6,031 results match your criteria weeks incubation


Molecular analysis of microbial nitrogen transformation and removal potential in mangrove wetlands under anthropogenic nitrogen input.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;773:145632. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China; State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China. Electronic address:

Mangrove ecosystems are natural nitrogen removal systems that are primarily mediated by nitrogen cycle microorganisms, but their relative contributions to nitrogen transformation and removal in mangrove sediments under anthropogenic nitrogen input needs further resolution and characterization. Here, we investigated the responses and the relative contributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and denitrifying bacteria after spiking urea into mangrove sediments incubated in a laboratory microcosm experiment for four weeks. During incubation, the diversity, abundances and transcription levels of the hzo genes for anammox bacteria, amoA genes for AOA and AOB, and nirS genes for denitrifying bacteria were monitored using targeted gene clone library analyses and quantitative PCR assays at the DNA and RNA levels. Read More

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Creation of Two Saccular Elastase-Digested Aneurysms with Different Hemodynamics in One Rabbit.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 15(170). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau; Cerebrovascular Research Group, Department for BioMedical Research, University of Bern.

Preclinical animal models with hemodynamic, morphologic, and histologic characteristics close to human intracranial aneurysms play a key role in the understanding of the pathophysiological processes and the development and testing of new therapeutic strategies. This study aims to describe a new rabbit aneurysm model that allows the creation of two elastase-digested saccular aneurysms with different hemodynamic conditions within the same animal. Five female New Zealand white rabbits with a mean weight of 4. Read More

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Seed Dormancy and Soil Seed Bank of the Two Alpine Species in the Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:582536. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Life Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, China.

The timing of germination has long been recognized as a key seedling survival strategy for plants in highly variable alpine environments. Seed dormancy and germination mechanisms are important factors that determining the timing of germination. To gain an understanding of how these mechanisms help to synchronize the germination event to the beginning of the growing season in two of the most popular species ( and ) in the Hengduan Mountains, Southwest China, we explored their seed dormancy and germination characteristics in the laboratory and their soil seed bank type in the field. Read More

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Dietary Macronutrient Composition Differentially Modulates the Remodeling of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism during NAFLD.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Diets rich in fats and carbohydrates aggravate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), of which mitochondrial dysfunction is a central feature. It is not clear whether a high-carbohydrate driven 'lipogenic' diet differentially affects mitochondrial oxidative remodeling compared to a high-fat driven 'oxidative' environment. We hypothesized that the high-fat driven 'oxidative' environment will chronically sustain mitochondrial oxidative function, hastening metabolic dysfunction during NAFLD. Read More

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Increased Elasticity Modulus of Polymeric Materials Is a Source of Surface Alterations in the Human Body.

J Funct Biomater 2021 Apr 16;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Surgery, Klinikum Guetersloh, Reckenberger Strasse 19, 33332 Guetersloh, Germany.

The introduction of alloplastic materials (meshes) in hernia surgery has improved patient outcome by a radical reduction of hernia recurrence rate, but discussion about the biocompatibility of these implanted materials continues since observations of surface alterations of polypropylene and other alloplastic materials were published. This study intends to investigate if additives supplemented to alloplastic mesh materials merge into the solution and become analyzable. Four polypropylene and one polyester alloplastic material were incubated in different media for three weeks: distilled water, saline solution, urea solution, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide. Read More

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Stress during Commercial Hatchery Processing Induces Long-Time Negative Cognitive Judgement Bias in Chickens.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institution of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

Worldwide, billions of laying hen chicks are incubated and processed under highly industrialised circumstances every year, which, as we have previously shown, has long-lasting effects. Here, we measured corticosterone incorporated in down feathers to investigate possible stress during the incubation and showed that commercially incubated chicks did not have elevated levels of feather corticosterone, which implies that the main part of the stress effects from hatchery originates from the perinatal period and the handling immediately post-hatch. Further, we investigated how the early hatchery stress affects the chicks' cognitive welfare state, i. Read More

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Degradability of Polyurethanes and Their Blends with Polylactide, Chitosan and Starch.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Industrial Product Quality and Chemistry, Gdynia Maritime University, 83 Morska Street, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland.

One of the methods of making traditional polymers more environmentally friendly is to modify them with natural materials or their biodegradable, synthetic equivalents. It was assumed that blends with polylactide (PLA), polysaccharides: chitosan (Ch) and starch (St) of branched polyurethane (PUR) based on synthetic poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (R,S-PHB) would degrade faster in the processes of hydrolysis and oxidation than pure PUR. For the sake of simplicity in the publication, all three modifiers: commercial PLA, Ch created by chemical modification of chitin and St are called bioadditives. Read More

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A Fluidics-Based Biosensor to Detect and Characterize Inhibition Patterns of Organophosphate to Acetylcholinesterase in Food Materials.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

A chip-based electrochemical biosensor is developed herein for the detection of organophosphate (OP) in food materials. The principle of the sensing platform is based on the inhibition of dimethoate (DMT), a typical OP that specifically inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Carbon nanotube-modified gold electrodes functionalized with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and oxidized nanocellulose (NC) were investigated for the sensing of OP, yielding high sensitivity. Read More

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Circulating fatty acids and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective analyses in China.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

J Wu, The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Objective We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women. Methods Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10. Read More

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Detection of enteric bacteria in two groundwater sources and associated microbial health risks.

J Water Health 2021 Apr;19(2):322-335

Department of Microbiology, School of Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704 Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria E-mail:

The microbial quality of two groundwater sources (well and borehole) and associated risks were quantitatively assessed. Water samples from the selected borehole and well were collected over a period of 12 weeks (n = 48). The concentrations of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium and Campylobacter were determined using standard microbiological methods, which involve the use of a membrane filter technique. Read More

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Anti-breast cancer potential of Anonidium mannii (Oliv.) Engl. & Diels barks ethanolic extract: UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS detection of anticancer alkaloids.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 21:114131. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa; Department of Medical and Biomedical Engineering, Higher Technical Teachers' Training College, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 886, Ebolowa, Cameroon; Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Higher Teachers' Training College, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 55, Maroua, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Breast cancer is a serious threat in low-income as well as developed countries. To face this, many herbal preparations are prescribed by traditional healers in Cameroon, among which is Anonidium mannii commonly called "wild soursop".

Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the anti-tumor effect of A. Read More

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Krüppel-like factor 7 protects retinal ganglion cells and promotes functional preservation via activating the Akt pathway after retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 21;207:108587. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, 430060, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and retinal function after retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury in mice.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were intravitreally injected with recombinant adeno-associated vectors (rAAV-KLF7-EGFP or rAAV-EGFP), and subsequently used to induce RIR injury. Retinal cryosections were used to access the efficacy of virus transfection, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after rAAV-KLF7-EGFP transfer. Read More

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Influence of calcium ion-modified implant surfaces in protein adsorption and implant integration.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 Apr 21;7(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Oral Implantology (UIRMI), University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), C/ Jacinto Quincoces, 39, 01007, Vitoria, Spain.

Background: Calcium (Ca) is a well-known element in bone metabolism and blood coagulation. Here, we investigate the link between the protein adsorption pattern and the in vivo responses of surfaces modified with calcium ions (Ca-ion) as compared to standard titanium implant surfaces (control). We used LC-MS/MS to identify the proteins adhered to the surfaces after incubation with human serum and performed bilateral surgeries in the medial section of the femoral condyles of 18 New Zealand white rabbits to test osseointegration at 2 and 8 weeks post-implantation (n=9). Read More

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Effects of diet density and feeding frequency during the rearing period on broiler breeder performance.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Wageningen Livestock Research, De Elst 1, NL-6708 WD Wageningen, the Netherlands.

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of diet density and feeding frequency during the rearing period on broiler breeder performance between three and 40 weeks of age.A total of 960 female one-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 24 floor pens (12 pens in two rooms). On day 21 pullets were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement including two diets (control (CON) or 16% diluted (DIL)) and two feeding strategies (fed once (FO) or twice (FT) a day). Read More

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First Report of Anthracnose on Pecan () Caused by in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

National Institute of Forest Science, Division of Forest Diseases & Insect Pests, 57, Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of), 02455;

In 2020, severely infected fruit of pecan, , showing distinct anthracnose symptoms were observed from pecan orchards in Uiseong (36°21'31.5"N 128°27'15.9"E) and Miryang (35°22'54. Read More

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Nitric oxide attenuated transforming growth factor-β induced myofibroblast differentiation of human keratocytes.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8183. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University, 814, Siksadong, Ilsan-dong-gu, Goyang, Gyunggido, 410-773, South Korea.

Nitric oxide (NO) has the potential to modulate myofibroblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous NO on the myofibroblast differentiation of human keratocytes using sodium nitrite as a NO donor. Myofibroblasts were induced by exposing resting keratocytes to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Read More

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[Basic aspects of COVID-19 for management from primary care].

Aten Primaria 2020 Dec 26;53(6):101966. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

CS Ramón y Cajal, DA OESTE (SERMAS), Grupo de trabajo de enfermedades infecciosas de SoMaMFyC, Alcorcón, España.

SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person to person by inhalation or contact with respiratory droplets and aerosols. The median incubation period is 5.1 days. Read More

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December 2020

First Report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Causing Postharvest Fruit Rot on Guava (Psidium guajava) in Malaysia.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 37449, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an economically important tropical fruit crop and is cultivated extensively in Malaysia. In September and October 2019, postharvest fruit rot symptoms were observed on 30% to 40% of guava fruit cv. Read More

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Quantifying The Relationship Between Lockdowns, Mobility, and Effective Reproduction Number (Rt) During The COVID-19 Pandemic in The Greater Toronto Area.

Res Sq 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

: The effectiveness of lockdowns in mitigating the spread of COVID-19 has been the subject of intense debate. Data on the relationship between public health restrictions, mobility, and pandemic growth has so far been conflicting. : We assessed the relationship between public health restriction tiers, mobility, and COVID-19 spread in five contiguous public health units (PHUs) in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. Read More

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Intervention protocol to improve scabies control in enclosed communities: a case report.

Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2021 Jan-Apr;23(1):37-42

Primary Care Service Team, La Roca del Vallès-2 Prison. Catalonian Health Institute. Regional Government of Catalonia.

Objectives: To describe patients with scabies in a prison setting. Document what type of treatment was carried out. Prepare an intervention protocol to improve scabies control in the Penitentiary Center. Read More

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The Protection of Crocin Against Ulcerative Colitis and Colorectal Cancer via Suppression of NF-κB-Mediated Inflammation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:639458. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

In China, the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) is increasing every year, but the etiology of UC remains unclear. UC is known to increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of crocin against UC and CRC in mouse models. Read More

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Alleviation of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure via IL-6/STAT3 Inhibition by Raloxifene.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 20;2021:6699054. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the initiation and progress of heart failure (HF). However, the role of the IL6/STAT3 pathway in the pressure overload-induced HF remains controversial.

Methods And Results: Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was used to induce pressure overload-HF in C57BL/6J mice. Read More

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Water extract of Er-xian decoction selectively exerts estrogenic activities and interacts with SERMs in estrogen-sensitive tissues.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 3;275:114096. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, 518057, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The increasing use of "kidney"-nourishing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) like Er-xian decoction (EXD) for management of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis has aroused concerns about their safety, and whether they interact with prescription drugs as both of them act via estrogen receptors (ERs) and regulate serum estradiol.

Aim Of The Study: The present study aimed to evaluate whether EXD selectively exerted estrogenic activities and interacted with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs).

Materials And Methods: In vivo, mature ovariectomized (OVX) rats were administrated with EXD or combined treatment of EXD and SERMs for 12 weeks. Read More

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Restorative effects of red onion (Allium cepa L.) juice on erectile function after-treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitor in rats.

Int J Impot Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most prevalent conditions among aged men. The use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) to treat BPH was linked to erectile dysfunction (ED). Many medicinal plants and secondary metabolites are used in the management of ED. Read More

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Two new skeletal analogues of saxitoxin found in the scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, as possible metabolites of paralytic shellfish toxins.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 15;278:130224. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 468-1 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8572, Japan. Electronic address:

The scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, was screened for new saxitoxin analogues to study the metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), and this resulted in the discovery of two new analogues: M5-hemiaminal (HA) and M6-HA. M5-HA was isolated and its structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy. It contains hydrogen at C-4 with opposite stereochemistry to that in saxitoxin, and a hemiaminal was formed between 9-NH and the hydrated ketone at C-12 in α-orientation. Read More

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Spreading of Beta-Amyloid in Organotypic Mouse Brain Slices and Microglial Elimination and Effects on Cholinergic Neurons.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 15;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Psychiatry and Experimental Alzheimer's Research, Department Psychiatry I, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstr 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

The extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) is one of the major characteristics in Alzheimer´s disease (AD). The "spreading hypothesis" suggests that a pathological protein (similar to prions) spreads over the entire brain. The aim of the present study was to use organotypic brain slices of postnatal day 8-10 mice. Read More

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The Influence of Metabolic Inhibitors, Antibiotics, and Microgravity on Intact Cell MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra of the Cyanobacterium Sp. UPOC S4.

Molecules 2021 Mar 17;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ-783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The aim and novelty of this paper are found in assessing the influence of inhibitors and antibiotics on intact cell MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the cyanobacterium sp. UPOC S4 and to check the impact on reliability of identification. Defining the limits of this method is important for its use in biology and applied science. Read More

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Effect of Statewide Lockdown in Response to COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity Levels of Hemodialysis Patients.

Blood Purif 2021 Mar 31:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Research Department, Renal Research Institute, New York City, New York, USA.

Background/objectives: On March 22, 2020, a statewide stay-at-home order for nonessential tasks was implemented in New York State. We aimed to determine the impact of the lockdown on physical activity levels (PAL) in hemodialysis patients.

Methods: Starting in May 2018, we are conducting an observational study with a 1-year follow-up on PAL in patients from 4 hemodialysis clinics in New York City. Read More

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[Effect of moxa-cone moxibustion at lung's back- points and front- points on Th17/Treg balance in mice with asthma].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Nov;40(11):1217-22

College of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of CM, Nanning 530200, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of moxa-cone moxibustion at lung's back- points and front- points on the expression of helper T lymphocyte 17 (Th 17)/regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) in mice with asthma, and to explore the possible mechanism of moxa-cone moxibustion on asthma.

Methods: Sixty SPF-grade healthy male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, an LY294002 group (LY group), an electroacupuncture (EA) group and a moxibustion group, 12 mice in each group. Asthma model was replicated by using ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. Read More

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November 2020

Optimizing inoculum production methods for infesting soil with species.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Unit, 57752, Corvallis, Oregon, United States;

Inoculum production is an important part of conducting research with soilborne species. One common method is to incubate cultures in nutrient-amended vermiculite. However, inoculum levels often vary among batches of inoculum even when production methods remain the same, and incubation typically takes ≥ 6 weeks, increasing risks for delayed experiments if the resulting inoculum level is too low. Read More

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