168,575 results match your criteria well vivo


Emodin - A natural anthraquinone derivative with diverse pharmacological activities.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jul 23;190:112854. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; SAMRC Herbal Drugs Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. Electronic address:

Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a natural anthraquinone derivative that is present in numerous globally renowned herbal medicines. It is recognised as a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor and as an anticancer drug, active against various tumour cells, including lung, breast, liver, and ovarian cancer cells. Recently, its role in combination chemotherapy with various allopathic medicines, to minimize their toxicity and to enhance their efficacy, has been studied. Read More

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Tissue-specific reduction in MLH1 expression induces microsatellite instability in intestine of Mlh1 mice.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jul 9;106:103178. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Systems Oncology (ONCOSYS) Research Program, Research Programs Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Biochemistry and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Tumors of Lynch syndrome (LS) patients display high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI), which results from complete loss of DNA mismatch repair (MMR), in line with Knudson's two-hit hypothesis. Why some organs, in particular those of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are prone to tumorigenesis in LS remains unknown. We hypothesized that MMR is haploinsufficient in certain tissues, compromising microsatellite stability in a tissue-specific manner before tumorigenesis. Read More

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Octopromycin: Antibacterial and antibiofilm functions of a novel peptide derived from Octopus minor against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has increased the risk of nosocomial infections, which pose a huge health threat. There is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies, including broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides. In this study, we designed, characterized, and studied the antibacterial, antibiofilm effects and possible mode of actions of a novel synthetic peptide Octopromycin, derived from the proline-rich protein 5 of Octopus minor. Read More

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PRMT4 inhibitor TP-064 inhibits the pro-inflammatory macrophage lipopolysaccharide response in vitro and ex vivo and induces peritonitis-associated neutrophilia in vivo.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jul 23:166212. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of BioTherapeutics, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333, CC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Previous in vitro studies have shown that protein arginine N-methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4) is a co-activator for an array of cellular activities, including NF-κB -regulated pro-inflammatory responses. Here we investigated the effect of PRMT4 inhibitor TP-064 treatment on macrophage inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of RAW 264. Read More

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Variations in mitral valve leaflet and scallop anatomy on 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Textbook depictions of the mitral valve often illustrate the valve being comprised of a single non-scalloped anterior leaflet, with the posterior leaflet having three symmetric and evenly spaced scallops. However, common variations in this anatomy have been noted in autopsy series for decades. Improved cardiac imaging with 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) now affords the ability to detect variations in scallop anatomy in vivo. Read More

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Mitotropic Triphenylphosphonium Doxorubicin-Loaded Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Cellular and Mitochondrial Sequential Targeting of Breast Cancer.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 23:120936. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Nanomedicine Labs, Center for Materials Science (CMS), Zewail City of Science and Technology, 6 of October City, 12578, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

Hypotheses Targeted therapy exploits cancerous niches' properties including acidic extracellular environment, hypoxic tumor core, and tumor-specific surface antigens. The present study aims to develop and evaluate a sequential targeted core-shell nanoparticulate (NPs) system for treatment of breast cancer. Sequential (double-stage) targeting was achieved at the cellular-level employing the selective CD44- receptor binding hyaluronic acid (HA), followed by subcellular mitochondrial drug-delivery using a synthesized triphenylphosphonium-conjugated doxorubicin (DOX-TPP). Read More

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Enhanced fitness of a mutant in a murine model.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 26:IAI0072520. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

genomes encode >60 predicted outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Several OMPs in the Hop family act as adhesins, but the functions of most Hop proteins are unknown. To identify mutant strains that exhibit altered fitness compared to fitness , we used a genetic barcoding method that allowed us to track changes in the proportional abundance of strains within a mixed population. Read More

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Inhibition of NAE-dependent protein hyper-NEDDylation in cystic cholangiocytes halts cystogenesis in experimental models of polycystic liver disease.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases, Biodonostia Health Research Institute-Donostia University Hospital, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain.

Background: Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic inherited disorders characterized by the progressive growth of numerous intrahepatic biliary cysts, which are the main cause of morbidity. Previous studies revealed that cystic cholangiocytes are characterized by endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins, in particular hyper-SUMOylation, that promote PLD pathobiology. Protein NEDDylation is a newly characterized PTM that modulates a plethora of biological processes and its dysregulation is associated with the development and progression of several human diseases. Read More

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Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus-Leishmania major co-infection modulates innate inflammatory response favoring myeloid cell infections and skin hyperinflammation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 26;15(7):e0009638. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Infectious Diseases and Immunology in Global Health, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: The leishmaniases are a group of sandfly-transmitted diseases caused by species of the protozoan parasite, Leishmania. With an annual incidence of 1 million cases, 1 billion people living in Leishmania-endemic regions, and nearly 30,000 deaths each year, leishmaniasis is a major global public health concern. While phlebotomine sandflies are well-known as vectors of Leishmania, they are also the vectors of various phleboviruses, including Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV). Read More

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Microfluidic recapitulation of circulating tumor cell-neutrophil clusters double spiral channel-induced deterministic encapsulation.

Lab Chip 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Circulating tumor cell (CTC)-neutrophil clusters are highly potent precursors of cancer metastasis. However, their rarity in patients' blood has restricted research thus far, and moreover, studies on in vitro methods for mimicking cell clusters have generally neglected in vivo conditions. Here, we introduce an inertial-force-assisted droplet microfluidic chip that allows the recapitulation of CTC-neutrophil clusters in terms of physical as well as biochemical features. Read More

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Mammary Epithelial and Endothelial Cell Spheroids as a Potential Functional In vitro Model for Breast Cancer Research.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 12(173). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Wagistrasse 14, University of Zurich and University Hospital Zurich; Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh;

Breast cancer is the leading cause of mortality in women. The growth of breast cancer cells and their subsequent metastasis is a key factor for its progression. Although the mechanisms involved in promoting breast cancer growth have been intensively studied using monocultures of breast cancer cells such as MCF-7 cells, the contribution of other cell types, such as vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells that are intimately involved in tumor growth, has not been investigated in depth. Read More

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Visualization of Gut Microbiota-host Interactions via Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Lectin Staining, and Imaging.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 9(173). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Biomedical Engineering, University of British Columbia; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia; Humans and the Microbiome Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR);

Measuring the localization of microbes within their in vivo context is an essential step in revealing the functional relationships between the microbiota and the vertebrate gut. The spatial landscape of the gut microbiota is tightly controlled by physical features - intestinal mucus, crypts, and folds - and is affected by host-controlled properties such as pH, oxygen availability, and immune factors. These properties limit the ability of commensal microbes and pathogens alike to colonize the gut stably. Read More

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Three-dimensional In Vitro Biomimetic Model of Neuroblastoma using Collagen-based Scaffolds.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 9(173). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Cancer Bioengineering Group, Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland; School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland; Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland; Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), RCSI and TCD, Dublin, Ireland; National Children's Research Centre, Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland;

Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, accounting for 15% of overall pediatric cancer deaths. The native tumor tissue is a complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment involving layers of cancerous and non-cancerous cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides physical and biological support and contributes to disease progression, patient prognosis, and therapeutic response. Read More

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Use of Trowell-Type Organ Culture to Study Regulation of Dental Stem Cells.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 8(173). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Research Program in Developmental Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki;

Organ development, function, and regeneration depend on stem cells, which reside within discrete anatomical spaces called stem cell niches. The continuously growing mouse incisor provides an excellent model to study tissue-specific stem cells. The epithelial tissue-specific stem cells of the incisor are located at the proximal end of the tooth in a niche called the cervical loop. Read More

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Targeting CDK4 overcomes EMT-mediated tumor heterogeneity and therapeutic resistance in KRAS mutant lung cancer.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, United States of America.

Lack of sustained response to therapeutic agents in patients with KRAS mutant lung cancer poses a major challenge and arises partly due to intratumor heterogeneity that defines phenotypically distinct tumor subpopulations. To attain better therapeutic outcomes it is important to understand the differential therapeutic sensitivities of tumor cell subsets. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biologic phenomenon that can alter the state of cells along a phenotypic spectrum and cause transcriptional rewiring to produce distinct tumor cell subpopulations. Read More

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Acetate Promotes Lipogenesis in Adipocytes but not in Hepatocytes of Chickens.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China.

The role of acetate in lipogenesis of chickens remains largely unknown. This trial investigated the effect of sodium acetate (SA) on chicken fat metabolism and experiments.The results indicated that supplementation of SA (1. Read More

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Saikosaponin-D Alleviates Renal Inflammation and Cell Apoptosis in a Mouse Model of Sepsis TCF7/FOSL1/MMP9 Inhibition.

Mol Cell Biol 2021 Jul 26:MCB0033221. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, the Affiliated People's Hospital of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315040, P. R. China.

Evidence exists reporting that Saikosaponin-d can prevent experimental sepsis, and this study aims to illustrate the molecular events underlying its renoprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation simulating sepsis. Through network pharmacology analysis and bioinformatics analysis, we identified that saikosaponin-d may influence sepsis development by mediating TCF7. Dual luciferase reporter gene and ChIP assays were used to explore the interactions between TCF7, FOSL1 and MMP9. Read More

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The deletion of facilitates escape from immune recognition.

J Bacteriol 2021 Jul 26:JB0033621. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Mammary gland-derived () is an important pathogen causing dairy cow mastitis. Mammary gland mucosal immunity against infectious mainly depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Stimulator of interferon (IFN) gene (STING) has recently been the dominant mediator in reacting to bacterial intrusion and preventing inflammatory disorders. Read More

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Iodine Immobilized Metal-Organic Framework for NIR-Triggered Antibacterial Therapy on Orthopedic Implants.

Small 2021 Jul 26:e2102315. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Orthopedics Research Institute of Zhejiang University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310000, P. R. China.

Iodine has been known as an effective disinfectant with broad-spectrum antimicrobial potency yet without drug resistance risk when used in clinic. However, the exploration of iodine for antibacterial therapy in orthopedics remains sparse due to its volatile nature and poor solubility. Herein, leveraging the superior absorption capability of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their inherent photocatalytic properties, iodine-loaded MOF surface is presented to realize responsive iodine release along with intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) oxidation under near-infrared (NIR) exposure to achieve synergistic antibacterial effect. Read More

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Transnasal transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia to the brain of immunocompetent mice.

Glia 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neuropharmacology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, and play essential roles in neuronal development, homeostatic function, and neurodegenerative disease. Human microglia are relatively different from mouse microglia. However, most research on human microglia is performed in vitro, which does not accurately represent microglia characteristics under in vivo conditions. Read More

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Study on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Cd in contaminated rice in vitro and in vivo.

J Food Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory for Deep Processing of Major Grain and Oil of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal pollutant in the environment that damages human health. In this study, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Cd in different Cd-contaminated rice (low pollution level cadmium rice (Rice-L, 0.111 mg/kg), medium pollution level cadmium rice (Rice-M, 0. Read More

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Human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose supplementation improves gut barrier function and signaling in the vagal afferent pathway in mice.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, CA, USA.

2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is one of the predominant oligosaccharides found in human milk and has several well-established beneficial effects in the host. It has previously been shown that 2'-FL can improve the metabolic phenotype in high-fat (HF)-fed mice. Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with 2'-FL was associated with improved intestinal barrier integrity, signaling in the vagal afferent pathway and cognitive function. Read More

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An in vivo study of the effect of c-Jun on intervertebral disc degeneration in rats.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):4320-4330

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been well-recognized as one of the causes of vast lower back pain. The objective of the current study intends to elucidate the influence and regulatory molecular mechanisms of c-Jun on IDD. This study established an IDD model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by needle puncture. Read More

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December 2021

Cone photoreceptor reflectance variation in the northern tree shrew and thirteen-lined ground squirrel.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Jul 25:15353702211029582. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, 5506Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

images of human cone photoreceptors have been shown to vary in their reflectance both spatially and temporally. While it is generally accepted that the unique anatomy and physiology of the photoreceptors themselves drives this behavior, the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated as most studies on these phenomena have been limited to the human retina. Unlike humans, animal models offer the ability to experimentally manipulate the retina and perform direct and comparisons. Read More

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Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Atopy: A Mini-Review.

Front. Allergy 2020 Dec 18;1. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Epithelial Therapeutics Unit, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Atopic diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and allergic rhinitis (AR) share a common pathogenesis of inflammation and barrier dysfunction. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process where epithelial cells take on a migratory mesenchymal phenotype and is essential for normal tissue repair and signal through multiple inflammatory pathways. However, while links between EMT and both asthma and AR have been demonstrated, as we outline in this mini-review, the literature investigating AD and EMT is far less well-elucidated. Read More

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December 2020

Chronic methamphetamine uncovers a circadian rhythm in multiple-unit neural activity in the dorsal striatum which is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Neurobiol Sleep Circadian Rhythms 2021 Nov 25;11:100070. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 214-8571, Japan.

The dorsal striatum forms part of the basal ganglia circuit that is a major regulator of voluntary motor behavior. Dysfunction in this circuit is a critical factor in the pathology of neurological (Parkinson's and Huntington's disease) as well as psychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed real-time monitoring of multiple unit neural activity (MUA) in the dorsal striatum of freely moving mice. Read More

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November 2021

Twenty-four hour ex-vivo normothermic machine perfusion in rat livers.

Technology (Singap World Sci) 2020 Mar-Jun;8(1-2):27-36. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Center for Engineering in Medicine and Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Ex-vivo liver perfusion (EVLP) is an ideal platform to study liver disease, therapeutic interventions, and pharmacokinetic properties of drugs without any patient risk. Rat livers are an ideal model for EVLP due to less organ quality variability, ease of hepatectomy, well-defined molecular pathways, and relatively low costs compared to large animal or human perfusions. However, the major limitation with rat liver normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is maintaining physiologic liver function on an ex-vivo machine perfusion system. Read More

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November 2020

L-Ascorbic Acid Shapes Bovine Serogroup A Infection.

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:687922. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage and Herbivorce, College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Bovine serogroup A (bovine PmA) is one of the most important pathogens causing fatal pneumonia in cattle. However, it is largely unknown how nutrition shapes bovine PmA infection. Here, we discovered that the infected lung held the highest bacterial density than other tissues during infection. Read More

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C1GALT1, Negatively Regulated by miR-181d-5p, Promotes Tumor Progression via Upregulating RAC1 in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:707970. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Glycosyltransferases are frequently dysregulated in lung cancer. Core 1 β 1, 3-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GALT1), an enzyme highly expressed in various cancers, is correlated with tumor initiation and development. However, the role of C1GALT1 in lung cancer remains poorly understood. Read More

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TRPV1 Antagonist Prevents Neonatal Sevoflurane-Induced Synaptic Abnormality and Cognitive Impairment in Mice Through Regulating the Src/Cofilin Signaling Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:684516. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Long-term neurodevelopmental disorders following neonatal anesthesia have been reported both in young animals and in children. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in hippocampus adversely affects neurodevelopment. The current study explored the underlying mechanism of TRPV1 channels on long-lasting cognitive dysfunction induced by anesthetic exposure to the developing brain. Read More

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