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Combination of resveratrol and green tea epigallocatechin gallate induces synergistic apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in head and neck cancer models.

Oncol Rep 2021 May 13;45(5). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Despite widespread interest in chemoprevention and therapy due to the high margin of safety of dietary natural compounds, clinical intervention with single agents has failed to yield the expected outcomes, mostly due to poor bioavailability and low potency. Combinations of natural agents with synergistic effects are gaining increasing attention. In the present study, and antitumor effects of a combination of two natural dietary agents, green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol were investigated. Read More

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Changes in white adipose tissue gene expression in a randomized control trial of dieting obese men with lowered serum testosterone alone or in combination with testosterone treatment.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine early weight loss-associated changes in subcutaneous abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) gene expression in obese men with lowered serum testosterone by RNA next-generation sequencing.

Methods: Fourteen men, mean age (IQR) 51.6 years (43. Read More

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Dietary-challenged mice with Alzheimer-like pathology show increased energy expenditure and reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and steatosis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 16;13. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently accompanied by progressing weight loss, correlating with mortality. Counter-intuitively, weight loss in old age might predict AD onset but obesity in midlife increases AD risk. Furthermore, AD is associated with diabetes-like alterations in glucose metabolism. Read More

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Human white adipose tissue displays selective insulin resistance in the obese state.

Diabetes 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine (H7), Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden

Selective hepatic insulin resistance is a feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether similar mechanisms operate in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese subjects and to what extent these are normalized by weight loss is unknown. We determined insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and the insulin response in subcutaneous WAT by RNA-sequencing in 23 women with obesity before and two years after bariatric surgery. Read More

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A novel mouse model of heatstroke accounting for ambient temperature and relative humidity.

J Intensive Care 2021 Apr 16;9(1):35. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Emergency, Critical Care and Disaster Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8555, Japan.

Background: Heatstroke is associated with exposure to high ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH), and an increased risk of organ damage or death. Previously proposed animal models of heatstroke disregard the impact of RH. Therefore, we aimed to establish and validate an animal model of heatstroke considering RH. Read More

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Evaluation of the mitigation efficacy of a yeast cell wall extract toward deoxynivalenol contaminated diet fed to turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 13;216:112221. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed (Ministry of Agriculture), The Key Laboratory of Mariculture (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins in animal feed worldwide and causes significant threats to the animal health. Increased use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds increased the risk of mycotoxin contamination. To evaluate the effects of dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) on growth performance, immune response and intestinal health of turbot and the mitigation efficacy of yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) toward DON, nine isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated: Diet 1 (control): No DON added; Diets 2-5 or Diets 6-9: 0. Read More

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iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of low molybdenum inducing thymus atrophy and participating in immune deficiency-related diseases.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 13;216:112200. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Henan Key Laboratory of Environmental and Animal Product Safety Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Molybdenum is a trace element with extremely uneven distribution in the environment. It constitutes the active sites of molybdenum enzymes that can catalyze redox reactions in almost all organisms. In this study, a mouse model with a low molybdenum diet was established to investigate the differential protein expressions in the thymus and the mechanism of molybdenum regulating thymocyte development. Read More

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Shinan Sea Salt Intake Ameliorates Colorectal Cancer in AOM/DSS with High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6N Mice.

J Med Food 2021 Apr;24(4):431-435

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Cha University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

The anticancer effects of Shinan (Shinan-South Korea) sea salts on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) with high fat diet (HFD)-induced colon cancer and obesity in C57BL/6N mice were studied. We prepared three types of sea salt: generally manufactured sea salt (GS), generally manufactured after filtering seawater (FS), and manufactured with only new seawater (NS). Sea salt intake increased colon length and reduced colon length/weight ratio, tumor number, and progression of colon cancer in colon tissue. Read More

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Effects of Supplementary Selenium and Vitamin E on the Growth Performance, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, Shandong, China.

A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single selenomethionine (Se) and its mixture with vitamin E (VE) on the growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The design of the experiment contained two factors and 5 × 2 levels by means of adding various levels of Se and VE in the feed, i.e. Read More

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Light Environment Influences Developmental Programming of the Metabolic and Visual Systems in Mice.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4):22

Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States.

Purpose: Light is a salient cue that can influence neurodevelopment and the immune system. Light exposure out of sync with the endogenous clock causes circadian disruption and chronic disease. Environmental light exposure may contribute to developmental programming of metabolic and neurological systems but has been largely overlooked in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) research. Read More

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Serca2a-Phospholamban Interaction Monitored by an Interposed Circularly Permutated Green Fluorescent Protein.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States.

Background: The interaction of phospholamban (PLB) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (Serca2a) is a key regulator of cardiac contractility and a therapeutic target in heart failure (HF). PLB mediated increases in Serca2a activity improve cardiac function and HF. Clinically this mechanism can only be exploited by a general activation of the proteinkinase A (PKA) which is associated with side effects and adverse clinical outcomes. Read More

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Hedgehog signaling pathway gene variant influences bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants.

World J Pediatr 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Newborn Medicine Division, The Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital At Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Background: Genome wide association study identified hedgehog interacting protein gene (HHIP) variants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Loss of HHIP, a key regulator of the hedgehog signaling pathway, leads to impaired lung morphogenesis and lethality in animal models, through unimpeded sonic hedgehog expression blocking mesenchymal-expressed fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10). Since bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is also associated with altered lung development and worsens with stimuli including mechanical ventilation, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation, HHIP and FGF10 may be candidate genes. Read More

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Defensive impact of propolis against CCl actuated rats' testicular damage.

Authors:
Aml S Hashem

J Adv Vet Anim Res 2021 Mar 5;8(1):70-77. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Objective: The paper's primary goal is to report the devastating impact of carbon tetrachloride (CCl) on rat testicular tissue and the possible protecting function of propolis against CCl based on its free radical scavenging and inflammatory relief properties.

Materials And Methods: A total of 24 adult male albino rats had been classified into four groups (six rats/group). Rats of group 1 served as control, whereas groups 2-4 received propolis (200 mg/kg/day), CCl (3 ml/kg/day), and propolis/CCl, respectively. Read More

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The Making of Long-Lasting Memories: A Fruit Fly Perspective.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 30;15:662129. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States.

Understanding the nature of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation, consolidation, and forgetting are some of the fascinating questions in modern neuroscience. The encoding, stabilization and elimination of memories, rely on the structural reorganization of synapses. These changes will enable the facilitation or depression of neural activity in response to the acquisition of new information. Read More

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Extra virgin olive oil improved body weight and insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced obese LDLr-/-.Leiden mice without attenuation of steatohepatitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8250. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Andalusian Center of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine-CABIMER, University Pablo Olavide-University of Seville-CSIC, Seville, Spain.

Dietary fatty acids play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is associated with insulin resistance (IR). Fatty acid composition is critical for IR and subsequent NAFLD development. Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in Mediterranean diets. Read More

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Predicting anthropometric and metabolic traits with a genetic risk score for obesity in a sample of Pakistanis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8320. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Molecular Biology and Human Genetics Laboratory, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research (PCMD), International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Obesity is an outcome of multiple factors including environmental and genetic influences. Common obesity is a polygenic trait indicating that multiple genetic variants act synergistically to influence its expression. We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) based on five genetic variants (MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, FTO rs1421085, TMEM18 rs7561317, and NEGR1 rs2815752) and examined its association with obesity-related traits in a sample of Pakistanis. Read More

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Precision nutrition based on phenotypical traits and the (epi)genotype: nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic approaches for obesity care.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Medicine and Psychology School, Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico Precision Nutrition and Cardiometabolic Health, IMDEA- Food Institute (Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies), Campus of International Excellence (CEI) UAM + CSIC, Spanish National Research Council CIBERobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNa), Pamplona, Spain Both authors contributed equally to this work.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this article is to rationally review and critically appraise the current knowledge in the most relevant nongenetic and genetic factors influencing obesity predisposition. This information may be translated into the implementation of personalized nutrition approaches involving precision nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic strategies for obesity monitoring and weight management.

Recent Findings: The importance and influence of several nongenetic contributors to obesity onset and individual responses to weight-loss interventions have been highlighted including the role of age, sex or perinatal feeding and others related to an individual's lifestyle and modifiable. Read More

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Structural characterization and evaluation the elicitors activity of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 27;263:117994. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Resources Protection and Innovation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, PR China. Electronic address:

This research evaluates the elicitors activity and structure characterization of four Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharides (CIPs) which were isolated from C. indicum, obtained CIP1, CIP2, CIP3, CIP4. Results demonstrated that there was a distinct difference in inducibility and CIP3 was significantly stronger than other CIPs through bioactivity-tests. Read More

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Structural characterization and hepatoprotective activity of a galactoglucan from Poria cocos.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 24;263:117979. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, 230012, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicinal Formula, Hefei, Anhui, 230012, China; Institute of Pharmaceutics, Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, 230012, China. Electronic address:

To find the polysaccharide with hepatoprotective activity from Poria cocos and clarify its structure, a galactoglucan (PCP-1C) with a molecular weight of 17 kDa was purified from the Poria cocos sclerotium by column chromatography and activity evaluation in the present work. It was composed of galactose, glucose, mannose, and fucose in a molar percentage of 43.5: 24. Read More

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Sulfur amino acid restriction, energy metabolism and obesity: a study protocol of an 8-week randomized controlled dietary intervention with whole foods and amino acid supplements.

J Transl Med 2021 Apr 15;19(1):153. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Sognsvannveien 9, 0372, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction is an established animal model for increasing lifespan and improving metabolic health. Data from human studies are limited. In the study outlined in this protocol, we will evaluate if dietary SAA restriction can reduce body weight and improve resting energy expenditure (REE) and parameters related to metabolic health. Read More

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Sepsis-induced acute lung injury in young rats is relieved by calycosin through inactivating the HMGB1/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 13;96:107623. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Digital Health and Data Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Sepsis is the primary cause for children's death worldwide. Calycosin (CAL) is an astragalus extract with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tumor functions. This study aims to probe the role of CAL in alleviating sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Read More

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Immuno-protective efficiency of feed-based whole-cell inactivated bivalent vaccine against Streptococcus and Aeromonas infections in red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Aquatic Animal Health and Therapeutics Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Streptococcosis and motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) are well-known diseases in tilapia culture, which cause mass mortality with significant economic losses. The development of feed-based bivalent vaccines in controlling these diseases has been initiated, however, the mechanisms of immunities and cross-protection in fish remain unclear. This study was conducted to assess the immuno-protective as well as the cross-protective efficacy of a newly developed feed-based bivalent vaccine against Streptococcus and Aeromonas infections in red hybrid tilapia. Read More

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Structural differences of polysaccharides from Astragalus before and after honey processing and their effects on colitis mice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Center for Drug Research and Development, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China; Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China; Guangdong Engineering & Technology Research Center of Topical Precise Drug Delivery System, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Honey-processed Astragalus is a dosage form of Radix Astragalus processed with honey, which exhibits better efficacy of tonifying Qi than the raw product. Polysaccharides are its main water-soluble active components. This work was designed to study the structural differences of homogeneous honey-processed Astragalus polysaccharides (HAPS3a) and Astragalus polysaccharides (APS3a) and their effects on colitis mice. Read More

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Walnut green husk polysaccharides prevent obesity, chronic inflammatory responses, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and colonic tissue damage in high-fat diet fed rats.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China. Electronic address:

High-fat (HF) diets cause obesity, gut microbial dysbiosis and associated disorders and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to increased intestinal permeability, which is an important reason for chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study was to investigate the effects and mechanism by which walnut green husk polysaccharides (WGHP) prevents obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, liver and colon damage in HF diet induced rats. We found that WGHP alleviated HF-induced abnormal weight gain, disordered lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, colonic tissue injury and up-regulate the expression level of colonic tight junction protein in the rats. Read More

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Fetal Programming Effects of a Mild Food Restriction During Pregnancy in Mice: How Does It Compare to Intragestational Ghrelin Administration?

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Instituto de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, e Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA; CONICET-UNC), Santa Rosa 1085, X5000ESU, Córdoba, Argentina.

To explore in mice if a 15% food restriction protocol during pregnancy programs the offspring postnatal development, with emphasis on reproductive function, and to assess if ghrelin (Ghrl) administration to mouse dams exerts effects that mimic those obtained under mild caloric restriction. Mice were 15% food-restricted, injected with 4 nmol/animal/day of Ghrl, or injected with the vehicle (control) thorough pregnancy. After birth, the pups did not receive further treatment. Read More

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SAHA induces white fat browning and rectifies metabolic dysfunctions via activation of ZFPs.

J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

C Sun, Key Laboratory of Neurogeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to play beneficial roles for treating obesity and its related metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood well. In this study, we examined the potential roles of SAHA, a potent inhibitor of HDACs, on energy expenditure, and explored the involved molecular mechanism. Read More

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Naringenin mitigates behavioral alterations and provides neuroprotection against 3-nitropropinoic acid-induced Huntington's disease like symptoms in rats.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Background: Naringenin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory flavonoid which has been widely used as a therapeutic agent in various toxic models. However, few studies have clearly discussed the neuromodulatory effects of naringenin against different neurodegenerative disorders.

Aim: We investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of naringenin against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurobehavioral, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats. Read More

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Influences of Selenium-Enriched Yeast on Growth Performance, Immune Function, and Antioxidant Capacity in Weaned Pigs Exposure to Oxidative Stress.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:5533210. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China.

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Read More

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Beneficial effects of proximal intestinal bypass reconstruction on glucose metabolism in a type 2 diabetes animal model: a possible reconstruction strategy for diabetic gastric cancer patients.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2021 Apr 30;100(4):218-227. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Gastric Cancer Center, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Proximal intestinal bypass (PIB), such as Billroth II or Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy after curative distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer induces beneficial effects on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterize the long-term evolution of pancreatic beta cells and insulin signaling in target tissue after a PIB procedure.

Methods: Zucker diabetic fatty rats were randomly assigned to the PIB, sham-operated PIB pair-fed, and fed groups. Read More

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Inter- and Transgenerational Effects of Paternal Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 18;8(7):2002715. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Endocrinology Department of Medicine Baylor College of Medicine Houston TX 77030 USA.

The rise of metabolic disorders in modern times is mainly attributed to the environment. However, heritable effects of environmental chemicals on mammalian offsprings' metabolic health are unclear. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is the top chemical on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry priority list of hazardous substances. Read More

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