surgical smoke during open surgery or laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease.

Methods: This study quantitated particulate matter (PM) counts as part of surgical smoke in 31 consecutive patients who underwent colectomy at the Niigata City General Hospital using a laser particle counter. Read More

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February 2021

Direct observation of coherent femtosecond solvent reorganization coupled to intramolecular electron transfer.

Nat Chem 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

It is well known that the solvent plays a critical role in ultrafast electron-transfer reactions. However, solvent reorganization occurs on multiple length scales, and selectively measuring short-range solute-solvent interactions at the atomic level with femtosecond time resolution remains a challenge. Here we report femtosecond X-ray scattering and emission measurements following photoinduced charge-transfer excitation in a mixed-valence bimetallic (FeRu) complex in water, and their interpretation using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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February 2021

Comparative Study on the Protective Effect of Chlorogenic Acid and 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl) Propionic Acid against Cadmium-Induced Erythrocyte Cytotoxicity: and Evaluation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 11;69(13):3859-3870. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457, China.

The metabolism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) through the intestinal tract was studied. As cadmium is a well-known toxic heavy metal, this study was carried out to investigate the comparative protective effect of CGA and its representative intestinal metabolite (3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, HPPA) against Cd-induced erythrocyte cytotoxicity and . We found that CGA and its intestinal metabolite appreciably prevented erythrocyte hemolysis, osmotic fragility, and oxidative stress induced by Cd. Read More

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Psychedelic drugs and perception: a narrative review of the first era of research.

Rev Neurosci 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI48858, USA.

Psychedelic drugs are well-known for transiently altering perception, and in particular, for their visual effects. Although scientific interest into the substances' effects on perception increased during the first era of psychedelic research during the early to mid-20th century, there is currently no source where these findings have been synthesized. In addressing this gap, the current narrative review found that psychedelics were examined for their influences across all levels of the visual system (e. Read More

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February 2021

Knowledge representation and learning of operator clinical workflow from full-length routine fetal ultrasound scan videos.

Med Image Anal 2021 04 23;69:101973. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Ultrasound is a widely used imaging modality, yet it is well-known that scanning can be highly operator-dependent and difficult to perform, which limits its wider use in clinical practice. The literature on understanding what makes clinical sonography hard to learn and how sonography varies in the field is sparse, restricted to small-scale studies on the effectiveness of ultrasound training schemes, the role of ultrasound simulation in training, and the effect of introducing scanning guidelines and standards on diagnostic image quality. The Big Data era, and the recent and rapid emergence of machine learning as a more mainstream large-scale data analysis technique, presents a fresh opportunity to study sonography in the field at scale for the first time. Read More

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Acta Med Hist Adriat 2021 12;18(2):337-354

Katedra za oftalmologiju, Medicinski fakultet, Sveučilište u Splitu, Šoltanska 2, 21000 Split, Hrvatska. E-mail:

The founder of the Vienna School of Ophthalmology was Prof. Dr. Georg Joseph Beer, who founded the First University Eye Clinic in the Vienna General Hospital in 1812. Read More

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December 2021

A combinatory ferroelectric compound bridging simple ABO and A-site-ordered quadruple perovskite.

Nat Commun 2021 Feb 2;12(1):747. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

The simple ABO and A-site-ordered AA'BO perovskites represent two types of classical perovskite functional materials. There are well-known simple perovskites with ferroelectric properties, while there is still no report of ferroelectricity due to symmetry breaking transition in A-site-ordered quadruple perovskites. Here we report the high pressure synthesis of an A-site-ordered perovskite PbHgTiO, the only known quadruple perovskite that transforms from high-temperature centrosymmetric paraelectric phase to low-temperature non-centrosymmetric ferroelectric phase. Read More

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February 2021

Investigating a Low-Cost Dryer Designed for Low-Cost PM Sensors Measuring Ambient Air Quality.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 26;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Flue Gas Cleaning and Air Quality Control, Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 23, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Air pollution in urban areas is a huge concern that demands an efficient air quality control to ensure health quality standards. The hotspots can be located by increasing spatial distribution of ambient air quality monitoring for which the low-cost sensors can be used. However, it is well-known that many factors influence their results. Read More

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January 2021

Adherence in leading medical journals to the CONSORT 2010 statement for reporting of binary outcomes in randomised controlled trials: cross-sectional analysis.

BMJ Evid Based Med 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Clinicians and lay people tend to overestimate the effectiveness of a treatment when only the relative effect is presented, particularly if the relative effect is large, but the absolute effect is small. In recognition of this problem, item 17b of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 statement stipulates authors present both absolute and relative effects for binary outcomes in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Adherence to item 17b and the effect of differing levels of CONSORT endorsement by journals on adherence is not well known. Read More

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February 2021

Utilization of chromogenic enzyme substrates for signal amplification in multiplexed detection of biomolecules using surface mass spectrometry.

Sens Actuators B Chem 2021 Apr 15;332. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Center for Nano-Bio Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 34113, Korea.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional gene regulators and can serve as potential biomarkers for many diseases. Most of the current miRNA detection techniques require purification from biological samples, amplification, labeling, or tagging, which makes quantitative analysis of clinically relevant samples challenging. Here we present a new strategy for the detection of miRNAs with uniformity over a large area based on signal amplification using enzymatic reactions and measurements using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), a sensitive surface analysis tool. Read More

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Preserve a Voucher Specimen! The Critical Need for Integrating Natural History Collections in Infectious Disease Studies.

mBio 2021 01 12;12(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA.

Despite being nearly 10 months into the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, the definitive animal host for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the causal agent of COVID-19, remains unknown. Unfortunately, similar problems exist for other betacoronaviruses, and no vouchered specimens exist to corroborate host species identification for most of these pathogens. This most basic information is critical to the full understanding and mitigation of emerging zoonotic diseases. Read More

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January 2021

Replication of Randomized, Controlled Trials Using Real-World Data: What Could Go Wrong?

David Thompson

Value Health 2021 01 20;24(1):112-115. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Syneos Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

With the growing interest in using real-world evidence (RWE) for regulatory purposes, researchers and policy makers are considering how best to assess the credibility of RWE. Because the randomized controlled trial (RCT) has long been regarded as the gold standard for high-quality research, one approach being pursued is to see to what extent findings from RCTs can be replicated based on analyses of nonrandomized real-world data (RWD). If findings are congruent, the reasoning goes, this would bolster confidence in the underlying RWD sources and validity of the RWE generated. Read More

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January 2021

Optimal Household Water Access Fosters the Attainment of Minimum Dietary Diversity among Children Aged 6-23 Months in Malawi.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 8;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, North District, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan.

Along with sanitation and hygiene, water is a well-known driver of child undernutrition. However, a more direct role of household (HH) water access in shaping dietary diversity remains unexplored. We assessed the association between HH water access and achievement of minimum dietary diversity (MDD) among young children. Read More

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January 2021

Clinical efficacy of Qi Di laxative decoction in the treatment of functional constipation: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(51):e23806

Dongfang Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine.

Background: Functional constipation (FC) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by slow bowel movement and defecation difficulties, significantly impacting patients' quality of life and exerting heavy financial burden to whole society. However, more than 50% FC patients are not completely satisfied with current therapies and alternative therapies are urgently required. Increasing evidences have demonstrated that traditional Chinese medicine has a good therapeutic effect on FC, which is well known for its multitarget and multimode effects on diverse diseases as well as less side effects. Read More

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December 2020

First do no harm: practitioners' ability to 'diagnose' system weaknesses and improve safety is a critical initial step in improving care quality.

Arch Dis Child 2021 Apr 23;106(4):326-332. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Healthcare systems across the world and especially those in low-resource settings (LRS) are under pressure and one of the first priorities must be to prevent any harm done while trying to deliver care. Health care workers, especially department leaders, need the diagnostic abilities to identify local safety concerns and design actions that benefit their patients. We draw on concepts from the safety sciences that are less well-known than mainstream quality improvement techniques in LRS. Read More

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The Effect of Endurance Training on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy People and Parkinson's Disease. A Narrative Review.

Front Physiol 2020 19;11:578981. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Genetics, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland.

One purpose of the training conducted by people is to lose bodyweight and improve their physical condition. It is well-known that endurance training provides many positive changes in the body, not only those associated with current beauty standards. It also promotes biochemical changes such as a decreased inflammatory status, memory improvements through increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and reduced stress hormone levels. Read More

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November 2020

Comparative study and quality evaluation regarding morphology characters, volatile constituents, and triglycerides in seeds of five species used in traditional Chinese medicine.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 27;194:113801. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA; Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA. Electronic address:

Volatile compounds (VCs) and triglycerides (TGs) are the primary groups of constituents in the fruits of five well-known species used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), viz. Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (AO), Alpinia katsumadai Hayata (AK), Amomum villosum Lour. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of liquid whey protein concentrate-based edible coating enriched with cinnamon carbon dioxide extract on the quality and shelf life of Eastern European curd cheese.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Feb 11;104(2):1504-1517. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Food Safety and Quality, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės str. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Fresh unripened curd cheese has long been a well-known Eastern European artisanal dairy product; however, due to possible cross-contamination from manual production steps, high moisture content (50-60%), and metabolic activity of present lactic acid bacteria, the shelf life of curd cheese is short (10-20 d). Therefore, the aim of this study was to improve the shelf life of Eastern European acid-curd cheese by applying an antimicrobial protein-based (5%, wt/wt) edible coating. The bioactive edible coating was produced from liquid whey protein concentrate (a cheese production byproduct) and fortified with 0. Read More

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February 2021

Rethinking Clinical Trials and Personalized Medicine with Placebogenomics and Placebo Dose.

OMICS 2021 01 10;25(1):1-12. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Pharmacogenomics, nutrigenomics, vaccinomics, and the nascent field of plant omics are examples of variability science. They are embedded within an overarching framework of personalized medicine. Across these public health specialties, the significance and biology of the placebo response have been historically neglected. Read More

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January 2021

Kumaraswamy inverse Gompertz distribution: Properties and engineering applications to complete, type-II right censored and upper record data.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(12):e0241970. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Humanities in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

This article proposes and studies a new three-parameter generalized model of the inverse Gompertz distribution, in the so-called Kumaraswamy inverse Gompertz distribution. The main advantage of the new model is that it has "an upside down bathtub-shaped curve hazard rate function" depending upon the shape parameters. Several of its statistical and mathematical properties including quantiles, median, mode, moments, probability weighted moment, entropy function, skewness and kurtosis are derived. Read More

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January 2021

Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Bioreactor for mAb Production Using a Hybridoma Cell Culture.

Gheorghe Maria

Molecules 2020 Nov 30;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Polizu Str. 1-7, P.O. 35-107, 011061 Bucharest, Romania.

Production of monoclonal antibodies () is a well-known method used to synthesize a large number of identical antibodies, which are molecules of huge importance in medicine. Due to such reasons, intense efforts have been invested to maximize the production in bioreactors with hybridoma cell cultures. However, the optimal control of such sensitive bioreactors is an engineering problem difficult to solve due to the large number of state-variables with highly nonlinear dynamics, which often translates into a non-convex optimization problem that involves a significant number of decision (control) variables. Read More

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November 2020